Asmodeus "Sidonai" redirects here. For the Phoenician city and its inhabitants, see Sidon. It is said in Asmodeus; Or, The Devil on Two Sticks that people who fall to Asmodeus' ways will be sentenced to an eternity in the second level of hell. Etymology The name Asmodai is believed to derive from Avestan language *aēšma-daēva, where aēšma means "wrath", and daēva signifies "demon" or "divine being". The Jewish Encyclopedia of 1906 rejects the otherwise accepted etymological relation between the Persian "Æshma-dæva" and Judaism's "Ashmodai" claiming that the particle "-dæva" could not have become "-dai" and that Æshma-dæva as such—a compound name—never appears in Persian sacred texts. It also could be a bastardized version of the Greek Ozymandias, the Greek name for Ramses the Great. In the texts In the Kabbalah According to the Kabbalah and the school of Rashba, Asmodeus is a cambion born as the result of a union between Agrat Bat Mahlat, a succubus, and King David. References
Jeremiah Jeremiah (/dʒɛrɨˈmaɪ.ə/; Hebrew: יִרְמְיָהוּ, Modern Hebrew: Yirməyāhū, IPA: jirməˈjaːhu, Tiberian: Yirmĭyahu, Greek: Ἰερεμίας, Arabic: إرميا Irmiya) meaning "Yah Exalts", also called the "Weeping prophet", was one of the major prophets of the Hebrew Bible. Jeremiah is traditionally credited with authoring the Book of Jeremiah, 1 Kings, 2 Kings and the Book of Lamentations, with the assistance and under the editorship of Baruch ben Neriah, his scribe and disciple. Judaism considers the Book of Jeremiah part of its canon, and regards Jeremiah as the second of the major prophets. Islam considers Jeremiah a prophet, and he is listed as a major prophet in Ibn Kathir's canonical collection of Annals of the Prophets. Christianity also regards Jeremiah as a prophet and he is quoted in the New Testament. It has been interpreted that Jeremiah "spiritualized and individualized religion and insisted upon the primacy of the individual's relationship with God." Chronology
Queen of Sheba The Queen of Sheba (Hebrew: מלכת שבא, Malkaṯ Šəḇâ in Biblical Hebrew; Malkat Sh'va in Modern Hebrew; Ge'ez: ንግሥተ ሳባ, Nigiste Saba (Nəgəstä Saba); Arabic: ملكة سبأ, Malikat Sabaʾ) was a monarch of the ancient kingdom of Sheba and is referred to in Yemenite and Ethiopian history, the Bible, the Qur'an, Yoruba customary tradition, and Josephus. She is widely assumed to have been a queen regnant, but, since there is no historical proof of this, she may have been a queen consort. The location of her kingdom is uncertain. Wallis Budge believes it to be Ethiopia while Islamic tradition says Yemen. More modern scholarship suggests it was the South Arabian kingdom of Saba. Diverse references The queen of Sheba has been called a variety of names by different peoples in different times. In the Ethiopian Book of Aksum, she is described as establishing a new capital city at Azeba, while the Kebra Negast refers to her building a capital at Debra Makeda, or "Mount Makeda". Story
Sanhedrin The Sanhedrin, from an 1883 encyclopedia The Sanhedrin (Hebrew: סַנְהֶדְרִין sanhedrîn, Greek: Συνέδριον, synedrion, "sitting together," hence "assembly" or "council") was an assembly of twenty to twenty-three men appointed in every city in the Land of Israel. The Mishnah arrives at the number twenty-three based on an exegetical derivation: It must be possible for a "community" to vote for both conviction and exoneration (Numbers 35:24-5). The minimum size of a "community" is 10 men (the Hebrew term appears in Numbers 14:27; i.e. the 10 spies who had spread a bad report about the land). This court dealt with only religious matters. The final binding decision of the Sanhedrin was in 358, when the Hebrew Calendar was adopted. The Sanhedrin is mentioned in the Gospels in relation to the Sanhedrin trial of Jesus and several times in the Acts of the Apostles, including a Great Sanhedrin in chapter 5 where Gamaliel appeared, and in the stoning death of Stephen the deacon in chapter 7.
Abraham Abraham (Hebrew: אַבְרָהָם Abram was called by God to leave his father Terah's house and native land of Mesopotamia in return for a new land, family, and inheritance in Canaan, the promised land. Threats to the covenant arose – difficulties in producing an heir, the threat of bondage in Egypt, of lack of fear of God – but all were overcome and the covenant was established. After the death, and burial of his wife, Sarah, in the grave that he purchased in Hebron, Abraham arranged for the marriage of Isaac to a woman from his own people. The Bible's internal chronology places Abraham around 2000 BCE, but the stories in Genesis cannot be related to the known history of that time and most biblical histories accordingly no longer begin with the patriarchal period. Genesis narrative The story of Abraham is related in Genesis 11:26–25:10 of the Hebrew Bible. Abram's origins and calling Abram's Counsel to Sarai (watercolor circa 1896–1902 by James Tissot) Abram and Sarai
Paradise Lost Epic poem by John Milton, concerning the biblical story of the Fall of Man The poem concerns the biblical story of the Fall of Man: the temptation of Adam and Eve by the fallen angel Satan and their expulsion from the Garden of Eden. Milton's purpose, stated in Book I, is to "justify the ways of God to men Composition Gustave Doré, The Heavenly Hosts, c. 1866, illustration to Paradise Lost. In his introduction to the Penguin edition of Paradise Lost, the Milton scholar John Leonard notes, "John Milton was nearly sixty when he published Paradise Lost in 1667. Leonard also notes that Milton "did not at first plan to write a biblical epic." Having gone totally blind in 1652, Milton wrote Paradise Lost entirely through dictation with the help of amanuenses and friends. Structure The poem is divided into "books" (ten originally, twelve in Milton's revised edition of 1674). Milton used a number of acrostics in the poem. Synopsis Characters Satan Adam Eve
Sennacherib Rise to power As the crown prince, Sennacherib was placed in charge of the Assyrian Empire while his father, Sargon II, was on campaign. Unlike his predecessors, Sennacherib's reign was not largely marked by military campaigns, but mainly by architectural renovations, constructions and expansions. After the violent death of his father, Sennacherib encountered numerous problems in establishing his power and faced threats to his domain. War with Babylon Assyrian warriors armed with slings from the palace of Sennacherib, 7th century BCE Bel-ibni proved to be disloyal to Assyria and was taken back a prisoner. A large battle was fought against the Babylonian rebels at Nippur; their king was captured and taken to Nineveh. War with Judah Background In 701 BC, a rebellion backed by Egypt and Babylonia broke out in Judah, led by King Hezekiah. Sennacherib's account Assyrian siege ramp at Lachish. Biblical account Disaster in Egypt according to Herodotus
John Calvin John Calvin (French: Jean Calvin French pronunciation: [ʒɑ̃ kalvɛ̃], born Jehan Cauvin: 10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564) was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism. Originally trained as a humanist lawyer, he broke from the Roman Catholic Church around 1530. After religious tensions provoked a violent uprising against Protestants in France, Calvin fled to Basel, Switzerland, where he published the first edition of his seminal work Institutes of the Christian Religion in 1536. In that year, Calvin was recruited by William Farel to help reform the church in Geneva. Following his return, Calvin introduced new forms of church government and liturgy, despite the opposition of several powerful families in the city who tried to curb his authority. Calvin was a tireless polemic and apologetic writer who generated much controversy.
Garden of Eden The Garden of Eden (Hebrew גַּן עֵדֶן, Gan ʿEḏen) is the biblical "garden of God", described most notably in the Book of Genesis chapters 2 and 3, and also in the Book of Ezekiel. The "garden of God", not called Eden, is mentioned in Genesis 14, and the "trees of the garden" are mentioned in Ezekiel 31. The Book of Zechariah and the Book of Psalms also refer to trees and water in relation to the temple without explicitly mentioning Eden. Traditionally, the favoured derivation of the name "Eden" was from the Akkadian edinnu, derived from a Sumerian word meaning "plain" or "steppe". Biblical narratives Eden in Genesis The second part of the Genesis creation narrative, in Genesis 2:4–3:24, opens with "the LORD God"(v.7) creating the first man (Adam), whom he placed in a garden that he planted "eastward in Eden". The Lord God made all kinds of trees grow out of the ground—trees that were pleasing to the eye and good for food. Eden in Ezekiel Proposed locations
Ahasuerus Ahasuerus (Ancient Greek: Ξέρξης , Xerxes; Old Persian: Xšayārša; Hebrew: אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ, Aẖashverosh ; ʼĂḥašwērôš; Greek: Ασουηρος in the Septuagint; or Latin: Assuerus in the Vulgate; commonly transliterated Achashverosh) is a name used several times in the Hebrew Bible, as well as related legends and Apocrypha. This name (or title) is applied in the Hebrew Scriptures to three rulers. The same name is also applied uncertainly to a Babylonian official (or Median king) noted in the Book of Tobit. Etymology The name Ahasuerus is equivalent to the Greek name Xerxes, both deriving from the Old Persian language Xšayārša. The name Xerxes comes from the Greek Ξέρξης. Biblical references Book of Esther Book of Ezra Ahasuerus is also given as the name of a King of Persia in the Book of Ezra. Jewish tradition regards him as the same Ahasuerus of the Book of Esther; the Ethiopic text calls him Arťeksis, as it does the above figure in Esther. In legends
Martin Luther Martin Luther OSA (German: [ˈmaɐ̯tiːn ˈlʊtɐ] ( ); 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German monk, Catholic priest, professor of theology and seminal figure of the 16th-century movement in Christianity known later as the Protestant Reformation. He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punishment for sin could be purchased with monetary values. He confronted indulgence salesman Johann Tetzel, a Dominican friar, with his Ninety-Five Theses in 1517. His refusal to retract all of his writings at the demand of Pope Leo X in 1520 and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms in 1521 resulted in his excommunication by the Pope and condemnation as an outlaw by the Emperor. Luther taught that salvation and subsequently eternity in heaven is not earned by good deeds but is received only as a free gift of God's grace through faith in Jesus Christ as redeemer from sin and subsequently eternity in Hell. Early life Birth and education Monastic and academic life
Menelik I Menelik I (called Bäynä Ləkḥəm in the Kebra Nagast; also named Ebna la-Hakim, Arabic: Ibn Al-Hakim, "Son of the Wise"), first Solomonic Emperor of Ethiopia, is traditionally believed to be the son of King Solomon of ancient Israel and Makeda, ancient Queen of Sheba (in modern Ethiopia). He is alleged to have ruled around 950 BC, according to traditional sources. Tradition credits him with bringing the Ark of the Covenant to Ethiopia, following a visit to Jerusalem to meet his father upon reaching adulthood. According to the Kebra Nagast, King Solomon had intended on sending one son of each of his nobles and one son of each temple priest with Menelik upon his return to his mother's kingdom. According to legend, he founded the Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia that ruled Ethiopia with few interruptions for close to three thousand years (and 225 generations later ended with the fall of Emperor Haile Selassie in 1974). Popular culture See also References
American Civilization An Atlantic founder argues vehemently for the emancipation of the slaves. Shown in this 1861 cartoon, Union General in Chief Winfield Scott’s plan to win the war involved sealing Confederate ports and gaining control of the Mississippi River. The notion was ridiculed by those who thought the war would be too brief to warrant such a strategy. For abolitionists, the key issue at stake in the war was slavery. The highest proof of civility is, that the whole public action of the State is directed on securing the greatest good of the greatest number. Our Southern States have introduced confusion into the moral sentiments of their people, by reversing this rule in theory and practice, and denying a man’s right to his labor … Labor of each for all, is the health and virtue of all beings … Well, now here comes this conspiracy of slavery,—they call it an institution, I call it a destitution,—this stealing of men and setting them to work,—stealing their labor, and the thief sitting idle himself …
Ark of the Covenant The Ark of the Covenant (Hebrew: אָרוֹן הַבְּרִית ʾĀrôn Habbərît, modern pron. Aron Habrit), also known as the Ark of the Testimony, is a chest described in the Book of Exodus as containing the Tablets of Stone on which the Ten Commandments were inscribed. According to some traditional interpretations of the Book of Exodus, Book of Numbers, and the Letter to the Hebrews, the Ark also contained Aaron's rod, a jar of manna, and the first Torah scroll as written by Moses; however, the first of the Books of Kings says that at the time of King Solomon, the Ark contained only the two Tablets of the Law. According to the Book of Exodus, the Ark was built at the command of God, in accordance with the instructions given to Moses on Mount Sinai. God was said to have communicated with Moses "from between the two cherubim" on the Ark's cover. Biblical account Construction and description Mobile vanguard Capture by the Philistines In Solomon's Temple