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Speech act

A speech act in linguistics and the philosophy of language is an utterance that has performative function in language and communication. According to Kent Back, "almost any speech act is really the performance of several acts at once, distinguished by different aspects of the speaker's intention: there is the act of saying something, what one does in saying it, such as requesting or promising, and how one is trying to affect one's audience." The contemporary use of the term goes back to J. L. Austin's development of performative utterances and his theory of locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary acts. Speech acts are commonly taken to include such acts as promising, ordering, greeting, warning, inviting and congratulating. Locutionary, illocutionary and perlocutionary acts[edit] Speech acts can be analysed on three levels: Illocutionary acts[edit] The concept of an illocutionary act is central to the concept of a speech act. Following the usage of, for example, John R. Related:  Barnlund model of communicationModels of communication

reciprocal English[edit] Etymology[edit] From Latin reciprocus. Pronunciation[edit] IPA(key): /rɪˈsɪprək(ə)l/ Adjective[edit] reciprocal (not comparable) Synonyms[edit] Related terms[edit] reciprocity Translations[edit] Noun[edit] reciprocal (plural reciprocals) (arithmetic) Of a number, the number obtained by dividing 1 by the given number; the result of exchanging the numerator and the denominator of a fraction. 0.5 is the reciprocal of 2. Synonyms[edit] (in arithmetic): multiplicative inverse Translations[edit] Elaboration likelihood model The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) of persuasion [1] is a dual process theory of how attitudes are formed and changed, which was developed by Richard E. Petty and John Cacioppo during the early 1980s. The model examines how an argument's position on the "elaboration continuum", from processing and evaluating (high elaboration) to peripheral issues such as source expertise or attractiveness (low elaboration), shapes its persuasiveness. ELM resembles the heuristic-systematic model of information processing developed about the same time by Shelly Chaiken. Model routes[edit] The model defines two processing routes: central and peripheral. Central Path[edit] The central path is used when the receiving person cares about the issue at hand and is able to understand it without allowing themselves to be distracted by superficial information. Peripheral Path[edit] The peripheral path is used when the receiver has little or no interest for the subject. Choice of route[edit] Model testing[edit]

Noise Noise means any unwanted sound. Noise is not necessarily random. Sounds, particularly loud ones, that disturb people or make it difficult to hear wanted sounds, are noise. For example, conversations of other people may be called noise by people not involved in any of them; any unwanted sound such as domesticated dogs barking, neighbours playing loud music, portable mechanical saws, road traffic sounds, or a distant aircraft in quiet countryside, is called noise. Acoustic noise can be anything from quiet but annoying to loud and harmful. Sound intensity follows an inverse square law with distance from the source; doubling the distance from a noise source reduces its intensity by a factor of four, or 6 dB. Regulation of acoustic noise[edit] Noise regulation includes statutes or guidelines relating to sound transmission established by national, state or provincial and municipal levels of government. Recording and reproduction noise[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] Further reading[edit]

Axiology History[edit] Between the 5th and 6th century B.C., it was important in Greece to be knowledgeable if you were to be successful. Philosophers began to recognize that differences existed between the laws and morality of society. Socrates held the belief that knowledge had a vital connection to virtue, making morality and democracy closely intertwined. Axiological Issues in Communication Studies[edit] Communication theorists seek to contribute to mutual intelligence about the anatomy and operation of human communication. Those who take a conventional scientific approach believe that research must be free of values in order to be valid. See also[edit] References[edit] Jump up ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary Entry on Axiology.Jump up ^ Lapie, Paul (1902). Further reading[edit] Hartman, Robert S. (1967). External links[edit]

Harold Innis Harold Adams Innis (/ˈɪnɪs/; November 5, 1894 – November 8, 1952) was a Canadian professor of political economy at the University of Toronto and the author of seminal works on media, communication theory and Canadian economic history. The affiliated Innis College at the University of Toronto is named for him. Despite his dense and difficult prose, many scholars consider Innis one of Canada's most original thinkers. Innis's writings on communication explore the role of media in shaping the culture and development of civilizations.[2] He argued, for example, that a balance between oral and written forms of communication contributed to the flourishing of Greek civilization in the 5th century BC.[3] He warned, however, that Western civilization is now imperiled by powerful, advertising-driven media obsessed by "present-mindedness" and the "continuous, systematic, ruthless destruction of elements of permanence essential to cultural activity".[4] Rural roots[edit] Early life[edit]

Epistemology A branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope of knowledge Epistemology (/ɪˌpɪstɪˈmɒlədʒi/ ( listen); from Greek, Modern ἐπιστήμη, epistēmē, meaning 'knowledge', and -logy) is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge. Epistemology is the study of the nature of knowledge, justification, and the rationality of belief. Much debate in epistemology centers on four areas: (1) the philosophical analysis of the nature of knowledge and how it relates to such concepts as truth, belief, and justification,[1][2] (2) various problems of skepticism, (3) the sources and scope of knowledge and justified belief, and (4) the criteria for knowledge and justification. Etymology[edit] The word epistemology is derived from the ancient Greek epistēmē meaning "knowledge" and the suffix -logy, meaning "logical discourse" (derived from the Greek word logos meaning "discourse"). It was properly introduced in the philosophical literature by Scottish philosopher J.F. Belief[edit]

Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was an ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now the modern country of Egypt. It is one of six civilizations globally to arise independently. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology)[1] with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh.[2] The history of ancient Egypt occurred in a series of stable Kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age. History Map of ancient Egypt, showing major cities and sites of the Dynastic period (c. 3150 BC to 30 BC) Predynastic period A typical Naqada II jar decorated with gazelles. In Predynastic and Early Dynastic times, the Egyptian climate was much less arid than it is today. Early Dynastic Period (c. 3050 –2686 BC)

Ontology Parmenides was among the first to propose an ontological characterization of the fundamental nature of reality. Etymology[edit] While the etymology is Greek, the oldest extant record of the word itself, the New Latin form ontologia, appeared in 1606 in the work Ogdoas Scholastica by Jacob Lorhard (Lorhardus) and in 1613 in the Lexicon philosophicum by Rudolf Göckel (Goclenius). The first occurrence in English of ontology as recorded by the OED (Oxford English Dictionary, online edition, 2008) came in a work by Gideon Harvey (1636/7–1702): Archelogia philosophica nova; or, New principles of Philosophy. Containing Philosophy in general, Metaphysicks or Ontology, Dynamilogy or a Discourse of Power, Religio Philosophi or Natural Theology, Physicks or Natural philosophy, London, Thomson, 1663.[5] The word was first used in its Latin form by philosophers based on the Latin roots, which themselves are based on the Greek. Overview[edit] Some fundamental questions[edit] Concepts[edit] Types[edit]

Wikipedia entry on the Barnlund model of communication Information deficit model The information deficit model (or simply deficit model) attributes public scepticism or hostility to a lack of understanding, resulting from a lack of information. It is associated with a division between experts who have the information and non-experts who do not. The model implies that communication should focus on improving the transfer of information from experts to non-experts. Deficit model of science communication[edit] The original term ‘deficit model’ was coined in the 1980s by social scientists studying the public communication of science. There are two aspects to this belief. Scientists are often heard to complain that the general public does not understand science, and that the public needs to be educated. The deficit model sees the general population as the receiver of information and scientific knowledge. The deficit model of scientific understanding makes assumptions about the public’s knowledge. The role of the media[edit] References[edit] See also[edit]

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