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Science of Bread: Bread Science 101

Science of Bread: Bread Science 101
From Chinese baozi to Armenian lavash, bread comes in thousands of forms. What do they have in common? On the most basic level, they all involve cooking a mixture of milled grains and water. Imagine a continuum of breads, ranging from the thinnest flatbreads to the fluffiest brioche. Leaveners come in two main forms: baking powder or soda and yeast. Baking powder or baking soda work quickly, relying on chemical reactions between acidic and alkaline compounds to produce the carbon dioxide necessary to inflate dough or batter (more on this later). Yeast, on the other hand, is a live, single-celled fungus. But leavening agents would just be bubbling brews without something to contain them. Starch, a carbohydrate that makes up about 70% of flour by weight, also gets in on the act. Sometimes, a baker will let the dough rise several times, allowing the gluten to develop more completely and the yeast to add more of its flavors. For more about bread science, check out these links! Related:  Arán agus Pizza

The Bread Bakers Guild of America Percent hydration of pizza dough tjkoko, The answer to your question depends mostly on the type or style of pizza that you want to make. If you look at the matter of pizza dough hydration from 30,000 feet, the range of hydration values you will see can run from the mid-thirties percent to close to 100%. If you examine the individual styles, the answer becomes much clearer and easier to understand. For example, a NY style dough formulation typically has a hydration value of from about 58% to about 65% (see An American style dough formulation, such as represented by a Papa John's or Domino's type of dough, can have a hydration of around 56-60%. A Chicago deep-dish dough has a similar interplay between hydration and oil but the oil can typically range from about 8% to well over 20%. A Neapolitan dough formulation, especially one using 00 flour, can have a hydration value of around 55-60%. Peter

Pizza Dough | Italian Pizza Dough | Authentic Pizza Dough Authentic Vera Pizza Napoletana Dough Recipe Ingredients By Volume 4 cups Molino Caputo Tipo 00 flour 1 ½ cups, plus 2 TBL water 2 tsp salt 1/2 tsp dry active yeast By Weight 500gr Molino Caputo Tipo 00 flour 325gr water (65% hydration) 10gr salt 3gr active dry yeast We highly recommend cooking by weight. Mix the dough in a stand mixer, by hand or in a bread machine. Cover the dough and let it rise for 1 1/2 - 2 hours, or until double. To make your pizza balls, shape each piece of dough into a ball. Your pizza balls will need to rest for about an hour to become soft and elastic, so that they can be easily stretched into a thin crust pizza. If you won't need your dough for more than an hour, refrigerate it until you are ready to start. If you won't have an hour to let your dough rest, read our Dough in a Hurry strategy. Additional Resources Make Vera Pizza Napoletana at home. Try our authentic (and easy) pizza sauce recipe. Download our free eBooks—Wood-Fired Pizza and Pizza Stone Pizza.

BakeryBits - Artisan Bread Baking Equipment Baking Sourdough Bread with a Stiff Starter | the perfect loaf Baking in the winter always presents problems here at my house: it’s cold! Probably not quite the cold you get in other parts of the world but it sure is cold to me, and my starter. Kitchen temperatures are consistently hovering between 68º and 70ºF which really inhibits yeast and bacteria activity. I’ll typically offset this by changing the percentage of mature starter carryover or by heating up the water used in my feedings, but you really want to try to keep your starter around 75º to 80ºF — this is not easy to do when winter is bombarding your area. A short aside… In the winter with all the holiday events and cold weather I find myself baking pies and cakes more and more. Ok back on task here… During this challenging baking season I’ve been experimenting with a much more stiff starter than my typical “liquid” one I’ve described thus far (outlined by Chad Robertson at Tartine Bakery). Liquid Starter Characteristics: Stiff Starter Starter Conclusions Update: Autolyse & Mix – 11:30am Crust

A list of sourdough websites in the UK, London and the USA In addition to the information on The Sourdough School site, there are many websites out there offering everything from an in depth exploration of the how’s and why’s of sourdough baking, to ‘how to’ guides and recipes for home bakers. While the list below isn’t exhaustive, it highlights some of my favourite sites and those I think you might find useful whether you are a beginner sourdough baker, or more experienced and looking to learn more and try new ideas. All list of sourdough websites covering all you need to know from starting a starter to pulling a freshly baked loaf from the oven – Northwest Sourdough Information, recipes and videos showing how to get the most from your sourdough baking. Sourdough baker This website brings together a useful collection of recipes, baking tips and stories. Sourdough Companion With recipes, tutorials and discussion forums, this site is a great way to explore sourdough baking. Sourdough Home Real Bread Campaign The Fresh Loaf Why sourdough? Heo Yeah Hum

Sourdough Timetables - Sourdough One of the things that puts people off baking at home is the amount of time that it seems to take. Everyone loves the smell of freshly baked bread, and the idea of baking your own loaves, but the time involved can seem overwhelming. That is the attraction of bread machines and ‘quick loaves’ I suspect, but the danger is that the disappointment that frequently ensues from the resulting loaves puts people off altogether. For sourdough loaves that might need to prove for up to 8 hours it can seem difficult to imagine just how anyone with family or work commitments could possibly fit it in to their lives. In this blog I will work to dispel that fear. In fact sourdough is substantially easier to fit around a busy life than yeast-based loaves. What follows are a couple of different suggested timetables for sourdough baking. 1. 2. Thursday morning - refresh starterFriday morning - mix dough before work (3 quick kneads) then put in the fridge during dayFriday evening. 3. 4. 5.

Sourdough Bread Formula | BREAD Magazine Craft Sourdough Bread Formula Jarkko Laine — May 8, 2014 Creating your sourdough starter (or receiving it from a friend or buying it) is just the first step on a long journey with great bread. A journey that can span decades and continue for generations to come. So, with the starter bubbling and ready to be used, it's time to put those yeast cells and bacteria to work and bake some real, honest sourdough bread. Download the free guide today How you can use preferments to give more flavor and better structure to your bread — it’s not hard at all. Ideas for what to do with leftover sourdough starter you can’t use for bread making. Download the free guide now! Is my sourdough starter ready for bread making? Before you get to work on making your first loaf of sourdough bread, you probably want your starter to be active and full of rising power. My first advice is to not stress about this too much. Think of each of those mishaps are opportunities for learning. Step 1: Prepare the starter

Recipe: Neapolitan Pizza Dough - Pizza Quest with Peter Reinhart Note from Peter: I’ve been receiving a lot of requests for a proper VPN Napoletana dough. I’ve posted this previously on the Forno Bravo site, but wanted to be sure I also made it available here on PizzaQuest — especially in light of Brad’s recent post on making Margherita pizzas in two different ovens. Enjoy!! A true Naples dough uses only flour, water, salt, and yeast. Some versions substitute sourdough starter for the yeast and some use a combination of both commercial yeast and natural starter. But this version is for yeast only (I recommend instant yeast). 5 cups unbleached all purpose or -00- flour (22.5 oz / 638 g) 1 3/4 teaspoons table salt (0.43 oz / 12.5 g) (if using coarse kosher salt it will be closer to 2 teaspoons) 1 teaspoon instant yeast (0.11 oz / 3 g) 1 3/4 cups plus 2 tablespoons cool water, 65º F (15 oz / 425 g) Mix all the ingredients together in a large bowl or an electric mixer on slow speed (use the paddle attachment) for about 1 minute. The payoff Peter Oh yeah!

Crushed Tomato Pizza Sauce - Pizza Quest with Peter Reinhart Now that we’ve posted two easy to make pizza dough recipes, let’s continue to build our repertoire of fundamental pizza components. During the next few months we’ll post not only these really basic recipes, the essential culinary tool box, so to speak, but also more elaborate recipes and finished dishes, as well as videos with techniques for mixing and shaping dough and such. But for now, let’s focus on a great, all purpose red pizza sauce–part of the holy trinity of pizza (you know–dough, sauce, and cheese). This one is my favorite, go-to sauce when making pizzas at home regardless of the type of dough. I published it originally in American Pie: My Search for the Perfect Pizza, and it has served me well for at least the past ten years. I prefer using crushed or ground tomatoes instead of tomato puree or tomato sauce because I like the texture of the tomato particulates and solids. As for which brand, well this is very controversial discussion and one that I tread very carefully.