Pseudepigrapha Pseudepigraphy covers the false ascription of names of authors to works, even to authentic works that make no such claim within their text. Thus a widely accepted but an incorrect attribution of authorship may make a completely authentic text pseudepigraphical. Assessing the actual writer of a text locates questions of pseudepigraphical attribution within the discipline of literary criticism. Classical and biblical studies There have probably been pseudepigrapha almost from the invention of full writing. Literary studies Old Testament and intertestamental studies In biblical studies, pseudepigrapha refers particularly to works which purport to be written by noted authorities in either the Old and New Testaments or by persons involved in Jewish or Christian religious study or history. Many such works were also referred to as Apocrypha, which originally connoted "secret writings", those that were rejected for liturgical public reading. New Testament studies
Aaron Account in the Hebrew Bible Traditional genealogy Descended from Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob Great-grandfather: Levi, third of 12 sons and tribes of Israel Grandfather: Kohath Father: Amram Mother: Jochebed Sister: Miriam Brother: Moses Wife: Elisheba Sons: Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, Ithamar Grandson: Phinehas Function Aaron's function included the duties of speaker and implied personal dealings with the Egyptian royal court on behalf of Moses. Priesthood At the time when the tribe of Levi was set apart for the priestly service, Aaron was anointed and consecrated to the priesthood, arrayed in the robes of his office, and instructed in its manifold duties (Exodus 28, Exodus 29). Aaron and his tribe are given control over the Urim and Thummim. On the very day of his consecration, his sons, Nadab and Abihu, were consumed by fire from the LORD for having offered incense in an unlawful manner (Leviticus 10:1-10). Rebellion of Korah Death Death Moses
The Pineal Gland - The "Seat of the Soul"? Wonderful article, that needs to be shared! Entirely by Gary Vey (viewzone.com), After writing se... Wonderful article, that needs to be shared! Entirely by Gary Vey (viewzone.com), After writing several articles on reincarnation and enlightenment, many readers asked me why I never mentioned the significance of the pineal gland -- a small structure about the size of a pea, located in the middle of the brain. Descartes was obsessed with understanding who we are. He observed that the senses can be fooled, that most of what we think we know is really illusion and finally struggled with the possibility that our own identity as individuals was also not real. His famous statement endures: Cogno ergo sum -- I think, therefore I am. Although the soul is joined with the entire body, there is one part of the body [the pineal] in which it exercises its function more than elsewhere... Today, with an understanding of computers, we might take issue with Descartes. Brain Sand
Oral Torah According to Rabbinic Judaism, the "Oral Torah" or "Oral Law" (Hebrew: תורה שבעל פה, Torah she-be-`al peh, lit "Torah that is spoken") represents those laws, statutes, and legal interpretations that were not recorded in the Five Books of Moses, the "Written Torah" (Hebrew: תורה שבכתב, Torah she-bi-khtav, lit. "Torah that is written"), but nonetheless are regarded by Jews as prescriptive and co-given. This holistic Jewish code of conduct encompass a wide swath of ritual, worship, God-man and interpersonal relationships, from dietary laws to Sabbath and festival observance to marital relations, agricultural practices, and civil claims and damages. According to Jewish tradition, the Oral Torah was passed down orally in an unbroken chain from generation to generation until its contents were finally committed to writing following the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, when Jewish civilization was faced with an existential threat. Components of the Oral Law Codification
Isaac Isaac was the only biblical patriarch whose name was not changed, and the only one who did not move out of Canaan. Compared to those of Abraham and Jacob, Isaac's story relates fewer incidents of his life. He died when he was 180 years old, making him the longest-lived patriarch of the three. Etymology Genesis narrative Birth An angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac. It was prophesied to the patriarch Abraham that he would have a son and that his name should be called Isaac. On the eighth day from his birth, Isaac was circumcised, as was necessary for all males of Abraham's household, in order to be in compliance with Yahweh's covenant. Binding At some point in Isaac's youth, his father Abraham brought him to Mount Moriah. Family life When Isaac was 40, Abraham sent Eliezer, his steward, into Mesopotamia to find a wife for Isaac, from his nephew Bethuel's family. Occupation Birthright Burial site Jewish views Christian views
The Bush-Florida-Cuba connection ! The Bush-Florida-Cuba connection The Bush-Florida-Cuba connection By Larry Chin December 27, 2000 | On November 22, a violent Republican-sanctioned mob shut down the Miami-Dade canvassing board, stopping a decisive ballot recount, and snuffing out Al Gore's chances for victory. This incident, which was instrumental in seizing the American presidency for George W. Bush, was not (as most media accounts suggest) merely the work of [Tom] DeLay congressional aides and angry pro-Bush protestors. In fact, the true intimidation came at the hands of hundreds of militant right-wing Cuban operatives. 1953. 1960–1961. 1963. 1968–1973. 1973. * 1976. During the Bush CIA years, the loyal Rodriguez is involved with the Phoenix program, Air America, and heroin smuggling in Southeast Asia. 1982–1986. Florida-based drug-running fronts funnel US government funds as humanitarian aid to the contras. 1986. 1988–1992. 1994. 1998. 2000.
Mitzvah In its primary meaning, the Hebrew word mitzvah ("commandment", מִצְוָה, [mit͡sˈva], Biblical: miṣwah; plural מִצְווֹת mitzvot [mit͡sˈvot], Biblical: miṣwoth; from צִוָּה ṣiwwah "command") refers to precepts and commandments as commanded by God. It is a word used in Judaism to refer to the 613 commandments given in the Torah (at Mount Sinai, where all the Jews accepted the Torah, saying "We will do, and we will listen") and the seven rabbinic commandments instituted later for a total of 620. According to the teachings of Judaism, all moral laws are, or are derived from, divine commandments. In its secondary meaning, Hebrew mitzvah, as with English "commandment," refers to a moral deed performed as a religious duty. As such, the term mitzvah has also come to express an act of human kindness. The tertiary meaning of mitzvah also refers to the fulfillment of a mitzvah. Hebrew Bible The feminine noun mitzvah (מִצְוָה) occurs over 180 times in the Masoretic Text of the Hebrew Bible.
Cain and Abel Cain and Abel (Hebrew: הֶבֶל ,קַיִן Qayin, Hevel) were, according to the Book of Genesis, two sons of Adam and Eve. Cain is described as a crop farmer and his younger brother Abel as a shepherd. Cain was the first human born and Abel was the first human to die. Genesis narrative Hebrew Bible version: 1Adam knew his wife Eve intimately, and she conceived and bore Cain. The Septuagint, an early Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, offers an alternate version of the seventh verse: If you offer properly, but divide improperly, have you not sinned? Later in the narrative, God asked Cain, "Where [is] Abel thy brother?" And he said, "What hast thou done? Origins Cain and Abel are traditional English renderings of the Hebrew names Qayin (קין) and Hevel (הבל). In his book "Ghosts of Vesuvius", Charles Pellegrino described the story of Cain and Abel as a narration of the extinction of Neanderthal by Homo Sapiens. Motives Abel Cain In Psychoanalytic theory
e Photographs of Male Relationships in Everyday American Photography From Before the Civil War to the 1950s There was a time in America when two men pictured with their arms wrapped around each other, or perhaps holding hands, weren’t necessarily seen as sexually involved—a time when such gestures could be seen simply as those of intimate friendship rather than homoeroticism. The photographs, spanning from before the Civil War to the 1950s, reveal a lost world. They present men of different ages, classes, and races in a range of settings: posed in photographers' studios, on beaches, in lumber camps, on farms, on ships, indoors and out. They show men comfortably sitting on each other's laps, embracing, holding hands, and expressing their various relationships through countless examples of simple physical contact. Men as Friends From the Civil War through the 1920’s, it was very common for male friends to visit a photographer’s studio together to have a portrait done as a memento of their love and loyalty. Snapshots After WWII, casually touching between men in photographs decreased precipitously.
Moses Moses (Hebrew: מֹשֶׁה, Modern Moshe Tiberian Mōšéh ISO 259-3 Moše ; Syriac: ܡܘܫܐ Moushe; Arabic: موسى Mūsā ) was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the Qur'an, and Baha'i scripture, a former Egyptian prince and warrior, later turned religious leader, lawgiver, and prophet, to whom the authorship of the Torah is traditionally attributed. Also called Moshe Rabbenu in Hebrew (מֹשֶׁה רַבֵּנוּ, Lit. "Moses our Teacher/Rabbi"), he is the most important prophet in Judaism. He is also an important prophet in Christianity and Islam, as well as a number of other faiths. According to the Book of Exodus, Moses was born in a time when his people, the Children of Israel, were increasing in numbers and the Egyptian Pharaoh was worried that they might ally with Egypt's enemies. God sent Moses back to Egypt to demand the release of the Israelites from slavery. Name The biblical text explains the name Mošeh משה as a derivation of the root mšh משה "to draw", in Exodus 2:10:
Noah Biblical account 12th century Venetian mosaic depiction of Noah sending the dove The primary account of Noah in the Bible is in the book of Genesis. Genesis chapter six speaks of the conditions before the flood, that led to the decision by the LORD to destroy the earth – but there was a delay – for "Noah found grace in the eyes of the LORD." (6:1-8) A new section, "the generations of Noah", is begun in verse 9, and a repeat mention of the birth of Shem, Ham and Japheth appears in verse 10, providing a fixed time reference for what follows. (6:9-10) After these things, Noah was instructed by God to "make an ark", and fill it with two of every sort of living thing, and gather "all food that is eaten" for provisions for them all. (Genesis 6:11-22) The chapter ends with Noah's ark loaded with two of every sort, and fully provisioned, "according to all that God commanded him". Genesis chapters seven and eight detail events related to the Genesis flood narrative. Other accounts
Captive Snake With No Male Companion Gives Birth, Again | TIME (ST. LOUIS) — For the second time in two years, a captive snake in southeast Missouri has given birth without any interaction with a member of the opposite sex. Officials at the Missouri Department of Conservation’s Cape Girardeau Conservation Nature Center say a female yellow-bellied water snake reproduced on her own in 2014 and again this summer. The snake has been living in captivity, without a male companion, for nearly eight years. This year’s offspring didn’t survive, but the two born last summer are on display at the nature center, about 100 miles south of St. Conservation Department herpetologist Jeff Briggler said virgin births are rare but can occur in some species through a process called parthenogenesis. Parthenogenesis is a type of asexual reproduction in which offspring develop from unfertilized eggs, meaning there is no genetic contribution by a male. The conservation department said there are no other documented cases of parthenogenesis by a yellow-bellied water snake.