Ending with a Preposition Advice on Visiting Athens Read the Paragraphs (with terminal prepositions) When traveling to a city such as Athens, Greece you may find yourself wandering through its streets and not knowing where you are going to. The old part of Athens, called "the Plaka", has a number of little streets leading in and out. Half the time you won't know the direction you are walking in. Fortunately, Athens has a lot of little kiosks called "peripteros" with vendors to help you out. You can even find such things as a deck of cards, a toothbrush, aspirin, or hand-sanitizer to clean your hands with. Most locals (Greeks living in the Plaka) are happy to help you find your way provided that you have a map to point to. kiosk (N) – a small structure having one or more sides open, used as a newsstand, refreshment stand, bandstand, information or security center make out (verbal idiom) – interpret or understand I can't make out his handwriting. provided that – as long as; under the condition that Match Maker
Relative Clauses Content How to form relative clauses Level: lower intermediate Relative pronouns Level: lower intermediate Subject pronouns or Object pronouns? Level: lower intermediate Relative adverbs Level: intermediate Defining relative clauses Level: lower intermediate Non-defining relative clauses Level: upper intermediate How to shorten relative clauses Level: intermediate Exercises and Tests Exercises and tests on relative clauses We use relative clauses to give additional information about something without starting another sentence. How to Form Relative Clauses Level: lower intermediate Imagine, a girl is talking to Tom. A girl is talking to Tom. That sounds rather complicated, doesn't it? Do you know the girl … As your friend cannot know which girl you are talking about, you need to put in the additional information – the girl is talking to Tom. Do you know the girl who is talking to Tom? Relative Pronouns Level: lower intermediate Subject Pronoun or Object Pronoun? the apple which is lying on the table
English relative clauses Overview The basic relative pronouns are who, which and that; but see alternative analysis of that below.The relative pronoun comes at the very start of the relative clause unless it is preceded by a fronted preposition: "The bed on which I was lying". (In informal use it is normal to slide the preposition to the end of the clause and leave it stranded, or dangling: "The bed which I was lying on"). In formal English, and rarely, the relative clause may start with a larger phrase containing the relative pronoun after a preposition: "The bed, the owner of which we had seen previously, .. Variables in the basic relative clause Human or non-human antecedents The relative pronoun that is used with both human and non-human antecedents. The possessive form whose is necessarily used with non-human as well as human antecedents because no possessive forms exist for which or that. Restrictive or non-restrictive relative clauses Integrated clauses that are not restrictive
Defining i Non-defining relative clauses - zdania względne definiujące w angielskim Relative clauses, czyli zdania względne wprowadzają dodatkowe informacje o o osobach/rzeczach, o których jest mowa w zdaniu głównym. Jesli relative clause wprowadza nam informację mało istotną, której pominięcie nie wpłynęłoby na zrozumienie zdania głównego, musimy wtedy relative clause oddzielić przecinkami od zdania głównego np. Jeśli informacja wtrącona za pomocą relative clause jest niezbędna do prawidłowego zrozumienia sensu zdania głównego, nie stosujemy przecinków. Głównie taka sytuacja ma miejsce, jeśli w relative clause zawarte są wiadomości konieczne do zidentyfikowania osoby/rzeczy/przedmiotu o które nam chodzi np. Żeby szybciej zapamiętać, można wyobrazić sobie, że jeśli informacja nie jest taka ważna, to wstawiamy ją pomiędzy przecinki, żeby w razie potrzeby szybciej zidentyfikować i usunąć. Czasami zdarza się, że użycie lub pominięcie przecinów zmienia znaczenie całego zdania: Porównajmy przykłady:
English Grammar Explanations - Relative clauses Relative clauses are clauses starting with the relative pronouns who*, that, which, whose, where, when. They are most often used to define or identify the noun that precedes them. Here are some examples: Do you know the girl who started in grade 7 last week? * There is a relative pronoun whom, which can be used as the object of the relative clause. Relative pronouns are associated as follows with their preceding noun: Note 1: The relative pronoun whose is used in place of the possessive pronoun. Note 2: The relative pronouns where and when are used with place and time nouns. Some relative clauses are not used to define or identify the preceding noun but to give extra information about it. Note 1: Relative clauses which give extra information, as in the example sentences above, must be separated off by commas. Note 2: The relative pronoun that cannot be used to introduce an extra-information (non-defining) clause about a person. 1. Do you know the girl (who/m) he's talking to? 2.
Grammar Bytes! :: The Relative Clause Printer Fabulous! Recognize a relative clause when you see one. A relative clause—also called an adjective or adjectival clause—will meet three requirements. Relative Pronoun or Adverb + Subject + Verb Relative Pronoun as Subject + Verb Here are some examples: Which Francine did not accept Which = relative pronoun; Francine = subject; did accept = verb [not, an adverb, is not officially part of the verb]. Avoid creating a sentence fragment. A relative clause does not express a complete thought, so it cannot stand alone as a sentence. To calm his angry girlfriend, Joey offered an apology which Francine did not accept. Punctuate a relative clause correctly. Punctuating relative clauses can be tricky. The children who skateboard in the street are especially noisy in the early evening. Children is nonspecific. Matthew and his sister Loretta, who skateboard in the street, are especially noisy in the early evening. ©1997 - 2019 by Robin L. valid html
What Is a Relative Clause Verb? A relative clause verb is the verb inside a relative clause. Let’s look at relative clauses and verbs to learn more about a relative clause verb. Defining a Clause A clause is a group of words that have a subject and a verb (predicate). Independent clauses can stand alone and make a complete thought. Dependent clauses are called subordinate clauses because they have a subordinate conjunction that links the clause to the other clause. In “When the game started, he was still at home.” the dependent clause is “When the game started” and the subordinate conjunction is “When.” Without the subordinate conjunction, the clause could be independent. Some people get clauses and phrases confused. Types of Dependent Clauses There are three types of dependent clauses: nominal, adverbial, and adjectival. They function as nouns, adverbs, and adjectives.They usually start with a subordinate conjunction, like: as if, because, before, while, now that, until, since, how, where, when, why, unless, and after.
Relative clauses in English - tips and activities Tips and suggestions for teaching relative clauses in English. Participle relative clauses Present and past participle forms, (e.g: talking, made) can be used without a pronoun or auxiliary to form a participle relative clause, e.g.: Do you know the boy talking to Thomas? The participle relative clause underlined in the example has the same meaning as a defining relative clause with the relative pronoun who, i.e: Do you know the boy who is talking to Thomas? A participle relative clause with an –ing (present participle) form can be used like a defining relative clause to identify which person or thing you are referring to, e.g The house has three bedrooms. -ing participle clauses also often show what someone or something is, or was, doing at a particular time, e.g Who were those children waiting outside? Police investigating the robbery are asking people to come forward. (= …who are investigating the robbery..) /hu:z/ Answers The place where and the day when Can you remember... Example Variation 1.
Relative Clauses Relative Clauses This handout will help you understand what relative clauses are and how they work, and will especially help you decide when to use “that” or “which.” What is a relative clause? A relative clause is one kind of dependent clause. It has a subject and verb, but can’t stand alone as a sentence. It is sometimes called an “adjective clause” because it functions like an adjective—it gives more information about a noun. The relative pronouns are: Relative pronoun as subject (in red): I like the person. I like the person who was nice to me. I hate the dog. I hate the dog that bit me. I am moving to Louisville, KY. I am moving to Louisville, KY, which is home to the Muhammad Ali Museum. Relative pronoun as object (in red): I like the bike. I like the bike that my father gave me. Restrictive Relative Clauses Restrictive relative clauses give information that defines the noun—information that’s necessary for complete identification of the noun. I like the paintings. So we add the clause:
That and Which Clauses Add modifying clauses for inanimate nouns Adjective vs. Modifying Clause (Relative Clause) antique (Adj) – old, especially items wanted by collectors economical (Adj) – having the quality of saving money hybrid – powered by more than one source (e.g., gas and battery) vehicle (N) – a means of transportation Replacing the Subject or Object Noun That / Which Add commas if the clause adds extra information that is not essential to identifying who the person is. Clause Position Modifying the Subject of the Main Clause complement – a word, phrase or clause which is necessary in a sentence to complete its meaning verb + complement – elements required to complete the meaning of the clause Modifying the Object of the Main Clause tiny (Adj) – very small tryout (V) – test drive Related pages: That vs. Omitting That When can you omit that? hilarious (Adj) – very, funny ringtone (N) – the sound a phone makes when receiving a call or a text message How do you know if that is an object pronoun? Punctuation Advanced