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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (US), America or simply the States, is a federal republic[10][11] consisting of 50 states and a federal district. The 48 contiguous states and the federal district of Washington, D.C., are in central North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is the northwestern part of North America and the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The country also has five populated and nine unpopulated territories in the Pacific and the Caribbean. At 3.79 million square miles (9.83 million km2) in total and with around 317 million people, the United States is the fourth-largest country by total area and third largest by population. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many countries.[12] The geography and climate of the United States is also extremely diverse, and it is home to a wide variety of wildlife. History Related:  United States

Colombia Colombia (/kəˈlʌmbiə/ kə-LUM-biə, or /kəˈlɒmbiə/ kə-LOM-biə), officially the Republic of Colombia (Spanish: República de Colombia [reˈpuβlika ðe koˈlombja]), is a country on the northwestern coast of South America, bordered to the northwest by Panama; to the north by the Caribbean Sea; to the east by Venezuela[11] and Brazil;[12] to the south by Ecuador and Peru;[13] and to the west by the Pacific Ocean. It is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments. The territory of what is now Colombia was originally inhabited by indigenous peoples including the Muisca, Quimbaya, and Tairona. The Spanish arrived in 1499 and initiated a period of conquest and colonization ultimately creating the Viceroyalty of New Granada, with its capital at Bogotá.[14] Independence from Spain was won in 1819, but by 1830 "Gran Colombia" had collapsed with the secession of Venezuela and Ecuador. What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada. Etymology History

Citizen news: A democratic addition to political journalism Editor’s note: Herbert Gans is one of America’s preeminent sociologists, and some of his most notable work has come in examining the American news industry. His seminal 1979 book Deciding What’s News: A Study of CBS Evening News, NBC Nightly News, Newsweek and Time was born out of years spent in newsrooms, watching how the never-ending flood of human activity was distilled into the news. Here he argues for a new area of emphasis in political reporting for a democratic society — what he calls citizen news. Journalism and the news media are supposed to be a bulwark for democracy. True, citizens — like the 127 million Americans who voted this month, and the approximately 100 million who didn’t — may not always seem particularly newsworthy. What’s needed are stories about what citizens are doing directly and indirectly in the political process. Journalism and the citizenry In addition, journalists are not very helpful to citizens. Kinds of citizen news Possibilities and problems Conclusion

Africa Map of Africa Africa's population is the youngest among all the continents; 50% of Africans are 19 years old or younger.[5] Algeria is Africa's largest country by area, and Nigeria is the largest by population. Africa, particularly central Eastern Africa, is widely accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade (great apes), as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their ancestors, as well as later ones that have been dated to around seven million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster – with the earliest Homo sapiens (modern human) found in Ethiopia being dated to circa 200,000 years ago.[6] Africa straddles the equator and encompasses numerous climate areas; it is the only continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones.[7] Etymology Other etymological hypotheses have been postulated for the ancient name "Africa": History Prehistory

Graduate school A graduate school is a school that awards advanced academic degrees (i.e. master's and doctoral degrees) with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous undergraduate (bachelor's) degree.[1][2] A distinction is typically made between graduate schools (where courses of study do not provide training for a particular profession) and professional schools, which offer specialized advanced degrees in professional fields such as medicine, business, engineering, ministry or law. Many universities award graduate degrees; a graduate school is not necessarily a separate institution. While the term "graduate school" is typical in the United States and often used elsewhere (e.g. Canada), "postgraduate education" is also used in some English-speaking countries (Australia, Canada, Ireland, India, New Zealand, Pakistan and the UK) to refer to the spectrum of education beyond a bachelor's degree. Australia[edit] Brazil[edit] Canada[edit] Admission[edit] Funding[edit] France[edit]

Monroe Doctrine (1823) The Monroe Doctrine was articulated in President James Monroe's seventh annual message to Congress on December 2, 1823. The European powers, according to Monroe, were obligated to respect the Western Hemisphere as the United States' sphere of interest. President James Monroe’s 1823 annual message to Congress contained the Monroe Doctrine, which warned European powers not to interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere. Understandably, the United States has always taken a particular interest in its closest neighbors – the nations of the Western Hemisphere. Equally understandably, expressions of this concern have not always been favorably regarded by other American nations. The Monroe Doctrine is the best known U.S. policy toward the Western Hemisphere. The Monroe Doctrine was invoked in 1865 when the U.S. government exerted diplomatic and military pressure in support of the Mexican President Benito Juárez.

Far East The Far East is an English term (with equivalents in various other languages of Europe and Asia; Chinese: 遠東; pinyin: yuǎn dōng; literally "far east") mostly describing East Asia (including Northeast Asia), Southeast Asia, and the Russian Far East (part of North Asia, aka Siberia)[1] with South Asia sometimes also included for economic and cultural reasons.[2] The term came into use in European geopolitical discourse in the 12th century, denoting the Far East as the "farthest" of the three "easts", beyond the Near East and the Middle East. For the same reason, Chinese people in the 19th and early 20th centuries called Western countries "Tàixī (泰西)"—i.e. anything further west than the Arab world. Popularization[edit] Prior to the colonial era, "Far East" referred to anything further east than the Middle East. Cultural as well as geographic meaning[edit] "The problems of the Pacific are different. Concerning the term, John K. Cities[edit] See also[edit] Notes[edit] References[edit]

Academic journals An academic journal is a peer-reviewed periodical in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as forums for the introduction and presentation for scrutiny of new research, and the critique of existing research.[1] Content typically takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, and book reviews. The term academic journal applies to scholarly publications in all fields; this article discusses the aspects common to all academic field journals. Scientific journals and journals of the quantitative social sciences vary in form and function from journals of the humanities and qualitative social sciences; their specific aspects are separately discussed. Scholarly articles[edit] Reviewing[edit] Review articles[edit] Review articles, also called "reviews of progress," are checks on the research published in journals. Book reviews[edit] Prestige[edit] Ranking[edit] Publishing[edit] New developments[edit] See also[edit]

The 1920's - Roaring Twenties - The Nineteen Twenties in History

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