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Relative Clauses

Relative Clauses
Content How to form relative clauses Level: lower intermediate Relative pronouns Level: lower intermediate Subject pronouns or Object pronouns? Level: lower intermediate Relative adverbs Level: intermediate Defining relative clauses Level: lower intermediate Non-defining relative clauses Level: upper intermediate How to shorten relative clauses Level: intermediate Exercises and Tests Exercises and tests on relative clauses We use relative clauses to give additional information about something without starting another sentence. How to Form Relative Clauses Level: lower intermediate Imagine, a girl is talking to Tom. A girl is talking to Tom. That sounds rather complicated, doesn't it? Do you know the girl … As your friend cannot know which girl you are talking about, you need to put in the additional information – the girl is talking to Tom. Do you know the girl who is talking to Tom? Relative Pronouns Level: lower intermediate Subject Pronoun or Object Pronoun? the apple which is lying on the table Related:  Test Exercises - all classes!

Participle Clauses 1 Reduced Relative Clauses (Download this page in PDF here.) (Click here for information about participle adjectives.) We can use participle clauses after a noun in the same way as relative clauses. 1: A present participle (verb + ing) can be used in the same way as an active relative clause: The man driving the car is a friend of mine.(= The man who is driving the car is a friend of mine). The present participle can replace any active tense, not just the present continuous tense: Lorries coming over the bridge have to be careful of the wind.(= Lorries that come over the bridge have to be careful of the wind).Who was the girl wearing the red dress? 2: A past participle can be used in the same way as a simple passive relative clause: 3: 'Being + past participle' can be used in the same way as a continuous passive relative clause: Things to notice: 1: We generally don't use perfect participles ('having + past participle') in this case. Not: Who was the girl dropping the coffee? Try an exercise!

Verb Tense Verb tenses are verb forms (went, go, will go) which English speakers use to talk about the past, present, and future in their language. There are twelve verb tense forms in English as well as other time expressions such as used to. For English learners, knowing how to use English tenses can be quite a challenge. Never fear. How to use this tutorial: 1. 2. 3. Verb Tense Exercises About the Verb Tense Chart Look at the verb tense chart above. There are also three simple tenses, three continuous tenses, three perfect tenses and three perfect continuous tenses. For example, all simple tenses have similar uses. Did you also notice that present tenses and past tenses only have one form whereas future tenses have two forms? Common Questions about Verb Tenses How can I learn verb tenses? Our native language changes the way we think about time. For this reason, you have to learn to think like an English speaker. Make sure you understand the details. How many verb tenses are there?

English relative clauses Overview[edit] The basic relative pronouns are who, which and that; but see alternative analysis of that below.The relative pronoun comes at the very start of the relative clause unless it is preceded by a fronted preposition: "The bed on which I was lying". (In informal use it is normal to slide the preposition to the end of the clause and leave it stranded, or dangling: "The bed which I was lying on"). In formal English, and rarely, the relative clause may start with a larger phrase containing the relative pronoun after a preposition: "The bed, the owner of which we had seen previously, .. Variables in the basic relative clause[edit] Human or non-human antecedents[edit] The relative pronoun that is used with both human and non-human antecedents. The possessive form whose is necessarily used with non-human as well as human antecedents because no possessive forms exist for which or that. Restrictive or non-restrictive relative clauses[edit] Integrated clauses that are not restrictive[edit]

Relative Clauses (See a list of all the exercises about relative clauses here). We can use relative clauses to join two English sentences, or to give more information about something. I bought a new car. She lives in New York. Defining and Non-defining A defining relative clause tells which noun we are talking about: I like the woman who lives next door. A non-defining relative clause gives us extra information about something. I live in London, which has some fantastic parks. Defining relative clauses: 1: The relative pronoun is the subject: First, let's consider when the relative pronoun is the subject of a defining relative clause. We can use 'who', 'which' or 'that'. The relative clause can come after the subject or the object of the sentence. For example (clause after the object of the sentence): I'm looking for a secretary who / that can use a computer well.She has a son who / that is a doctor.We bought a house which / that is 200 years old.I sent a letter which / that arrived three weeks later. listen to

English Grammar Explanations - Relative clauses Relative clauses are clauses starting with the relative pronouns who*, that, which, whose, where, when. They are most often used to define or identify the noun that precedes them. Here are some examples: Do you know the girl who started in grade 7 last week? * There is a relative pronoun whom, which can be used as the object of the relative clause. Relative pronouns are associated as follows with their preceding noun: Note 1: The relative pronoun whose is used in place of the possessive pronoun. Note 2: The relative pronouns where and when are used with place and time nouns. Some relative clauses are not used to define or identify the preceding noun but to give extra information about it. Note 1: Relative clauses which give extra information, as in the example sentences above, must be separated off by commas. Note 2: The relative pronoun that cannot be used to introduce an extra-information (non-defining) clause about a person. 1. Do you know the girl (who/m) he's talking to? 2.

Simple Present vs. Present Progressive Exercises and tests Form See also explanations on Simple Present and Present Progressive Use In general or right now? Do you want to express that something happens in general or that something is happening right now? Timetable / Schedule or arrangement? Do you want to express that something is arranged for the near future? Daily routine or just for a limited period of time? Do you want to talk about a daily routine? Certain Verbs The following verbs are usually only used in Simple Present (not in the progressive form). state: be, cost, fit, mean, suitExample: We are on holiday. possession: belong, haveExample: Sam has a cat. senses: feel, hear, see, smell, taste, touchExample: He feels the cold. feelings: hate, hope, like, love, prefer, regret, want, wishExample: Jane loves pizza. brain work: believe, know, think, understandExample: I believe you. Exercies on Simple Present and Present Progressive Tests on Simple Present and Present Progressive

English Pronouns Los pronombres en inglés pueden clasificarse en: personales (o nominales), acusativos, indefinidos, posesivos, relativos y recíprocos. Los pronombres son palabras que señalan o sustituyen a otras que normalmente ya se han nombrado. Pronombres Personales I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they Pronombres Acusativosme, you, him, her, it, us, you, them Adjetivos Posesivosmy, your, his her, its, our, your, their Pronombres Posesivos mine, yours, his, hers, ours, yours, theirs Pronombres Reflexivosmyself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, … Pronombres Indefinidosanyone, someone, nobody, everybody, anybody, … Pronombres Relativos that, who, whose, which, whom Pronombres Recíprocos each other, one another Vistos en perspectiva Grammar Bytes! :: The Relative Clause Printer Fabulous! Recognize a relative clause when you see one. A relative clause—also called an adjective or adjectival clause—will meet three requirements. Relative Pronoun or Adverb + Subject + Verb Relative Pronoun as Subject + Verb Here are some examples: Which Francine did not accept Which = relative pronoun; Francine = subject; did accept = verb [not, an adverb, is not officially part of the verb]. Avoid creating a sentence fragment. A relative clause does not express a complete thought, so it cannot stand alone as a sentence. To calm his angry girlfriend, Joey offered an apology which Francine did not accept. Punctuate a relative clause correctly. Punctuating relative clauses can be tricky. The children who skateboard in the street are especially noisy in the early evening. Children is nonspecific. Matthew and his sister Loretta, who skateboard in the street, are especially noisy in the early evening. ©1997 - 2019 by Robin L. valid html

Defining i Non-defining relative clauses - zdania względne definiujące w angielskim Relative clauses, czyli zdania względne wprowadzają dodatkowe informacje o o osobach/rzeczach, o których jest mowa w zdaniu głównym. Jesli relative clause wprowadza nam informację mało istotną, której pominięcie nie wpłynęłoby na zrozumienie zdania głównego, musimy wtedy relative clause oddzielić przecinkami od zdania głównego np. Jeśli informacja wtrącona za pomocą relative clause jest niezbędna do prawidłowego zrozumienia sensu zdania głównego, nie stosujemy przecinków. Głównie taka sytuacja ma miejsce, jeśli w relative clause zawarte są wiadomości konieczne do zidentyfikowania osoby/rzeczy/przedmiotu o które nam chodzi np. Żeby szybciej zapamiętać, można wyobrazić sobie, że jeśli informacja nie jest taka ważna, to wstawiamy ją pomiędzy przecinki, żeby w razie potrzeby szybciej zidentyfikować i usunąć. Czasami zdarza się, że użycie lub pominięcie przecinów zmienia znaczenie całego zdania: Porównajmy przykłady:

relative clauses 1. The relative pronouns: The relative pronouns are: We use who and whom for people, and which for things. We use that for people or things. We use relative pronouns to introduce relative clauses, which tell us more about people and things. 2. We use relative clauses to postmodify a noun - to make clear which person or thing we are talking about. as subject (see Clauses Sentences and Phrases) Isn’t that the woman who lives across the road from you? WARNING: The relative pronoun is the subject of the clause. *The woman who [she] lives across the road… *The tiger which [it] killed its keeper … as object of a clause (see Clauses, Sentences and Phrases) Have you seen those people who we met on holiday? - Sometimes we use whom instead of who when the relative pronoun is the object: Have you seen those people whom we met on holiday? - When the relative pronoun is object of its clause we sometimes leave it out: Have you seen those people we met on holiday? as object of a preposition. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Active / Passive Verb Forms Sentences can be active or passive. Therefore, tenses also have "active forms" and "passive forms." You must learn to recognize the difference to successfully speak English. Active Form In active sentences, the thing doing the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing receiving the action is the object. [Thing doing action] + [verb] + [thing receiving action] Examples: Passive Form In passive sentences, the thing receiving the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing doing the action is optionally included near the end of the sentence. [Thing receiving action] + [be] + [past participle of verb] + [by] + [thing doing action] Active / Passive Overview Your personal online English school.

Articles The 3 articles in English are a, an and the. The learner has to decide noun-by-noun which one of the articles to use*. In fact, there are 4 choices to make, because sometimes no article is necessary. The most important first step in choosing the correct article is to categorize the noun as count or uncount in its context**: - A count noun is a noun that can have a number in front of it: 1 teacher, 3 books, 76 trombones, 1,000,000 people. - An uncount noun is a noun that cannot have a number put in front of it: 1 water, 2 lucks, 10 airs, 21 oils, 39 informations. Uncount nouns You cannot say a/an with an uncount noun.You cannot put a number in front of an uncount noun. Count nouns You can put a number in front of a count noun. Note: The above rules apply whether there is or there is not an adjective in front of the noun.Some nouns can be either count or uncount, depending on the context and meaning: Do you have paper? How to use the articles correctly in English

What Is a Relative Clause Verb? A relative clause verb is the verb inside a relative clause. Let’s look at relative clauses and verbs to learn more about a relative clause verb. Defining a Clause A clause is a group of words that have a subject and a verb (predicate). Independent clauses can stand alone and make a complete thought. Dependent clauses are called subordinate clauses because they have a subordinate conjunction that links the clause to the other clause. In “When the game started, he was still at home.” the dependent clause is “When the game started” and the subordinate conjunction is “When.” Without the subordinate conjunction, the clause could be independent. Some people get clauses and phrases confused. Types of Dependent Clauses There are three types of dependent clauses: nominal, adverbial, and adjectival. They function as nouns, adverbs, and adjectives.They usually start with a subordinate conjunction, like: as if, because, before, while, now that, until, since, how, where, when, why, unless, and after.

Relative clauses | LearnEnglish Teens | British Council We use relative clauses to describe or give extra information about something we have already mentioned. We often use relative pronouns (e.g. who, where, that, which, whose) to introduce relative clauses. What are relative clauses and why do we use them? A clause is a group of words containing a verb. Relative clauses are a way of giving more information about a person, thing, place, event, etc. The Uros people make fires. OK, so there the relative pronoun is 'which' and it refers back to 'the fires' and 'which they use for cooking' is the relative clause. That’s right, which is used for things (never for people). What are defining relative clauses? They are clauses that you need in the sentence for it to make sense. The people who live here have had the same kind of lifestyle for hundreds of years. If I said 'The people have had the same kind of lifestyle for hundreds of years', you wouldn’t know which people I was talking about. There are no commas before and after the clause.