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HowtoForge - Linux Howtos and Tutorials

InstallingANewHardDrive While it's not every day that you need to add a new hard drive to your computer, the task does not have to be complicated. Use this guide to help you install a new hard drive with an existing Ubuntu system, and partition it for use. Before beginning, you need to consider for what you will be using the hard drive. Will the drive be used only with Ubuntu? Will the drive need to be accessible from both Ubuntu and Windows? This guide goes over procedures for a single partition drive install only. A Note about File Systems: Drives that are going to be used only under Ubuntu should be formatted using the ext3/ext4 file system (depending on which version of Ubuntu you use and whether you need Linux backwards compatibility). We assume that the hard drive is physically installed and detected by the BIOS. To determine the path that your system has assigned to the new hard drive, open a terminal and run: sudo lshw -C disk This should produce output similar to this sample: Partitioning Using GParted

SoftwareFromOtherOperatingSystems Discuss this page Consider if you really need to run that software: in most cases, its functionality is provided by a free Linux program, see SoftwareEquivalents. You can run applications created for other Operating Systems inside Ubuntu using two different approaches: Running a complete operating system inside a virtual machine container. Using the free Wine to run applications directly Using the commercial Crossover to run applications directly Virtual machines have the advantage of providing full compatibility, however Wine offers more performance and the ability to render 3D graphics. Seamless Virtualization shows how to make applications from virtualized Windows OS appear directly on the Ubuntu desktop. Playing Windows Games 3D games will generally not work in virtual machines, however many work in Wine or Crossover Games. Some Windows games have a Linux installer included on the installation CD, such as Unreal Tournament 2003 and 2004. Wine AppDB Switch to Windows shortcut default saved

Ubuntu LAMP Server Installation With Screenshots -- Debian Admin Automatic LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL and PHP) In about 15 minutes, the time it takes to install Ubuntu Server Edition, you can have a LAMP server up and ready to go. This feature, exclusive to Ubuntu Server Edition, is available at the time of installation. The LAMP option saves the trouble of installing and integrating each of the four separate LAMP components, a process which can take hours and requires someone who is skilled in the installation and configuration of the individual applications. You get increased security, reduced time to install, and reduced risk of misconfiguration, all of which results in a lower cost of ownership. Ubuntu LAMP server Install the following Versions Ubuntu Dapper drake 6.06 Apache2 Mysql5 PHP5 Choose you language and press enter you can see we have selected english in the follwoing screen Choose your location and press enter you can see we have have selected United Kingdom in the follwoing screen Select keyboard layout and press enter sudo passwd root su

SwitchingToUbuntu/FromWindows This community-written page discusses practical differences between Windows and Ubuntu. Installing Programs Windows software comes in .exe files, which you are expected to get from the web or from a store. See the software installation guide for instructions on how to install new programs. In the same way that Windows only runs software designed for Windows, applications must be made for Linux to be able to run on Ubuntu. Firewalls and Antivirus Software Ubuntu's main firewall program is called ufw (click here to install gufw). The Terminal Linux includes a text-based interface like cmd.exe, called the Terminal. Task Manager Ubuntu's System Monitor is the closest equivalent to the Task Manager in Windows. Where To Put Your Files Linux doesn't use drive letters, so there's no C: drive and no D: drive. Safely Removing Drives When you are finished with a removable drive, right click on the drive's desktop icon and select Unmount volume or Eject, depending on what type of drive it is. Dual-Boot Wubi

Webmin Installation and Configuration in Debian and Ubuntu Linux -- Debian Admin Webmin is a web-based interface for system administration for Unix. Using any browser that supports tables and forms (and Java for the File Manager module), you can setup user accounts, Apache, DNS, file sharing and so on. Webmin consists of a simple web server, and a number of CGI programs which directly update system files like /etc/inetd.conf and /etc/passwd. The web server and all CGI programs are written in Perl version 5, and use no non-standard Perl modules. Installing Webmin in Debian #apt-get install webmin webmin-core After the installation If you want to access webmin from any machine in your network edit the /etc/webmin/ miniserv.conf file change the “allow” option allow= to allow= If you want to restrict webmin for only your network you can do in this allow option Once you change this and save your file and restart the webmin using following command #/etc/init.d/webmin restart If you ou need any webmin modules for your applications you can download from here

FilePermissions Understanding and Using File Permissions In Linux and Unix, everything is a file. Directories are files, files are files and devices are files. Devices are usually referred to as a node; however, they are still files. All of the files on a system have permissions that allow or prevent others from viewing, modifying or executing. To change or edit files that are owned by root, sudo must be used - please see RootSudo for details. If the owner read & execute bit are on, then the permissions are: -r-x------ There are three types of access restrictions: There are also three types of user restrictions: Note: The restriction type scope is not inheritable: the file owner will be unaffected by restrictions set for his group or everybody else. Folder/Directory Permissions Directories have directory permissions. read restricts or allows viewing the directories contents, i.e. ls command write restricts or allows creating new files or deleting files in the directory. Permissions in Action chmod with Letters

Using The Terminal "Under Linux there are GUIs (graphical user interfaces), where you can point and click and drag, and hopefully get work done without first reading lots of documentation. The traditional Unix environment is a CLI (command line interface), where you type commands to tell the computer what to do. That is faster and more powerful, but requires finding out what the commands are." -- from man intro(1) There are many varieties of Linux, but almost all of them use similar commands that can be entered from a command-line interface terminal. There are also many graphical user interfaces (GUIs), but each of them works differently and there is little standardization between them. For the novice, commands-line interface commands can appear daunting: sudo gobbledegook blah_blah -w -t -h --long-switch aWkward/ComBinationOf/mixedCase/underscores_strokes/and.dots This page will outline a few crafty shortcuts which can make using a command-line interface easier. In Unity Dash -> Search for Terminal In Gnome .

KDE and Gnome Comparison This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. DisclaimersDefault LookMenu NavigationRenaming FilesFile Browser PreferencesSystem PreferencesMore OptionsChangesPanel OptionsSummaryMore Resources Disclaimers This is not, by any means a comprehensive look at the differences between KDE Plasma and Unity Gnome, but it should give new users a small taste of the two desktop environments' different strengths and weaknesses and their philosophical approaches to usability. The focus is particularly on Ubuntu and Kubuntu, but aspects of this comparison can apply to other Linux distributions as well. Default Look When you look at the default setup of Unity Gnome and KDE Plasma in Ubuntu, their differences are mainly cosmetic. KDE by default (this can be changed) favors blue and grey, has one toolbar at the bottom of the screen, and has one main menu. You should not select your desktop environment based on its default color. Menu Navigation Renaming Files

BIND9ServerHowto Note: There are some issues with this Howto, too numerable to fix quickly, and it requires bringing up to standard. I'm mentioning this to help anyone to avoid the unnecessary time trying to resolve their DNS, owing the the inconsistencies in this document, particularly if you're new to DNS configuration. One example is here... box IN A ... in all other places, the document uses the machine name example ns. Domain Name Service (DNS) is an Internet service that maps IP addresses and fully qualified domain names (FQDN) to one another. This guide is aimed at people looking to learn how to configure and maintain a DNS server, such as for a network (caching name server) or to serve DNS zones for a domain name. BIND9 is available in the Main repository. Before we begin, you should be familiar with RootSudo. To install the server simply install the bind9 package. A very useful package for testing and troubleshooting DNS issues is the dnsutils package. Caching Server Hybrids /etc/bind/