Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois The Church of Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois is situated at 2, Place du Louvre, Paris 75001; the nearest Métro station is Louvre-Rivoli. Alexandre Boëly was organist at this church from 1840 to 1851. History Founded in the 7th century, the church was rebuilt many times over several centuries. During the Wars of Religion, its bell called "Marie" sounded on the night of 23 August 1572, marking the beginning of the St. Panorama of the church of Saint-Germain l'Auxerrois and the Place du Louvre. Gallery Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois by Claude Monet in 1867. References External links Media related to Église Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois de Paris at Wikimedia Commons Coordinates:
Bruges Bruges (/ˈbruːʒ/ in English; Dutch: Brugge, [ˈbrʏɣ̟ə], French: Bruges, [ˈbʁyːʒ], German: Brügge, [ˈbrʏɡə]) is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium. It is located in the northwest of the country. The area of the whole city amounts to more than 13,840 hectares, including 1,075 hectares off the coast, at Zeebrugge (from Brugge aan zee meaning "Bruges on Sea"). Along with a few other canal-based northern cities, such as Amsterdam, it is sometimes referred to as "The Venice of the North". Origin of the name The place is first mentioned in records as Bruggas, Brvggas, Brvccia in 840–875, then as Bruciam, Bruociam (in 892), Brutgis uico (toward end of the 9th century), in portu Bruggensi (c. 1010), Bruggis (1012), Bricge (1037, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle), Brugensis (1046), Brycge (1049 - 1052, again in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle), Brugias (1072), Bruges (1080–1085), Bruggas (c. 1084), Brugis (1089), and Brugge (1116).
St. Bartholomew's Day massacre The St. Bartholomew's Day massacre (Massacre de la Saint-Barthélemy in French) in 1572 was a targeted group of assassinations, followed by a wave of Roman Catholic mob violence, both directed against the Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants), during the French Wars of Religion. Traditionally believed to have been instigated by Catherine de' Medici, the mother of King Charles IX, the massacre took place five days after the wedding of the king's sister Margaret to the Protestant Henry III of Navarre (the future Henry IV of France). The massacre began in the night of 23-24 August 1572 (the eve of the feast of Bartholomew the Apostle), two days after the attempted assassination of Admiral Gaspard de Coligny, the military and political leader of the Huguenots. The massacre also marked a turning point in the French Wars of Religion. Background The Massacre of Saint Bartholomew's Day was the culmination of a series of events: An unacceptable peace and an unacceptable marriage
Ghent Ghent (/ˈɡɛnt/; Dutch: Gent, pronounced [ɣ̟ɛn̪t̪]; French: Gand, pronounced: [ɡɑ̃]) is a city and a municipality located in the Flemish region of Belgium. It is the capital and largest city of the East Flanders province. The city started as a settlement at the confluence of the Rivers Scheldt and Lys and in the Middle Ages became one of the largest and richest cities of northern Europe. Shortly after 1500 AD the city were home to 175,000 people. Today it is a busy city with a port and a university. The ten-day-long "Ghent Festival" (Gentse Feesten in Dutch) is held every year. About two million visitors attend. History Ghent in 1775 When the Franks invaded the Roman territories (from the end of the 4th century and well into the 5th century) they brought their language with them and Celtic and Latin were replaced by Old Dutch. Middle Ages Around 650, Saint Amand founded two abbeys in Ghent: the Saint Peter Abbey (nl) (Blandinium) and the Saint Bavo Abbey (nl). Geography
Huguenot The Huguenots (/ˈhjuːɡənɒt/ or /huːɡəˈnoʊ/; French: [yɡno], [yɡəno]) were members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France during the 16th and 17th centuries. French Protestants were inspired by the writings of John Calvin in the 1530s, and they were called Huguenots by the 16th century. By the end of the 17th century and into the 18th century, roughly 500,000 Huguenots had fled France during a series of religious persecutions. They relocated to Protestant nations, such as England, Wales, Scotland, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, the Dutch Republic, the Electorate of Brandenburg, Electorate of the Palatinate (both in the Holy Roman Empire), the Duchy of Prussia, the Channel Islands and also to Cape Colony in South Africa and several of the English colonies of North America which were willing to accept them. Etymology A term used originally in derision, Huguenot has indefinite origins. A version of this complex hypothesis is promoted by O.I.A. Early history and beliefs St.
Madonna of Bruges The Madonna of Bruges is a marble sculpture by Michelangelo of Mary with the infant Jesus. Michelangelo's depiction of the Madonna and Child differs significantly from earlier representations of the same subject, which tended to feature a pious Virgin smiling down on an infant held in her arms. Instead, Jesus stands upright, almost unsupported, only loosely restrained by Mary's right hand, and appears to be about to step away from his mother and into the world. Meanwhile, Mary does not cling to her son or even look at him, but gazes down and away, as if she knows already what is to be her son's fate. It is believed the work was originally intended for an altar piece. If this is so, then it would have been displayed facing slightly to the right and looking down. The work is also notable in that it was the only sculpture by Michelangelo to leave Italy during his lifetime. The sculpture was removed twice from Belgium after its initial arrival. See also Roman Catholic Marian art
French Wars of Religion The exact number of wars and their respective dates are the subject of continued debate by historians; some assert that the Edict of Nantes in 1598 concluded the wars, although a resurgence of rebellious activity following this leads some to believe the Peace of Alais in 1629 is the actual conclusion. However, the Massacre of Vassy in 1562 is agreed to begin the Wars of Religion and the Edict of Nantes at least ended this series of conflicts. During this time, complex diplomatic negotiations and agreements of peace were followed by renewed conflict and power struggles. At the conclusion of the conflict in 1598, Huguenots were granted substantial rights and freedoms by the Edict of Nantes, though it did not end hostility towards them. Background Growth of Calvinism After an initial period of tolerance, Francis I started the repression against Protestants. Affair of the Placards Massacre of Mérindol The Massacre of Mérindol took place in 1545. Rise of factionism
Amsterdam Amsterdam (English /ˈæmstərdæm/; Dutch: [ˌʔɑmstərˈdɑm]) is the capital city and most populous city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Its status as the Dutch capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands though it is not the seat of the Dutch government, which is The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 813,562 within the city proper, 1,112,165 in the urban region and 1,575,263 in the greater metropolitan area. The city region has a population of 2,332,773. The city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country. It comprises much of the northern part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe, with a population of approximately 7 million. Amsterdam's name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the city's origin as a dam of the river Amstel. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city center. §History §Etymology A woodcut depicting Amsterdam as of 1544.
Ancien Régime Much of the medieval political centralization of France had been lost in the Hundred Years' War, and the Valois Dynasty's attempts at re-establishing control over the scattered political centres of the country were hindered by the Wars of Religion. Much of the reigns of Henry IV, Louis XIII and the early years of Louis XIV were focused on administrative centralisation. Despite, however, the notion of "absolute monarchy" (typified by the king's right to issue lettres de cachet) and the efforts by the kings to create a centralized state, Ancien Régime France remained a country of systemic irregularities: administrative (including taxation), legal, judicial, and ecclesiastic divisions and prerogatives frequently overlapped, while the French nobility struggled to maintain their own rights in the matters of local government and justice, and powerful internal conflicts (like the Fronde) protested against this centralization. Terminology Provinces and administrative divisions
Utrecht Utrecht (/ˈjuːtrɛkt/; Dutch pronunciation: [ˈytrɛxt] ( Utrecht is host to Utrecht University, the largest university of the Netherlands, as well as several other institutes for higher education. Due to its central position within the country, it is an important transport hub for both rail and road transport. It has the second highest number of cultural events in the Netherlands, after Amsterdam. History Origins (until 650) Many of the features in Blaeu's 1652 map of Utrecht can still be recognised in the city center In Roman times, the name of the Utrecht fortress was simply Traiectum denoting its location at a possibility to cross the Rhine. From the middle of the 3rd century Germanic tribes regularly invaded the Roman territories. Centre of Christianity in the Netherlands (650–1579) The Dom tower, with to the left behind it the remaining section of the Dom church. By the mid-7th century, English and Irish missionaries set out to convert the Frisians. Geography