Gospel of Mark The Gospel According to Mark (Greek: τὸ κατὰ Μᾶρκον εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Markon euangelion), the second book of the New Testament, is one of the four canonical gospels and the three synoptic gospels. It was traditionally thought to be an epitome (summary) of Matthew, which accounts for its place as the second gospel in the Bible, but most contemporary scholars now regard it as the earliest of the gospels. Most modern scholars reject the tradition which ascribes it to Mark the Evangelist, the companion of Peter, and regard it as the work of an unknown author working with various sources including collections of miracle stories, controversy stories, parables, and a passion narrative. Composition and setting Composition The two-source hypothesis: Most scholars agree that Mark was the first of the gospels to be composed, and that the authors of Matthew and Luke used it plus a second document called the Q source when composing their own gospels. Setting Structure 1.
Gospel of John The Gospel of John (also referred to as the Gospel According to John, the Fourth Gospel, or simply John) is one of the four canonical gospels in the Christian Bible. In the New Testament it traditionally appears fourth, after the synoptic gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke. John begins with the witness and affirmation of John the Baptist and concludes with the death, burial, resurrection, and post-resurrection appearances of Jesus. Chapter 21 states that the book derives from the testimony of the "disciple whom Jesus loved" and early church tradition identified him as John the Apostle, one of Jesus' Twelve Apostles. The gospel is closely related in style and content to the three surviving Epistles of John such that commentators treat the four books, along with the Book of Revelation, as a single body of Johannine literature. According to most modern scholars, however, the apostle John was not the author of any of these books. Raymond E. Composition Authorship Sources
The Corinthians in Corinthians Figure Analysis The Corinthians sure get lots of screen time in the Bible, but just who were they? And why does Paul spend so much time writing letters to their little neck of the woods? The Corinth of Old Ancient Corinth was a lovely little town, which was located in the southern part of Greece on the Isthmus of Corinth. The city was surrounded by water and was snuggled up about halfway between Athens and Sparta. See, Corinth was pretty cosmopolitan at the time (for a place that didn't have flushing toilets, that is): Corinth was home to major seaports, which meant its exports of bronze and terra cotta always sold well.It was a major manufacturing and commercial hub of the ancient world. Paul's Arrival in Greece So Paul hits Corinth and establishes a church pretty quickly. Not quite. Sin's Really Got a Hold on Them The Corinthians get a bad wrap for being a bunch of ancient sinners and sex freaks. What terrible, awful, no good Christians! Were They Really That Bad? Head of the Social Class
Gospel of Matthew The Gospel According to Matthew (Greek: κατὰ Ματθαῖον εὐαγγέλιον, kata Matthaion euangelion, τὸ εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ματθαῖον, to euangelion kata Matthaion) (Gospel of Matthew or simply Matthew) is one of the four canonical gospels, one of the three synoptic gospels, and the first book of the New Testament. The narrative tells how the Messiah, Jesus, rejected by Israel, finally sends the disciples to preach his Gospel to the whole world. The Gospel of Matthew is generally believed to have been composed between 70 and 110, with most scholars preferring the period 80–90; a pre-70 date remains a minority view, but has been strongly supported. The anonymous author was probably a highly educated Jew, intimately familiar with the technical aspects of Jewish law, and the disciple Matthew was probably honored within his circle. Composition and setting Evangelist Mathäus und der Engel by Rembrandt Composition Setting Structure and content Structure Theology
First Council of Nicaea The First Council of Nicaea (/naɪ'si:ə/; Greek: Νίκαια /'ni:kaɪja/ Turkish: Iznik) was a council of Christian bishops convened in Nicaea in Bithynia by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325. This first ecumenical council was the first effort to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom. Its main accomplishments were settlement of the Christological issue of the nature of the Son of God and his relationship to God the Father, the construction of the first part of the Creed of Nicaea, establishing uniform observance of the date of Easter, and promulgation of early canon law. Overview Eastern Orthodox icon depicting the First Council of Nicaea The First Council of Nicaea was the first ecumenical council of the Church. Another result of the council was an agreement on when to celebrate Easter, the most important feast of the ecclesiastical calendar, decreed in an epistle to the Church of Alexandria in which is simply stated:
Marcan priority According to the hypothesis of Markan priority, the Gospel of Mark was written first and then used as a source for the Gospels of Matthew and Luke. Markan priority is the hypothesis that the Gospel of Mark was the first-written of the three Synoptic Gospels and was used as a source by the other two, Matthew and Luke. This hypothesis is a central one in discussion of the Synoptic Problem, the question of the documentary relationship among these three Gospels. Markan priority has been accepted by most scholars since the late nineteenth century and forms the foundation for the widely accepted two-source theory, although a number of scholars support different forms of Markan priority or reject it altogether. History Gottlob Christian Storr. The tradition handed down by the Church Fathers regarded Matthew as the first Gospel written. There was much debate at the time over whether Matthew and Luke used Mark itself or some Proto-Mark (Ur-Mark). In 1899 J. Dependent theories
Has the Childhood Home of Jesus Been Found? This very well could be the childhood home of Jesus. It doesn’t look inviting, but this rock-hewn courtyard house was quite likely Jesus’ home in Nazareth. The recent excavation by Ken Dark and the Nazareth Archaeological Project revealed good evidence to suggest this is where Jesus was raised. Photo: Ken Dark. The childhood home of Jesus may have been found underneath the Sisters of Nazareth Convent in Nazareth, Israel, according to archaeologist Ken Dark. The excavation site located beneath the convent has been known since 1880, but it was never professionally excavated until the Nazareth Archaeological Project began its work in 2006. The excavation revealed a first-century “courtyard house” that was partially hewn from naturally occurring rock and partially constructed with rock-built walls. The Galilee is one of the most evocative locales in the New Testament—the area where Jesus was raised and where many of the Apostles came from. Not a BAS Library member yet? Philip J. Eric M.
Acts of the Apostles The Acts of the Apostles (Ancient Greek: Πράξεις τῶν Ἀποστόλων, Práxeis tôn Apostólōn; Latin: Āctūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament; Acts outlines the history of the Apostolic Age. It is almost universally agreed that the author of Acts also wrote the Gospel of Luke. The author is traditionally identified as Luke the Evangelist; see Authorship of Luke–Acts for details. Composition While the precise identity of the author is debated, the consensus is that this work was composed by a (Koine) Greek-speaking Gentile writing for an audience of Gentile Christians. The Early Church Fathers wrote that Luke was a physician in Antioch and an adherent of the Apostle Paul. Title The title "Acts of the Apostles" (Greek Πράξεις ἀποστόλων Praxeis Apostolon) was not part of the original text. Genre "Acts" is a recognized genre in the ancient world, "characterizing books that described great deeds of people or of cities Sources
Bible History & Archaeology Published by the Biblical Archaeology Society | Biblical Archaeology Review Synoptic Gospels The calming of the storm is similarly recounted in each of the three synoptic gospels, but not in John. The gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are referred to as the Synoptic Gospels because they include many of the same stories, often in a similar sequence and in similar wording. They stand in contrast to John, whose content is comparatively distinct. This strong parallelism among the three gospels in content, arrangement, and specific language is widely attributed to literary interdependence. The question of the precise nature of their literary relationship—the "synoptic problem"—has been a topic of lively debate for centuries and has been described as "the most fascinating literary enigma of all time". Structure Almost all of Mark's content is found in Matthew, and much of Mark is similarly found in Luke. Common features In content and in wording, though, the synoptics diverge widely from John but have a great deal in common with each other. The triple tradition
How Was Jesus’ Tomb Sealed? “Early on the first day of the week, while it was still dark, Mary Magdalene came to the tomb and saw that the stone had been removed from the tomb.”—John 20:1, NRSV How was Jesus’ tomb sealed? While some Jerusalem tombs from the late Second Temple period boasted round (disk-shaped) rolling stones, it was more common to seal tombs with cork-shaped stones, such as the one pictured here. The archaeological evidence suggests that the tomb of Jesus—the unused tomb of Joseph of Arimathea—would have been sealed with a cork-shaped stone. Photo: Tom Powers. What kind of stone sealed the tomb of Jesus? In fact, of the more than 900 Second Temple-period burial caves around Jerusalem examined by archaeologist Amos Kloner, only four have been discovered with disk-shaped blocking stones. Was the tomb of Jesus among the “top four” Jerusalem tombs from the Second Temple period? Archaeology therefore suggests that the tomb of Jesus would have had a cork-shaped blocking stone. R.
Pauline epistles The Letters of Paul, are the thirteen New Testament books which have the name Paul (Παῦλος) as the first word, claiming authorship by Paul the Apostle. Among these letters are some of the earliest extant Christian documents. They provide an insight into the beliefs and controversies of early Christianity and, as part of the canon of the New Testament, they have also been, and continue to be, foundational to Christian theology and Christian ethics. The Epistle to the Hebrews, although it does not bear his name, was traditionally considered Pauline for a thousand years, but from the 16th century onwards opinion steadily moved against Pauline authorship and few scholars now ascribe it to Paul. The Pauline epistles are usually placed between the Book of Acts and the General epistles. Order In the order they appear in the New Testament, the Pauline epistles are: Formerly, in many manuscripts of the New Testament, the Epistle to the Hebrews was located with the Pauline epistles: