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Tutorial: Concrete vs. Abstract Thinking

Tutorial: Concrete vs. Abstract Thinking
WHAT ARE CONCRETE AND ABSTRACT THINKING? Abstract thinking is a level of thinking about things that is removed from the facts of the “here and now”, and from specific examples of the things or concepts being thought about. Abstract thinkers are able to reflect on events and ideas, and on attributes and relationships separate from the objects that have those attributes or share those relationships. Thus, for example, a concrete thinker can think about this particular dog; a more abstract thinker can think about dogs in general. A concrete thinker can think about this dog on this rug; a more abstract thinker can think about spatial relations, like “on”. A concrete thinker can see that this ball is big; a more abstract thinker can think about size in general. Related:  Philosophy/ Psychology

Rhetoric - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Painting depicting a lecture in a knight academy, painted by Pieter Isaacsz or Reinhold Timm for Rosenborg Castle as part of a series of seven paintings depicting the seven independent arts. This painting illustrates rhetorics. From Ancient Greece to the late 19th century, it was a central part of Western education, filling the need to train public speakers and writers to move audiences to action with arguments.[4] The word is derived from the Greek ῥητορικός (rhētorikós), "oratorical",[5] from ῥήτωρ (rhḗtōr), "public speaker",[6] related to ῥῆμα (rhêma), "that which is said or spoken, word, saying",[7] and ultimately derived from the verb ἐρῶ (erō), "say, speak".[8] Uses of rhetoric[edit] Scope of rhetoric[edit] Scholars have debated the scope of rhetoric since ancient times. Because the ancient Greeks highly valued public political participation, rhetoric emerged as a crucial tool to influence politics. However, since the time of Aristotle, logic has changed.

How We Think: John Dewey on the Art of Reflection and Fruitful Curiosity in an Age of Instant Opinions and Information Overload by Maria Popova “To maintain the state of doubt and to carry on systematic and protracted inquiry — these are the essentials of thinking.” Decades before Carl Sagan published his now-legendary Baloney Detection Kit for critical thinking, the great philosopher, psychologist, and education reformer John Dewey penned the definitive treatise on the subject — a subject all the more urgently relevant today, in our age of snap judgments and instant opinions. In his 1910 masterwork How We Think (free download; public library), Dewey examines what separates thinking, a basic human faculty we take for granted, from thinking well, what it takes to train ourselves into mastering the art of thinking, and how we can channel our natural curiosity in a productive way when confronted with an overflow of information. Dewey begins with the foundation of reflective thought, the defining quality of the fruitful, creative mind: This is where the art of critical thinking becomes crucial.

Triple Nine Society The Triple Nine Society (TNS), founded in 1978, is a 501(c)(7) non-profit voluntary association of adults who have scored at or above the 99.9th percentile on specific IQ tests (or similar) under supervised conditions, which generally corresponds to an IQ of 149 or greater using a standard deviation of 16 (e.g. Stanford-Binet IV) and 146 or greater with a standard deviation of 15 (e.g. WAIS-IV, Stanford-Binet 5).[1] This compares with Mensa International, the better-known and larger membership high IQ society which admits applicants who score at or above the 98th percentile, which generally corresponds with an IQ score of 131 (SD 15) or 133 (SD 16), or greater. As of mid-March 2015, TNS reported over 1,500 members residing in more than 40 countries, with most members residing in the United States and Europe.[2] TNS publishes a journal entitled Vidya which contains articles, poetry and other creative content contributed by members conversant with a variety of subjects. References[edit]

Imagination Institute Awards Nearly $3 Million to Advance the Science of Imagination - Beautiful Minds - Scientific American Blog Network Imagination has many different components: idea generation, mental imagery, mental simulation, future thinking, pretend play, personal meaning-making, episodic memory, perspective taking, empathy, narrative generation, and narrative understanding. Unfortunately, we spend so much time on standardized testing and measuring the ability to learn what is, we don’t track how much we’re developing the key competencies that enable us to imagine what could be. This has real implications for human innovation and creativity, as well as social and emotional well-being, peace and compassion. The latest research suggests that the ability to transport your mind into the mind of others draws on the same mental machinery that it takes to transport your own mind into the future. With generous funding by the John Templeton Foundation and administered by National Philanthropic Trust, the Imagination Institute was founded in 2014 as a way to stimulate scientific research on imagination.

Nicholas Humphrey Nicholas Keynes Humphrey (born 1943) is an English psychologist, based in Cambridge, who is known for his work on the evolution of human intelligence and consciousness. His interests are wide ranging. He studied mountain gorillas with Dian Fossey in Rwanda, he was the first to demonstrate the existence of "blindsight" after brain damage in monkeys, he proposed the celebrated theory of the "social function of intellect" and he is the only scientist ever to edit the literary journal Granta. Humphrey played a significant role in the anti-nuclear movement in the late 1970s and delivered the BBC Bronowski memorial lecture titled "Four Minutes to Midnight" in 1981. His ten books include Consciousness Regained, The Inner Eye, A History of the Mind, Leaps of Faith, The Mind Made Flesh, Seeing Red, and Soul Dust. He has been the recipient of several honours, including the Martin Luther King Memorial Prize, the Pufendorf medal and the British Psychological Society's book award. Family[edit]

Working Memory and Fluid Reasoning: Same or Different? - Beautiful Minds - Scientific American Blog Network In 1990, researchers Patrick Kyllonen and Raymond Christal found a striking correlation. They gave large groups of American Air Force recruits various tests of working memory, in which participants performed simple operations on a single letter. For instance, in the "alphabet recoding" task, the computer briefly displayed three letters: H, N, CFollowed by an instruction, such as:Add 4In which the answer would be:L, R, G Of course, adding four letters is a piece of cake. Across four different studies, they found extremely high correlations—ranging from .80 to .90 — between their measures of working memory and various measures of reasoning. Many studies since then have confirmed that working memory is an important contributor to fluid reasoning. But just how strong is the relationship between working memory and fluid reasoning? There are many reasons for the inconsistencies. A new study suggests an additional factor at play: the timing of the tests. Why does this matter? Conclusion

Leon Wieseltier Leon Wieseltier (/ˈwiːzəltɪər/; born June 14, 1952) is an American writer, critic, amateur philosopher and magazine editor. From 1983 to 2014, he was the literary editor of The New Republic. He is currently the Isaiah Berlin Senior Fellow in Culture and Policy at the Brookings Institution and a contributing editor and critic at The Atlantic. Life and career[edit] A child of Holocaust survivors,[1] Wieseltier was born in Brooklyn, New York, and attended the Yeshiva of Flatbush, Columbia University, Oxford University, and Harvard University. Wieseltier also edited and introduced a volume of works by Lionel Trilling entitled The Moral Obligation to Be Intelligent and wrote the foreword to Ann Weiss's The Last Album: Eyes from the Ashes of Auschwitz-Birkenau, a collection of personal photographs that serves as a paean to pre-Shoah innocence. During Wieseltier's tenure as literary editor of The New Republic, many of his signed and unsigned writings appeared in the magazine. Criticism[edit]

Scatterbrained People Are Basically Geniuses Another idea? Your big brain just got even bigger. There's a lot of truth to the stereotype of the absent-minded professor. You know, the scatterbrained academic who can't find his glasses (they're usually on top of his head). Or the creative type, who's so busy dreaming up new ideas that she misses her stop entirely on the subway. It turns out that someone who's disorganized, forgetful, and seemingly lacking in the concentration department is actually a genius. When someone's brain has so many different ideas bouncing around inside of it, practical matters may be pushed aside; surprisingly, the scatterbrained brain is working at high capacity. According to an article in TIME, the more disorganized your brain is, the more brilliant, creative, and smart you are. In the book Where Good Ideas Come From: The Natural History of Innovation by Steven Johnson, he talks about how having many different hobbies can lead to creative breakthroughs. Keep thinking about everything.

Graham Priest Graham Priest[1] (born 1948) is Distinguished Professor of Philosophy at the CUNY Graduate Center, as well as a regular visitor at the University of Melbourne where he was Boyce Gibson Professor of Philosophy and also at St. Andrews University. He was educated at the University of Cambridge and the London School of Economics. Work[edit] He is known for his defence of dialetheism, his in-depth analyses of the logical paradoxes (holding the thesis that there is a uniform treatment for many well-known paradoxes, such as the semantic, set-theoretic and Liar paradoxes), and his many writings related to paraconsistent and other non-classical logics. Priest, a long-time resident of Australia, now residing in New York City, is the author of numerous books, and has published articles in nearly every major philosophical and logical journal. Priest has also published on metaphilosophy. In addition to his work in philosophy and logic, Priest practiced Karate-do. Selected works[edit] Books[edit]