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The Story of Mathematics - Sumerian/Babylonian Mathematics

The Story of Mathematics - Sumerian/Babylonian Mathematics
Sumer (a region of Mesopotamia, modern-day Iraq) was the birthplace of writing, the wheel, agriculture, the arch, the plow, irrigation and many other innovations, and is often referred to as the Cradle of Civilization. The Sumerians developed the earliest known writing system - a pictographic writing system known as cuneiform script, using wedge-shaped characters inscribed on baked clay tablets - and this has meant that we actually have more knowledge of ancient Sumerian and Babylonian mathematics than of early Egyptian mathematics. Indeed, we even have what appear to school exercises in arithmetic and geometric problems. As in Egypt, Sumerian mathematics initially developed largely as a response to bureaucratic needs when their civilization settled and developed agriculture (possibly as early as the 6th millennium BCE) for the measurement of plots of land, the taxation of individuals, etc. in the Babylonian system represented 3,600 plus 60 plus 1, or 3,661. ) and a ten symbol ( ).

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Chronology for 30000BC to 500BC About 30000BC Palaeolithic peoples in central Europe and France record numbers on bones. About 25000BC Early geometric designs used. About 5000BC A decimal number system is in use in Egypt. About 4000BC Babylonian and Egyptian calendars in use. About 3400BC The first symbols for numbers, simple straight lines, are used in Egypt. About 3000BC The abacus is developed in the Middle East and in areas around the Mediterranean. 7 Skills To Become Super Smart People aren’t born smart. They become smart. And to become smart you need a well-defined set of skills. Here are some tips and resources for acquiring those skills. Memory If you can’t remember what you’re trying to learn, you’re not really learning.

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Egyptian Mathematics The early Egyptians settled along the fertile Nile valley as early as about 6000 BCE, and they began to record the patterns of lunar phases and the seasons, both for agricultural and religious reasons. The Pharaoh’s surveyors used measurements based on body parts (a palm was the width of the hand, a cubit the measurement from elbow to fingertips) to measure land and buildings very early in Egyptian history, and a decimal numeric system was developed based on our ten fingers. The oldest mathematical text from ancient Egypt discovered so far, though, is the Moscow Papyrus, which dates from the Egyptian Middle Kingdom around 2000 - 1800 BCE.

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Chinese Mathematics Even as mathematical developments in the ancient Greek world were beginning to falter during the final centuries BCE, the burgeoning trade empire of China was leading Chinese mathematics to ever greater heights. The simple but efficient ancient Chinese numbering system, which dates back to at least the 2nd millennium BCE, used small bamboo rods arranged to represent the numbers 1 to 9, which were then places in columns representing units, tens, hundreds, thousands, etc. It was therefore a decimal place value system, very similar to the one we use today - indeed it was the first such number system, adopted by the Chinese over a thousand years before it was adopted in the West - and it made even quite complex calculations very quick and easy. Written numbers, however, employed the slightly less efficient system of using a different symbol for tens, hundreds, thousands, etc.

List of mathematical symbols When reading the list, it is important to recognize that a mathematical concept is independent of the symbol chosen to represent it. For many of the symbols below, the symbol is usually synonymous with the corresponding concept (ultimately an arbitrary choice made as a result of the cumulative history of mathematics), but in some situations a different convention may be used. For example, depending on context, the triple bar "≡" may represent congruence or a definition. Further, in mathematical logic, numerical equality is sometimes represented by "≡" instead of "=", with the latter representing equality of well-formed formulas. Canadian Social Statistics - Statistiques sociales du Canada Updated April 13, 2014 Page révisée le 13 avril 2014 [ Go to Canadian Social Research Links Home Page ] And another one gone And another one gone, Another one bites the dust. [Source : Queen] Statistics Canada's world-class data collection has been trimmed, again. February 24, 2014 By Gilles: As a result of the 2012 federal budget cuts, there are now 2,000+ fewer workers at StatCan [ ] --- out of a workforce of about 5,000.

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