Gospel of Mark The Gospel According to Mark (Greek: τὸ κατὰ Μᾶρκον εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Markon euangelion), the second book of the New Testament, is one of the four canonical gospels and the three synoptic gospels. It was traditionally thought to be an epitome (summary) of Matthew, which accounts for its place as the second gospel in the Bible, but most contemporary scholars now regard it as the earliest of the gospels. Most modern scholars reject the tradition which ascribes it to Mark the Evangelist, the companion of Peter, and regard it as the work of an unknown author working with various sources including collections of miracle stories, controversy stories, parables, and a passion narrative. Composition and setting Composition The two-source hypothesis: Most scholars agree that Mark was the first of the gospels to be composed, and that the authors of Matthew and Luke used it plus a second document called the Q source when composing their own gospels. Setting Structure 1.
Gospel of Matthew The Gospel According to Matthew (Greek: κατὰ Ματθαῖον εὐαγγέλιον, kata Matthaion euangelion, τὸ εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ματθαῖον, to euangelion kata Matthaion) (Gospel of Matthew or simply Matthew) is one of the four canonical gospels, one of the three synoptic gospels, and the first book of the New Testament. The narrative tells how the Messiah, Jesus, rejected by Israel, finally sends the disciples to preach his Gospel to the whole world. The Gospel of Matthew is generally believed to have been composed between 70 and 110, with most scholars preferring the period 80–90; a pre-70 date remains a minority view, but has been strongly supported. The anonymous author was probably a highly educated Jew, intimately familiar with the technical aspects of Jewish law, and the disciple Matthew was probably honored within his circle. Composition and setting Evangelist Mathäus und der Engel by Rembrandt Composition Setting Structure and content Structure Theology
Gospel of John The Gospel of John (also referred to as the Gospel According to John, the Fourth Gospel, or simply John) is one of the four canonical gospels in the Christian Bible. In the New Testament it traditionally appears fourth, after the synoptic gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke. John begins with the witness and affirmation of John the Baptist and concludes with the death, burial, resurrection, and post-resurrection appearances of Jesus. Chapter 21 states that the book derives from the testimony of the "disciple whom Jesus loved" and early church tradition identified him as John the Apostle, one of Jesus' Twelve Apostles. The gospel is closely related in style and content to the three surviving Epistles of John such that commentators treat the four books, along with the Book of Revelation, as a single body of Johannine literature. According to most modern scholars, however, the apostle John was not the author of any of these books. Raymond E. Composition Authorship Sources
The Corinthians in Corinthians Figure Analysis The Corinthians sure get lots of screen time in the Bible, but just who were they? And why does Paul spend so much time writing letters to their little neck of the woods? The Corinth of Old Ancient Corinth was a lovely little town, which was located in the southern part of Greece on the Isthmus of Corinth. The city was surrounded by water and was snuggled up about halfway between Athens and Sparta. See, Corinth was pretty cosmopolitan at the time (for a place that didn't have flushing toilets, that is): Corinth was home to major seaports, which meant its exports of bronze and terra cotta always sold well.It was a major manufacturing and commercial hub of the ancient world. Paul's Arrival in Greece So Paul hits Corinth and establishes a church pretty quickly. Not quite. Sin's Really Got a Hold on Them The Corinthians get a bad wrap for being a bunch of ancient sinners and sex freaks. What terrible, awful, no good Christians! Were They Really That Bad? Head of the Social Class
Gospel A gospel is an account that describes the life of Jesus of Nazareth . The most widely known examples are the four canonical gospels of Matthew , Mark , Luke , and John , but the term is also used to refer to the apocryphal gospels , the non-canonical gospels , the Jewish-Christian gospels and the gnostic gospels . Christianity traditionally places a high value on the four canonical gospels, which it considers to be a revelation from God and central to its belief system. [ 1 ] Christians teach that the four canonical gospels are an accurate and authoritative representation of the life of Jesus, [ 2 ] but many scholars agree that not everything contained in the gospels is historically reliable. [ 3 ] [ 4 ] [ 5 ] [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ] [ 9 ] In Islam the Injil ( Arabic : إنجيل ) is the Arabic term for a book given to Jesus. Injil is sometimes translated as 'gospel'. This is one of the four Islamic holy books that the Qur'an reports as having been revealed by God . Etymology [ edit ]
Marcan priority According to the hypothesis of Markan priority, the Gospel of Mark was written first and then used as a source for the Gospels of Matthew and Luke. Markan priority is the hypothesis that the Gospel of Mark was the first-written of the three Synoptic Gospels and was used as a source by the other two, Matthew and Luke. This hypothesis is a central one in discussion of the Synoptic Problem, the question of the documentary relationship among these three Gospels. Markan priority has been accepted by most scholars since the late nineteenth century and forms the foundation for the widely accepted two-source theory, although a number of scholars support different forms of Markan priority or reject it altogether. History Gottlob Christian Storr. The tradition handed down by the Church Fathers regarded Matthew as the first Gospel written. There was much debate at the time over whether Matthew and Luke used Mark itself or some Proto-Mark (Ur-Mark). In 1899 J. Dependent theories
First Council of Nicaea The First Council of Nicaea (/naɪ'si:ə/; Greek: Νίκαια /'ni:kaɪja/ Turkish: Iznik) was a council of Christian bishops convened in Nicaea in Bithynia by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325. This first ecumenical council was the first effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom. Its main accomplishments were settlement of the Christological issue of the nature of the Son of God and his relationship to God the Father, the construction of the first part of the Creed of Nicaea, establishing uniform observance of the date of Easter, and promulgation of early canon law. Overview Eastern Orthodox icon depicting the First Council of Nicaea The First Council of Nicaea was the first ecumenical council of the Church. Another result of the council was an agreement on when to celebrate Easter, the most important feast of the ecclesiastical calendar, decreed in an epistle to the Church of Alexandria in which is simply stated:
Apostle (Christian) The Twelve Apostles are the twelve primary disciples of Jesus Christ, and they were his closest followers and the primary teachers of the gospel message of Jesus. The count of twelve is ambiguous, as described below. Any subsequent teacher who spread the Christian message to a people, country, or nation, may also have been recognized as an apostle to that people. The commissioning of the Twelve Apostles during the ministry of Jesus is recorded in the Synoptic Gospels. After his resurrection, Jesus sent eleven of them (minus Judas Iscariot) by the Great Commission to spread his teachings to all nations, referred to as the Dispersion of the Apostles. There is also an Eastern Christian tradition derived from the Gospel of Luke of Seventy Apostles. The period of Early Christianity during the lifetimes of the apostles is called the Apostolic Age. In the 2nd century, association with the apostles was esteemed as evidence of authority and such churches are known as Apostolic Sees.
Synoptic Gospels The calming of the storm is similarly recounted in each of the three synoptic gospels, but not in John. The gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are referred to as the Synoptic Gospels because they include many of the same stories, often in a similar sequence and in similar wording. They stand in contrast to John, whose content is comparatively distinct. This strong parallelism among the three gospels in content, arrangement, and specific language is widely attributed to literary interdependence. The question of the precise nature of their literary relationship—the "synoptic problem"—has been a topic of lively debate for centuries and has been described as "the most fascinating literary enigma of all time". Structure Almost all of Mark's content is found in Matthew, and much of Mark is similarly found in Luke. Common features In content and in wording, though, the synoptics diverge widely from John but have a great deal in common with each other. The triple tradition
Bible History & Archaeology Published by the Biblical Archaeology Society | Biblical Archaeology Review The Four Gospels The Four Gospels may refer to: Canonical gospels, the four Christian gospels included in the New Testament Four Gospels of Ivan Alexander, a 14th-century illuminated manuscript prepared and illustrated during the rule of Tsar Ivan AlexanderVani Four Gospels, a 12th to 14th-century illuminated manuscript of the gospels in the Georgian Nuskhuri scriptЧетвероевангеліе (The Four Gospels), a manuscript of the canonical Gospels printed by Pyotr Mstislavets in 1574–1575The Four Gospels: A Study of Origins, a 1924 book of biblical scholarship by Burnett Hillman StreeterGospel harmony, attempts to compile the canonical gospels into a single accountFour Evangelists, the authors of the canonical gospels
Psychology and Alchemy Psychology and Alchemy is Volume 12 in The Collected Works of C. G. Jung, a series of books published by Princeton University Press in the U.S. and Routledge & Kegan Paul in the U.K. It is study of the analogies between alchemy, Christian dogma, and psychological symbolism. Detailed abstracts of each chapter are available online. Overview In this book, Jung argues for a reevaluation of the symbolism of Alchemy as being intimately related to the psychoanalytical process. In drawing these parallels Jung reinforces the universal nature of his theory of the archetype and makes an impassioned argument for the importance of spirituality in the psychic health of the modern man. Also interesting about this book is that patient whose dreams are being analyzed in the second section is the physicist Wolfgang Pauli, who would go on to collaborate with Jung on such ideas as the acausal connection principle of synchronicity. Content Part I. Part II. Chapter 1 - Introduction