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Science in the medieval Islamic world

Science in the medieval Islamic world
Science in the medieval Islamic world (also known, less accurately, as Islamic science or Arabic science) is the science developed and practised in the Islamic world during the Islamic Golden Age(c. 750 CE – c. 1258 CE). During this time, Indian, Asyriac, Iranian and Greek knowledge was translated into Arabic. These translations became a wellspring for scientific advances, by scientists from the Islamic civilization, during the Middle Ages.[1] Scientists within the Islamic civilization were of diverse ethnicities. Most were Persians,[2][3][4][5] Arabs,[4] Moors, Assyrians, and Egyptians. They were also from diverse religious backgrounds. Science in the context of Islamic civilization[edit] The term Islam refers either to the religion of Islam or to the Islamic civilization that formed around it.[13] Islamic civilization is composed of many faiths and cultures, although the proportion of Muslims among its population has increased over time.[14] Illustration of medieval Islamic scholars

Related:  Islamic Empires 600-1900 AD

Qanat A qanāt (Persian: قنات, Arabic: قناة‎) is one of a series of well-like vertical shafts, connected by gently sloping tunnels. Qanāts create a reliable supply of water for human settlements and irrigation in hot, arid, and semi-arid climates. The qanat technology is known to have been developed by the Persian people sometime in the early 1st millennium BC and spread from there slowly westward and eastward.[1][2][3][4][5] The value of a qanat is directly related to the quality, volume, and regularity of the water flow. Byzantine science Byzantine science played an important role in the transmission of classical knowledge to the Islamic world and to Renaissance Italy, and also in the transmission of Arabic science to Renaissance Italy.[1] Its rich historiographical tradition preserved ancient knowledge upon which splendid art, architecture, literature and technological achievements were built. Classical and ecclesiastical studies[edit] Byzantine science was essentially classical science.[2] Therefore, Byzantine science was in every period closely connected with ancient-pagan philosophy, and metaphysics. Despite some opposition to pagan learning, many of the most distinguished classical scholars held high office in the Church. The most noteworthy oppositions include the closing of the Platonic Academy in 529, the obscurantism of Cosmas Indicopleustes, the condemnation of Ioannis Italos (1082) and of Georgios Plethon because of their devotion to ancient philosophy. Mathematics[edit]

Astronomy in medieval Islam Islamic astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (8th–15th centuries),[1] and mostly written in the Arabic language. These developments mostly took place in the Middle East, Central Asia, Al-Andalus, and North Africa, and later in the Far East and India. It closely parallels the genesis of other Islamic sciences in its assimilation of foreign material and the amalgamation of the disparate elements of that material to create a science with Islamic characteristics. These included Greek, Sassanid, and Indian works in particular, which were translated and built upon.[2] In turn, Islamic astronomy later had a significant influence on Byzantine[3] and European[4] astronomy (see Latin translations of the 12th century) as well as Chinese astronomy[5] and Malian astronomy.[6][7]

Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the focus of alchemical development moved to the Arab Empire and the Islamic civilization. Much more is known about Islamic alchemy as it was better documented; most of the earlier writings that have come down through the years were preserved as Arabic translations.[3] Origins[edit] Medieval Islamic alchemy was based on previous alchemical writers, firstly those writing in Greek, but also using Indian, Jewish, and Christian sources. According to Anawati, the alchemy practiced in Egypt around the second century BCE was a mixture of Hermetic or gnostic elements and Greek philosophy. Later, with Zosimos of Panopolis, alchemy acquired mystical and religious elements.[4]

The Legacy of Al-Andalus: Muslim Spain By Maryam Noor Beig Al-Andalus, which means, "to become green at the end of the summer" is referred to the territory occupied by the Muslim empire in Southern Spain, which refer to the cities of Almeria, Malaga, Cadiz, Huelva, Seville, Cordoba, Jaen and Granada. 1 This civilization spanned the eighth to the fifteenth century. In 711, Arabs crossed the Straight of Gibraltar (derived from 'Gabal Al-Tariq': 'Mountain of Tariq') and established control over much of the Iberian Peninsula. 2 Of the Arab conquest, Muslims called the area of the Iberian Peninsula they occupied, "Al-Andalus." This land called Al-Andalus, hence often called "Andalusia" had at one point included Portugal, Southern France, and the Balearic Islands. Within 3 years, in 714, Muslims had occupied almost all the peninsula. Muslims crossed to Sicily and established control there for 130 years, until Muslim rule fell in 1091 to the Normans.

Timeline of science and engineering in the Islamic world This timeline of science and engineering in the Islamic world covers the time period from the eighth century AD to the introduction of European science to the Islamic world in the ninteenth century. All year dates are given according to the Gregorian calendar except where noted. Eighth century[edit] 770–840 – Mathematics: Khwarizmi Developed the "calculus of resolution and juxtaposition" (hisab al-jabr w'al-muqabala), more briefly referred to as al-jabr, or algebra. Ninth century[edit] Tenth century[edit] Fatimid Caliphate The Fatimid Caliphate (Arabic: الفاطميون, al-Fāṭimiyyūn) was a Shia caliphate, which spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west. The dynasty ruled across the Mediterranean coast of Africa and ultimately made Egypt the centre of the caliphate. At its height, the caliphate included in addition to Egypt varying areas of the Maghreb, Sudan, Sicily, the Levant, and Hijaz.

Science in the Middle Ages The history of science is the study of the historical development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural sciences and social sciences. (The history of the arts and humanities is termed as the history of scholarship.) From the 18th century through late 20th century, the history of science, especially of the physical and biological sciences, was often presented in a progressive narrative in which true theories replaced false beliefs.[1] More recent historical interpretations, such as those of Thomas Kuhn, tend to portray the history of science in more nuanced terms, such as that of competing paradigms or conceptual systems in a wider matrix that includes intellectual, cultural, economic and political themes outside of science.[2]

Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah Abu ‘Ali Mansur Tāriqu l-Ḥākim , called Al-Hakim bi Amr al-Lāh ( Arabic : الحاكم بأمر الله ‎; literally "Ruler by God's Command"), was the third Fatimid caliph [ 1 ] and 16th Ismaili imam (996–1021). Al-Hakim is an important figure in a number of Shia Ismaili religions, such as the world's 15 million Nizaris and in particular the 2 million Druze of the Levant whose eponymous founder Ad-Darazi proclaimed him as the incarnation of God in 1018. In Western literature he has been referred to as the "Mad Caliph", primarily as a result of the Fatimid desecration of Jerusalem in 1009, though this title is disputed as stemming from partisan writings by some historians (such as Willi Frischauer and Heinz Halm). [ 2 ] [ 3 ] Histories of Al Hakim can prove controversial, [ 4 ] [ 5 ] as diverse views of his life and legacy exist.

Umar II Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (2 November 682 (26th Safar, 63 Hijri) – 31 January 720 (16th Rajab, 101 Hijri) [1] (Arabic: عمر بن عبد العزيز‎) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 717 to 720. He was also a cousin of the former caliph, being the son of Abd al-Malik's younger brother, Abd al-Aziz. He was also a female-line great-grandson of the second caliph Umar ibn Al-Khattab. Biography[edit] Sokoto Caliphate The Sokoto Caliphate is an Islamic spiritual community in Northern Nigeria, led by the Sultan of Sokoto (currently Sa'adu Abubakar). It was founded during the Fulani War in 1809 by Usman dan Fodio.[1] Throughout the 1800s, it was one of the largest and most powerful empires in sub-Saharan Africa until British conquest in 1903.[2] When the British took over the territory the political authority of the Caliphate was abolished and put under the Northern Nigeria Protectorate; however, the title of Sultan was retained and remains an important religious position for Muslims in the region to the current day.[2] Founding and expansion (1804-1903)[edit]