Bronchitis Acute bronchitis is characterized by the development of a cough or small sensation in the back of the throat, with or without the production of sputum (mucus that is expectorated, or "coughed up", from the respiratory tract). Acute bronchitis often occurs during the course of an acute viral illness such as the common cold or influenza. Viruses cause about 90% of acute bronchitis cases, whereas bacteria account for about 10%. Chronic bronchitis, a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is characterized by the presence of a productive cough that lasts for three months or more per year for at least two years. Acute bronchitis Acute bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi usually caused by viruses or bacteria. Bronchitis may be diagnosed by a health care provider during a thorough physical examination. Treatment for acute bronchitis is primarily symptomatic. Chronic bronchitis References
Tuberculosis The classic symptoms of active TB infection are a chronic cough with blood-tinged sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss (the latter giving rise to the formerly common term for the disease, "consumption"). Infection of other organs causes a wide range of symptoms. Diagnosis of active TB relies on radiology (commonly chest X-rays), as well as microscopic examination and microbiological culture of body fluids. Diagnosis of latent TB relies on the tuberculin skin test (TST) and/or blood tests. Treatment is difficult and requires administration of multiple antibiotics over a long period of time. Social contacts are also screened and treated if necessary. Signs and symptoms The main symptoms of variants and stages of tuberculosis are given, with many symptoms overlapping with other variants, while others are more (but not entirely) specific for certain variants. Pulmonary Extrapulmonary Causes Mycobacteria Risk factors A number of factors make people more susceptible to TB infections.
Cancer Cancer The causes of cancer are diverse, complex, and only partially understood. Many things are known to increase the risk of cancer, including tobacco use, dietary factors, certain infections, exposure to radiation, lack of physical activity, obesity, and environmental pollutants. These factors can directly damage genes or combine with existing genetic faults within cells to cause cancerous mutations. Approximately 5–10% of cancers can be traced directly to inherited genetic defects. Many cancers could be prevented by not smoking, eating more vegetables, fruits and whole grains, eating less meat and refined carbohydrates, maintaining a healthy weight, exercising, minimizing sunlight exposure, and being vaccinated against some infectious diseases. Cancer can be detected in a number of ways, including the presence of certain signs and symptoms, screening tests, or medical imaging. Definitions There is no one definition that describes all cancers. Signs and symptoms Causes
Social Security and SSI Disability for Asthma Asthma is a chronic disease of the respiratory system that involves inflammation of the airways. Asthma-related inflammation causes excessive mucous production within the airways, which results in constricted airways. Asthma is triggered by various stimuli, such as pets, medication, pollutions, chemicals, hormones, exposure to cigarette smoke, cold viruses, and other pathogens in the environment. Symptoms of asthma include shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, and tightness in the chest. Treatment of asthma may include the use of inhalers, nebulizers, medications, and simply limiting exposure to triggering stimuli when possible. Asthma is a common reason that people apply for disability benefits. When Does Asthma Qualify for Disability? If you can meet the qualifications under the SSA's disability listing for adult asthma, your claim will be automatically approved. What Should Be in Your Medical Record? Can You Qualify for Disability Because of Job Restrictions?
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), and chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), among others, is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by chronically poor airflow. It typically worsens over time. The main symptoms include shortness of breath, cough, and sputum production. Most people with chronic bronchitis have COPD. Tobacco smoking is the most common cause of COPD, with a number of other factors such as air pollution and genetics playing a smaller role. In the developing world, one of the common sources of air pollution is from poorly vented cooking and heating fires. COPD can be prevented by reducing exposure to the known causes. Worldwide, COPD affects 329 million people or nearly 5% of the population. Signs and symptoms Cough Shortness of breath Other features Exacerbation Cause Smoking Percentage of females smoking tobacco as of the late 1990s early 2000s
Pneumonia Pneumonia (nu-mo'ne-a) is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the microscopic air sacs known as alveoli. It is usually caused by infection with viruses or bacteria and less commonly other microorganisms, certain drugs and other conditions such as autoimmune diseases. Typical symptoms include a cough, chest pain, fever, and difficulty breathing. Diagnostic tools include x-rays and culture of the sputum. Vaccines to prevent certain types of pneumonia are available. Treatment depends on the underlying cause. Pneumonia presumed to be bacterial is treated with antibiotics. Signs and symptoms Main symptoms of infectious pneumonia Fever is not very specific, as it occurs in many other common illnesses, and may be absent in those with severe disease or malnutrition. Bacterial and viral cases of pneumonia usually present with similar symptoms. Some causes are associated with classic, but non-specific, clinical characteristics. Cause Bacteria Viruses Fungi Viral
Psoriasis No cure is available for psoriasis, but various treatments can help to control the symptoms. Though many treatments are available, psoriasis can be difficult to treat due to its chronic recurrent nature. The effectiveness and safety of a new generation of targeted immune therapies is being established with randomized controlled trials, and several have been approved (or rejected for safety concerns) by regulatory authorities. Signs and symptoms Plaque Psoriatic plaque, showing a silvery center surrounded by a reddened border. Psoriasis vulgaris (also known as chronic stationary psoriasis or plaque-like psoriasis) is the most common form and affects 85%–90% of people with psoriasis. Plaque psoriasis typically appears as raised areas of inflamed skin covered with silvery-white scaly skin. A person's arm covered with plaque psoriasis Pustular Other skin lesions Psoriatic arthritis Nail changes Psoriasis of a fingernail, with visible pitting.
What is asthma? : Canadian Lung Association What is asthma? Asthma is a chronic (long-term) disease that makes it hard to breathe. Asthma can't be cured, but it can be managed. With proper treatment, people with asthma can lead normal, active lives. If you have asthma, your airways (breathing passages) are extra sensitive. Become red and swollen - your airways get inflamed inside. Become "twitchy" and go into spasm - the muscles around your airways squeeze together and tighten. The more red and swollen your airways are, the more twitchy they become. What sets off your asthma symptoms? Many different things can set off your asthma symptoms. Asthma inducers: If you breathe in something you're allergic to- for example, dust or pollen- or if you have a viral infection- for example, a cold or the flu- your airways can become inflamed (red and swollen). Asthma triggers: If you breathe in an asthma trigger like cold air or smoke, or if you exercise, the muscles around your airways can go into spasm and squeeze together tightly. Back to top
Dry drowning Dry drowning occurs when a person's lungs become unable to extract oxygen from the air, due primarily to: The person may effectively drown without any sort of liquid. In cases of dry drowning in which the victim was immersed, very little fluid is aspirated into the lungs. The laryngospasm reflex essentially causes asphyxiation and neurogenic pulmonary edema (œdema). Dry drowning can occur clinically, or due to illness or accident. Pathophysiology In normal breathing, the diaphragm contracts, causing the lungs to expand (lungs are above the diaphragm). In addition, a multifactorial form of pulmonary edema is produced. The ventricle typically responds to this increased volume of blood by contracting and pumping with increased strength—a phenomenon known as the Frank–Starling mechanism. In the lungs, the nature of the vasculature changes. At the same time, the sympathetic nervous system responds to the emergency of the closed larynx. Misnomer in media See also
Lung cancer If left untreated, this growth can spread beyond the lung by process of metastasis into nearby tissue or other parts of the body. Most cancers that start in the lung, known as primary lung cancers, are carcinomas that derive from epithelial cells. The main primary types are small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The most common symptoms are coughing (including coughing up blood), weight loss, shortness of breath, and chest pains. The vast majority (80–90%) of cases of lung cancer are due to long-term exposure to tobacco smoke. About 10–15% of cases occur in people who have never smoked. These cases are often caused by a combination of genetic factors and exposure to radon gas, asbestos, or other forms of air pollution, including second-hand smoke. Lung cancer may be seen on chest radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans. Signs and symptoms Signs and symptoms which may suggest lung cancer include:
Diabetes mellitus type 1 Diabetes mellitus type 1 (also known as type 1 diabetes, or T1DM; formerly insulin dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes) is a form of diabetes mellitus that results from the autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. The subsequent lack of insulin leads to increased blood and urine glucose. The classical symptoms are polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), polyphagia (increased hunger), and weight loss. While lack of care could be lethal, administration of insulin remains essential for the survival of these patients. Insulin therapy must be continued indefinitely and does not usually impair normal daily activities. Patients are usually trained to manage their disease independently; however, for some this can be challenging. Type 1 diabetes can lead to a number of complications, both in the short term and in the long term. Signs and symptoms Overview of the most significant symptoms of diabetes Cause Genetics
Spanish: Asthma Symptoms, Diagnosis, Management & Treatment El asma es una enfermedad crónica que compromete las vías respiratorias en los pulmones. Estas vías respiratorias, o bronquios, permiten que el aire entre y salga de los pulmones. Si usted tiene asma, sus vías respiratorias están siempre inflamadas, pero se inflaman más y los músculos alrededor de las vías respiratorias pueden estrecharse cuando algo desencadena sus síntomas. Esto dificulta la entrada y salida del aire de los pulmones, y da como resultado síntomas como tos, sibilancia, disnea y/u opresión del pecho. Para muchas personas que padecen de asma, el momento en que se presentan estos síntomas está muy relacionado con la actividad física. Quienes tienen antecedentes familiares de alergia o asma tienen más propensión a desarrollar asma. No hay cura para el asma, pero una vez que es diagnosticada adecuadamente y se implementa un plan de tratamiento, podrá manejar su afección, y su calidad de vida mejorará. Evalúe su conocimiento con nuestra encuesta sobre asma.
Pneumothorax A pneumothorax (pneumo- + thorax; plural pneumothoraces) is an abnormal collection of air or gas in the pleural space that separates the lung from the chest wall. Like pleural effusion (liquid buildup in that space), pneumothorax may interfere with normal breathing. It is often called collapsed lung, although that term may also refer to atelectasis. Pneumothoraces can be caused by physical trauma to the chest (including blast injury), or as a complication of medical or surgical intervention. Small spontaneous pneumothoraces typically resolve without treatment and require only monitoring. Signs and symptoms Illustration depicting a collapsed lung or Pneumothorax A primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) tends to occur in a young adult without underlying lung problems, and usually causes limited symptoms. Secondary spontaneous pneumothoraces (SSPs), by definition, occur in individuals with significant underlying lung disease. Tension pneumothorax Cause Traumatic
Coeliac disease Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is an autoimmune disorder affecting primarily the small intestine that occurs in people who are genetically predisposed. Classic symptoms include gastrointestinal problems such as chronic diarrhoea, abdominal distention, malabsorption, loss of appetite, and among children failure to grow normally. This often begins between six months and two years of age. Non-classic symptoms are the most common, especially in people older than two years. There may be mild or absent gastrointestinal symptoms, a wide number of symptoms involving any part of the body, or no obvious symptoms. Coeliac disease was first described in childhood; however, it may develop at any age. It is associated with other autoimmune diseases, such as diabetes mellitus type 1 and thyroiditis, among others. Signs and symptoms Gastrointestinal Malabsorption-related Miscellaneous Cause Other grains Risk modifiers