Society of Mind Minsky's model In a step-by-step process, Minsky constructs a model of human intelligence which is built up from the interactions of simple parts called agents, which are themselves mindless. He describes the postulated interactions as constituting a "society of mind", hence the title. The book The book, published in 1988, was the first comprehensive description of Minsky's "society of mind" theory, which he began developing in the early 1970s. The book was not written to prove anything specific about AI or cognitive science, and does not reference physical brain structures. The theory Minsky first started developing the theory with Seymour Papert in the early 1970s. Nature of mind A core tenet of Minsky's philosophy is that "minds are what brains do". This idea is perhaps best summarized by the following quote: What magical trick makes us intelligent? See also References Minsky, Marvin. External links MIT article, Examining the Society of Mind
Two AI Pioneers. Two Bizarre Suicides. What Really Happened? In December 1996, snarky geeks created a newsgroup in his honor, alt.mckinstry.pencil-dick, taking as its charter "Discussion of Usenet kook McKinstry, aka 'McChimp.'" Leading the brigade was Jorn Barger, who would later run the site Robot Wisdom (and coin the term weblog). "You write like a teenager, and have shown frequent signs of extreme cluelessness," Barger emailed McKinstry in May 1995. McKinstry never shied away from a flame war. "I'm just sick of you spouting your highly uninformed opinion all over the net," he replied to Barger. But some of McKinstry's improbable boasts turned out to be true. The eccentric researcher made friends among the bohemians and hackers of Santiago. "Yes, it is possible," Minsky is supposed to have replied, "but the training corpus would have to be enormous." That was apparently all the encouragement McKinstry needed. On July 6, 2000, McKinstry retooled his pitch for a collaborative AI database. The criticisms and flames never let up.
Psychology Psychology is an academic and applied discipline that involves the scientific study of mental functions and behaviors. Psychology has the immediate goal of understanding individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases, and by many accounts it ultimately aims to benefit society. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while also exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors. While psychological knowledge is often applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is also directed towards understanding and solving problems in many different spheres of human activity. Etymology History Structuralism Functionalism Psychoanalysis Behaviorism Humanistic
Jean Malaurie Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Jean Malaurie Jean Malaurie à l’Hôtel de Ville de Strasbourg en mai 2013. Jean Malaurie, né le  à Mayence (Allemagne), est un ethno-historien, géographe/physicien et écrivain français. Il est également le directeur et fondateur de la collection Terre Humaine aux éditions Plon. Biographie[modifier | modifier le code] Il fait ses études supérieures à l’Institut de géographie de l’Université de Paris, et a pour maître Emmanuel de Martonne, qui, quinze ans auparavant, a été le maître de Julien Gracq. Après deux missions géomorphologiques et géocryologiques pour le Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), en solitaire durant les hivers 1949 et 1950 dans le désert du Hoggar (Algérie, Sahara), il part en mission à Thulé au Groenland en juillet 1950. Il est le premier homme au monde à avoir atteint le 29 mai 1951, le pôle géomagnétique nord, Titres et distinctions[modifier | modifier le code] Titres[modifier | modifier le code]
Man-Computer Symbiosis Man-Computer Symbiosis J. C. R. Licklider IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics, volume HFE-1, pages 4-11, March 1960 Summary Man-computer symbiosis is an expected development in cooperative interaction between men and electronic computers. 1.1 Symbiosis The fig tree is pollinated only by the insect Blastophaga grossorun. "Man-computer symbiosis is a subclass of man-machine systems. 1.2 Between "Mechanically Extended Man" and "Artificial Intelligence" As a concept, man-computer symbiosis is different in an important way from what North  has called "mechanically extended man." In one sense of course, any man-made system is intended to help man, to help a man or men outside the system. Man-computer symbiosis is probably not the ultimate paradigm for complex technological systems. Present-day computers are designed primarily to solve preformulated problems or to process data according to predetermined procedures. The other main aim is closely related. 5.4 The Language Problem
Human echolocation Human echolocation is the ability of humans to detect objects in their environment by sensing echoes from those objects, by actively creating sounds – for example, by tapping their canes, lightly stomping their foot, snapping their fingers, or making clicking noises with their mouths – people trained to orient by echolocation can interpret the sound waves reflected by nearby objects, accurately identifying their location and size. This ability is used by some blind people for acoustic wayfinding, or navigating within their environment using auditory rather than visual cues. It is similar in principle to active sonar and to animal echolocation, which is employed by bats, dolphins and toothed whales to find prey. Background Mechanics By understanding the interrelationships of these qualities, much can be perceived about the nature of an object or multiple objects. Neural substrates of echolocation in the blind Notable individuals who employ echolocation Dr. Dr.
Jean Malaurie - Accueil ChalmersReply Comment on David Chalmers “The Singularity: A Philosophical Analysis” Journal of Consciousness Studies 19(1-2):119-125. 2012. By Robin Hanson, July 1, 2011. Abstract Chalmers is right: we should expect our civilization to, within centuries, have vastly increased mental capacities, surely in total and probably also for individual creatures and devices. We should also expect to see the conflicts he describes between creatures and devices with more versus less capacity. Introduction David Chalmers says academia neglects the huge potential of an intelligence explosion: An intelligence explosion has enormous potential benefits: a cure for all known diseases, an end to poverty, extraordinary scientific advances, and much more. Apparently trying to avoid describing the scenario that interests him in too much speculative detail, Chalmers goes far in the other direction, offering rather weak descriptions of his key scenario and the issues that concern him about it. Expect Growth Chalmers’ Scenario
Google Brain Google Brain is a deep learning research project at Google. History In June 2012, the New York Times reported that a cluster of 16,000 computers dedicated to mimicking some aspects of human brain activity had successfully trained itself to recognize a cat based on 10 million digital images taken from YouTube videos. The story was also covered by National Public Radio and SmartPlanet. In March 2013, Google hired Geoffrey Hinton, a leading researcher in the deep learning field, and acquired the company DNNResearch Inc. headed by Hinton. On 26 January 2014, multiple news outlets stated that Google had purchased DeepMind Technologies for an undisclosed amount. In Google products Team Reception Google Brain has received in-depth coverage in Wired Magazine, the New York Times, Technology Review, National Public Radio, and Big Think. See also References
Marcel Mauss Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Pour les articles homonymes, voir Mauss. Marcel Mauss Signature Marcel Mauss, né à Épinal le et mort à Paris le (à 77 ans), est généralement considéré comme le « père de l'anthropologie française ». Biographie[modifier | modifier le code] Marcel Mauss naît en 1872 dans la ville d’Épinal. En 1901, il rejoint l'équipe de L'Année Sociologique, revue biennale créée par Émile Durkheim. Pendant tout ce temps, Mauss fut un militant socialiste toujours fidèle à ses convictions. Travaux[modifier | modifier le code] Considéré comme l'un des pères de l'anthropologie, Mauss n’a jamais publié d’ouvrage de synthèse de sa pensée mais un grand nombre d'articles dans différentes revues, en particulier dans L'Année Sociologique, d'esquisses, de comptes-rendus et d'essais. Bibliographie[modifier | modifier le code] Recueils présentés et rééditions[modifier | modifier le code] Études sur Marcel Mauss[modifier | modifier le code] Autres[modifier | modifier le code]
The Scientists Preparing for The Apocalypse The men were too absorbed in their work to notice my arrival at first. Three walls of the conference room held whiteboards densely filled with algebra and scribbled diagrams. One man jumped up to sketch another graph, and three colleagues crowded around to examine it more closely. I was visiting the Future of Humanity Institute, a research department at Oxford University founded in 2005 to study the “big-picture questions” of human life. Predictions of the end of history are as old as history itself, but the 21st century poses new threats. In July this year, long-forgotten vials of smallpox—a virus believed to be “dead”—were discovered at a research center near Washington, DC. While previous doomsayers have relied on religion or superstition, the researchers at the Future of Humanity Institute want to apply scientific rigor to understanding apocalyptic outcomes. The FHI was founded nine years ago by Nick Bostrom, a Swedish philosopher, when he was 32. Tallinn was more upbeat.
Meet the man building an AI that mimics our neocortex – and could kill off neural networks Special report Jeff Hawkins has bet his reputation, fortune, and entire intellectual life on one idea: that he understands the brain well enough to create machines with an intelligence we recognize as our own. If his bet is correct, the Palm Pilot inventor will father a new technology, one that becomes the crucible in which a general artificial intelligence is one day forged. If his bet is wrong, then Hawkins will have wasted his life. At 56 years old that might sting a little. "I want to bring about intelligent machines, machine intelligence, accelerated greatly from where it was going to happen and I don't want to be consumed – I want to come out at the other end as a normal person with my sanity," Hawkins told The Register. "My mission, the mission of Numenta, is to be a catalyst for machine intelligence." His goal is ambitious, to put it mildly. AI researcher Jeff Hawkins Some people believe in him, others doubt him, and some academics El Reg spoke to are suspicious of his ideas.