Ancient Greece 'British Archaeology' home page Ancient Egypt Online Ancient Egyptian scripts (hieroglyphs, hieratic and demotic) Origins of Egyptian Hieroglyphs The ancient Egyptians believed that writing was invented by the god Thoth and called their hieroglyphic script "mdju netjer" ("words of the gods"). The word hieroglyph comes from the Greek hieros (sacred) plus glypho (inscriptions) and was first used by Clement of Alexandria. The earliest known examples of writing in Egypt have been dated to 3,400 BC. The hieroglyphic script was used mainly for formal inscriptions on the walls of temples and tombs. After the Emperor Theodsius I ordered the closure of all pagan temples throughout the Roman empire in the late 4th century AD, knowledge of the hieroglyphic script was lost. decipher the script. Decipherment Many people have attempted to decipher the Egyptian scripts since the 5th century AD, when Horapollo provided explanations of nearly two hundred glyphs, some of which were correct. Notable features Used to write: Egyptian, an Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Egypt until about the 10th century AD. Determinatives
Papers of George Washington | the complete correspondence Cartographies of Time: A Visual History of the Timeline by Maria Popova A chronology of one of our most inescapable metaphors, or what Macbeth has to do with Galileo. I was recently asked to select my all-time favorite books for the lovely Ideal Bookshelf project by The Paris Review’s Thessaly la Force and artist Jane Mount. Despite the near-impossible task of shrinking my boundless bibliophilia to a modest list of dozen or so titles, I was eventually able to do it, and the selection included Cartographies of Time: A History of the Timeline (public library | IndieBound) by Daniel Rosenberg and Anthony Grafton — among both my 7 favorite books on maps and my 7 favorite books on time, this lavish collection of illustrated timelines traces the history of graphic representations of time in Europe and the United States from 1450 to the present, featuring everything from medieval manuscripts to websites to a chronological board game developed by Mark Twain. The first chapter, Time in Print, begins with a context for these images: Donating = Loving
Marcus Aurelius Marcus Aurelius (/ɔːˈriːliəs/; Latin: Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus; 26 April 121 – 17 March 180 AD), called the Philosopher, was Roman emperor from 161 to 180. He was adopted by Antoninus Pius, whose daughter Faustina he married and whom he and his adoptive brother, Lucius Verus, succeeded. He ruled the Roman Empire with Lucius until Lucius' death in 169, and with his son by Faustina, Commodus, from 177. He was the last of the rulers traditionally known as the Five Good Emperors. He was a practitioner of Stoicism, and his personal philosophical writings, which later came to be called Meditations, are a significant source of the modern understanding of ancient Stoic philosophy. During his reign, the Empire defeated a revitalized Parthian Empire in the East; Marcus' general Avidius Cassius sacked the Parthian capital Ctesiphon in 164. Sources The major sources depicting the life and rule of Marcus are patchy and frequently unreliable. Early life and career Name ...
40 Maps That Will Help You Make Sense of the World If you’re a visual learner like myself, then you know maps, charts and infographics can really help bring data and information to life. Maps can make a point resonate with readers and this collection aims to do just that. Hopefully some of these maps will surprise you and you’ll learn something new. A few are important to know, some interpret and display data in a beautiful or creative way, and a few may even make you chuckle or shake your head. If you enjoy this collection of maps, the Sifter highly recommends the r/MapPorn sub reddit. You should also check out ChartsBin.com. 1. 2. 3. 4. Pangea was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras, forming about 300 million years ago. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 37. 38. 39. 40. *Bonus* World Map Tattoo with Countries Visited Coloured
free archive The Royal Society continues to support scientific discovery by allowing free access to more than 250 years of leading research. From October 2011, our world-famous journal archive - comprising more than 69,000 articles - will be opened up and all articles more than 70 years old will be made permanently free to access. The Royal Society is the world's oldest scientific publisher and, as such, our archive is the most comprehensive in science. Treasures in the archive include Isaac Newton's first published scientific paper, geological work by a young Charles Darwin, and Benjamin Franklin's celebrated account of his electrical kite experiment. The archive also includes all articles from Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, first published in 1665 and officially recognised as the world's first ever peer-reviewed journal.
Frances Perkins, 'The Woman Behind the New Deal' American History The Battle of Bannockburn On 23 and 24 June 1314, Robert the Bruce faced King Edward II at Bannockburn, near Stirling. The Scots army was outnumbered almost three to one. Edward had more than 2000 battle-hardened knights to Bruce’s 500 horsemen. A mere 6000 Scots foot soldiers faced Edward’s force of 16,000 infantry. It was the first time since Falkirk that an English king had led his army in battle in Scotland. Bruce had lost almost everything. The Scots carefully chose their ground at Bannockburn. The first day of the battle was a Sunday and the Scots heard Mass before they took up arms. An English knight, Henry de Bohun, saw the Scots king and turned his war-horse to charge. The next morning the Scots rose and prepared for battle. Bruce ordered the Scots to push forward and a forest of spears sent Edward’s army crashing back upon itself. King Edward II fled the field. At the end of two bloody days of fighting thousands lay dead or dying on the battlefield.
Lascaux La découverte de Lascaux en 1940 a ouvert une nouvelle page dans la connaissance de l’art préhistorique et de nos origines. Œuvre monumentale, la grotte continue de nourrir l’imaginaire collectif et d’émouvoir les nouvelles générations du monde entier. C’est à ce haut lieu de la Préhistoire qu’est dédiée la nouvelle publication multimédia du ministère de la Culture et de la Communication, publication qui réactualise autant la forme que le contenu scientifique de ce site mis en ligne en 1998, à la lumière des dernières avancées de la recherche archéologique. Au delà de l’émotion et à la lumière des recherches les plus récentes, le site internet est destiné à faire comprendre les secrets des artistes qui ont peint et gravé le bestiaire de Lascaux il y a 19000 ans et à présenter les orientations actuelles de la recherche scientifique sur les grottes ornées. Vache rouge à tête noire. Haut de page
EyeWitness To The Middle Ages and Renaissance Life in a Christian Monastery, ca. 585"When he was dead his body was not placed with the bodies of the brethren, but a grave was dug in the dung pit, and his body was flung down into it. . . " Crime and punishment in a medieval monastery: the monastery's Abbott provides insight into the monastic life. The Vikings Discover America, ca. 1000"There was no want of salmon either in the river or in the lake." Five hundred years before Columbus, the Vikings discover a New World. Invasion of England, 1066The Norman conquest of Anglo-Saxon England described through the images of the 900 year-old Bayeux Tapestry. Anarchy in 12th Century EnglandThe Anglo-Saxon Chronicle paints a sobering picture of life in 12th century England that contrasts strikingly with Hollywood's image of the Middle Ages. The Murder Of Thomas Becket, 1170The killing of the Archbishop of Canterbury. The Crusaders Capture Jerusalem, 1099The assault and capture of the Christian "Navel of the World"