Calculus
History[edit] Modern calculus was developed in 17th century Europe by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (see the Leibniz–Newton calculus controversy), but elements of it have appeared in ancient Greece, China, medieval Europe, India, and the Middle East. Ancient[edit] The ancient period introduced some of the ideas that led to integral calculus, but does not seem to have developed these ideas in a rigorous and systematic way. Medieval[edit] Modern[edit] In Europe, the foundational work was a treatise due to Bonaventura Cavalieri, who argued that volumes and areas should be computed as the sums of the volumes and areas of infinitesimally thin cross-sections. These ideas were arranged into a true calculus of infinitesimals by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, who was originally accused of plagiarism by Newton.[13] He is now regarded as an independent inventor of and contributor to calculus. Leibniz and Newton are usually both credited with the invention of calculus. Foundations[edit]

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Integral
A definite integral of a function can be represented as the signed area of the region bounded by its graph. The term integral may also refer to the related notion of the antiderivative, a function F whose derivative is the given function f. In this case, it is called an indefinite integral and is written: However, the integrals discussed in this article are termed definite integrals. The principles of integration were formulated independently by Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz in the late 17th century. Integrals and derivatives became the basic tools of calculus, with numerous applications in science and engineering. History[edit] Pre-calculus integration[edit] The next significant advances in integral calculus did not begin to appear until the 16th century. Newton and Leibniz[edit] The major advance in integration came in the 17th century with the independent discovery of the fundamental theorem of calculus by Newton and Leibniz. Formalizing integrals[edit] Historical notation[edit] or

Vector calculus
Vector calculus (or vector analysis) is a branch of mathematics concerned with differentiation and integration of vector fields, primarily in 3-dimensional Euclidean space The term "vector calculus" is sometimes used as a synonym for the broader subject of multivariable calculus, which includes vector calculus as well as partial differentiation and multiple integration. Vector calculus plays an important role in differential geometry and in the study of partial differential equations. Vector calculus was developed from quaternion analysis by J. Basic objects[edit] The basic objects in vector calculus are scalar fields (scalar-valued functions) and vector fields (vector-valued functions). Vector operations[edit] Algebraic operations[edit] The basic algebraic (non-differential) operations in vector calculus are referred to as vector algebra, being defined for a vector space and then globally applied to a vector field, and consist of: scalar multiplication vector addition dot product or

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Vector-valued function
Example[edit] A graph of the vector-valued function r(t) = <2 cos t, 4 sin t, t> indicating a range of solutions and the vector when evaluated near t = 19.5 A common example of a vector valued function is one that depends on a single real number parameter t, often representing time, producing a vector v(t) as the result. In terms of the standard unit vectors i, j, k of Cartesian 3-space, these specific type of vector-valued functions are given by expressions such as or where f(t), g(t) and h(t) are the coordinate functions of the parameter t. The vector shown in the graph to the right is the evaluation of the function near t=19.5 (between 6π and 6.5π; i.e., somewhat more than 3 rotations). Vector functions can also be referred to in a different notation: Properties[edit] Derivative of a three-dimensional vector function[edit] Many vector-valued functions, like scalar-valued functions, can be differentiated by simply differentiating the components in the Cartesian coordinate system. . or even

Multivariable calculus
Typical operations[edit] Limits and continuity[edit] A study of limits and continuity in multivariable calculus yields many counter-intuitive results not demonstrated by single-variable functions. For example, there are scalar functions of two variables with points in their domain which give a particular limit when approached along any arbitrary line, yet give a different limit when approached along a parabola. approaches zero along any line through the origin. , it has a limit of 0.5. Continuity in each argument is not sufficient for multivariate continuity: For instance, in the case of a real-valued function with two real-valued parameters, , continuity of in for fixed and continuity of does not imply continuity of . It is easy to check that all real-valued functions (with one real-valued argument) that are given by are continuous in (for any fixed ). are continuous as is symmetric with regards to and . itself is not continuous as can be seen by considering the sequence (for natural if See also[edit]

Physics
Various examples of physical phenomena Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy.[8] Over the last two millennia, physics was a part of natural philosophy along with chemistry, certain branches of mathematics, and biology, but during the Scientific Revolution in the 17th century, the natural sciences emerged as unique research programs in their own right.[b] Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms of other sciences[6] while opening new avenues of research in areas such as mathematics and philosophy. Physics also makes significant contributions through advances in new technologies that arise from theoretical breakthroughs. History Ancient astronomy Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences. Natural philosophy Classical physics Modern physics