background preloader

Jerry Fodor

Jerry Fodor
Related:  Cogniticiens, informaticiens, anthropologues (F-K)

Mark Schaller Mark Schaller is a psychological scientist who has made many contributions to the study of human psychology, particularly in areas of social cognition, stereotyping, evolutionary psychology, and cultural psychology. He is Professor of Psychology at the University of British Columbia. Schaller was born on November 27, 1962, in Palo Alto, California.[1] His father is the well-known zoologist and animal conservationist George Schaller. During his childhood he lived in India, Pakistan, and Tanzania, as well as in the United States. He graduated from the University of North Carolina in 1984 and obtained a PhD in Psychology at Arizona State University in 1989, mentored by Robert Cialdini. Early in his academic career he held faculty positions at the University of Texas at Arlington and at the University of Montana. Research[edit] Much of Schaller's psychological research has examined the subtle cognitive processes that contribute to stereotypes and prejudices. Books[edit] See also[edit]

Hilary Putnam Hilary Whitehall Putnam (born July 31, 1926) is an American philosopher, mathematician and computer scientist who has been a central figure in analytic philosophy since the 1960s, especially in philosophy of mind, philosophy of language, philosophy of mathematics, and philosophy of science.[2] He is known for his willingness to apply an equal degree of scrutiny to his own philosophical positions as to those of others, subjecting each position to rigorous analysis until he exposes its flaws.[3] As a result, he has acquired a reputation for frequently changing his own position.[4] Putnam is currently Cogan University Professor Emeritus at Harvard University. In philosophy of mathematics, he and his mentor W. V. Personal life[edit] Putnam was born in Chicago, Illinois in 1926. In 1976, he was elected President of the American Philosophical Association. Putnam is a Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy. Philosophy of mind[edit] Multiple realizability[edit]

Emmanuel Kant Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Emmanuel Kant Philosophe occidental Époque moderne Biographie[modifier | modifier le code] Emmanuel Kant naît en 1724 à Königsberg en Prusse-Orientale (actuellement Kaliningrad en Russie) dans un milieu modeste : son père, d'origine écossaise, est sellier, et sa mère, décrite par Kant comme une femme très intelligente, est foncièrement piétiste. C'est là qu'il découvre Newton et la physique, preuve selon lui qu'une science a priori de la nature est possible (c’est-à-dire les mathématiques et la physique)[2]. En 1746, la mort de son père l’oblige à interrompre ses études pour donner des cours : il est engagé comme précepteur par des familles aisées et il accomplit cette tâche durant neuf ans. En 1755, il obtient une promotion universitaire et une habilitation grâce à une dissertation sur les principes premiers de la connaissance métaphysique. En 1781 paraît la première édition de la Critique de la raison pure.

Robert Cialdini Robert B. Cialdini is Regents' Professor Emeritus of Psychology and Marketing at Arizona State University. He is best known for his 1984 book on persuasion and marketing, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion. Influence has sold over 2 million copies and has been translated into twenty-six languages. Influence[edit] Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion (ISBN 0-688-12816-5) has also been published as a textbook under the title Influence: Science and Practice (ISBN 0-321-01147-3). In writing the book, he spent three years going "undercover" applying for jobs and training at used car dealerships, fund-raising organizations, and telemarketing firms to observe real-life situations of persuasion. Harvard Business Review lists Dr. Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion was included in 50 Psychology Classics (ISBN 978-1-85788-386-2) by Tom Butler-Bowdon. 6 key principles of influence by Robert Cialdini[edit] Selected publications[edit] Yes! See also[edit] References[edit] External links[edit]

Information processing Cognitive Information processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. As such, it is a process that describes everything that happens (changes) in the universe, from the falling of a rock (a change in position) to the printing of a text file from a digital computer system. In the latter case, an information processor is changing the form of presentation of that text file. Information processing may more specifically be defined in terms used by Claude E. Shannon as the conversion of latent information into manifest information (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2011). Latent and manifest information is defined through the terms of equivocation (remaining uncertainty, what value the sender has actually chosen), dissipation (uncertainty of the sender what the receiver has actually received), and transformation (saved effort of questioning - equivocation minus dissipation) (Denning and Bell, 2012). In cognitive psychology[edit] Two types[edit] See also[edit]

Stephen Kosslyn Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Stephen Michael Kosslyn est un psychologue américain né en 1948. Il est actuellement John Lindsley Professor of Psychology in Memory of William James et doyen de Science Sociale à l'université Harvard ainsi que chercheur dans les domaines de la psychologie cognitive et des neurosciences cognitives. Stephen Kosslyn reçoit son Bachelor of Arts de psychologie en 1970 à l'UCLA et son doctorat en psychologie en 1974 à l'université Stanford ; son directeur de thèse est Gordon Bower. Il est surtout connu pour ses recherches et théories en imagerie mentale. Stephen Kosslyn a reçu plusieurs distinctions pour ses recherches, notamment le National Academy of Sciences Initiatives in Research Award et le Prix Jean-Louis Signoret. Articles connexes[modifier | modifier le code] Imagerie mentale Liens externes[modifier | modifier le code] Portail de la psychologie

Daniel Dennett Daniel Clement Dennett III (born March 28, 1942)[1][2] is an American philosopher, writer, and cognitive scientist whose research centers on the philosophy of mind, philosophy of science and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science.[3] Early life and education[edit] Dennett was born on March 28, 1942 in Boston, Massachusetts, the son of Ruth Marjorie (née Leck) and Daniel Clement Dennett, Jr.[6][7] Dennett spent part of his childhood in Lebanon, where, during World War II, his father was a covert counter-intelligence agent with the Office of Strategic Services posing as a cultural attaché to the American Embassy in Beirut.[8] When he was five, his mother took him back to Massachusetts after his father died in an unexplained plane crash.[9] Dennett says that he was first introduced to the notion of philosophy while attending summer camp at age 11, when a camp counselor said to him, "You know what you are, Daniel? First ...

The Origin and Evolution of Culture and Creativity Gabora, L., 1997; The Origin and Evolution of Culture and Creativity.Journal of Memetics - Evolutionary Models of Information Transmission, 1. Liane Gabora Center Leo Apostel, Brussels Free University (VUB) Krijgskundestraat 33, 1160 Brussels, Belgium Abstract Like the information patterns that evolve through biological processes, mental representations, or memes, evolve through adaptive exploration and transformation of an information space through variation, selection, and transmission. Since unlike genes, memes do not come packaged with instructions for their replication, our brains do it for them, strategically, guided by a fitness landscape that reflects both internal drives and a worldview that is continually updated through meme assimilation. Keywords: autocatalysis, creativity, culture, evolution, imitation, induction, information, meme, memory, mental representation, natural selection, social learning. 1. 2.

Wolfgang Köhler Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Wolfgang Köhler (Tallinn, - ) est un psychologue allemand et l'un des fondateurs de la psychologie de la forme avec Max Wertheimer et Kurt Koffka. Biographie[modifier | modifier le code] Wolfgang Köhler est né à Tallinn en Estonie de parents allemands. Il continue ses recherches sur l'audition à l'université de Francfort où il rencontre Max Wertheimer et Kurt Koffka, les deux autres fondateurs de la psychologie de la forme. À l'arrivée au pouvoir des nazis, il critique ouvertement leur politique raciste puis se voit contraint de quitter définitivement l'Allemagne en 1935. Il a reçu le premier Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award de l'American Psychological Association, organisation dont il est ensuite devenu le président. Le phénomène d'Insight[modifier | modifier le code] Article détaillé : Insight Isomorphisme psychophysique[modifier | modifier le code] Bibliographie[modifier | modifier le code] W.

G. William Domhoff George William (Bill) Domhoff (born August 6, 1936) is a research professor in psychology and sociology at the University of California, Santa Cruz. His first book, Who Rules America?, was a controversial[why?] In the early 1960s, Domhoff was an Assistant Professor of Psychology at Los Angeles State College. His other books in sociology and power structure research include Finding Meaning in Dreams (1996) and The Scientific Study of Dreams (2003).[2] The University of California, Santa Cruz, hosts Domhoff's blog, which is titled "Who Rules America?" Books[edit] Who Rules America? References[edit] External links[edit]

Creativity Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something new and valuable is created (such as an idea, a joke, an artistic or literary work, a painting or musical composition, a solution, an invention etc.). The ideas and concepts so conceived can then manifest themselves in any number of ways, but most often, they become something we can see, hear, smell, touch, or taste. Definition[edit] In a summary of scientific research into creativity, Michael Mumford suggested: "Over the course of the last decade, however, we seem to have reached a general agreement that creativity involves the production of novel, useful products" (Mumford, 2003, p. 110).[1] Creativity can also be defined "as the process of producing something that is both original and worthwhile" or "characterized by originality and expressiveness and imaginative".[2] What is produced can come in many forms and is not specifically singled out in a subject or area. Aspects[edit] Etymology[edit] History of the concept[edit] Ancient views[edit]

Robert Greene (écrivain américain) Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Robert Greene (écrivain américain) Robert Greene, né à Los Angeles le 14 mai 1959, est un auteur américain connu pour ses livres sur le pouvoir, la séduction et la manipulation. Robert Greene est diplômé de l'université de Californie à Berkeley, en Lettres classiques. The 48 Laws of Power s'est vendu à plus de 2 millions d'exemplaires dans le monde entier[réf. nécessaire]. Tandis que Machiavel se pencha dans Le Prince sur l'art du pouvoir au point de vue d'une personne donnée (en l'espèce de Laurent de Médicis), et qu'il traita dans Les discours sur la première décade de Tite-Live du même sujet au regard d'une collectivité, Robert Greene s'est limité - dans son propos - à l'exercice du pouvoir par un seul et unique individu. Cela dit, en regard de Machiavel, Robert Greene innove, à bien des égards, sur la question du pouvoir[réf. nécessaire]. Portail de la littérature américaine

frequently say X can't be done - if you write a system that does X, you are overturning the statement by raviii Feb 18