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Science in the medieval Islamic world

Science in the medieval Islamic world
Science in the medieval Islamic world (also known, less accurately, as Islamic science or Arabic science) is the science developed and practised in the Islamic world during the Islamic Golden Age(c. 750 CE – c. 1258 CE). During this time, Indian, Asyriac, Iranian and Greek knowledge was translated into Arabic. These translations became a wellspring for scientific advances, by scientists from the Islamic civilization, during the Middle Ages.[1] Scientists within the Islamic civilization were of diverse ethnicities. Most were Persians,[2][3][4][5] Arabs,[4] Moors, Assyrians, and Egyptians. They were also from diverse religious backgrounds. Science in the context of Islamic civilization[edit] The term Islam refers either to the religion of Islam or to the Islamic civilization that formed around it.[13] Islamic civilization is composed of many faiths and cultures, although the proportion of Muslims among its population has increased over time.[14] Illustration of medieval Islamic scholars

Alchemy and chemistry in medieval Islam After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the focus of alchemical development moved to the Arab Empire and the Islamic civilization. Much more is known about Islamic alchemy as it was better documented; most of the earlier writings that have come down through the years were preserved as Arabic translations.[3] Origins[edit] Medieval Islamic alchemy was based on previous alchemical writers, firstly those writing in Greek, but also using Indian, Jewish, and Christian sources. The sources of Islamic alchemy were transmitted to the Muslim world mainly in Egypt, especially in Alexandria, but also in the cities of Harran, Nisibin, and Edessa in western Mesopotamia.[5] Alchemists and works[edit] Khālid ibn Yazīd[edit] According to the bibliographer Ibn al-Nadīm, the first Muslim alchemist was Khālid ibn Yazīd, who is said to have studied alchemy under the Christian Marianos of Alexandria. Jābir ibn Ḥayyān[edit] 15th century European impression of "Geber" Abū Bakr al-Rāzī[edit] Ibn Umayl[edit]

Byzantine science Byzantine science played an important role in the transmission of classical knowledge to the Islamic world and to Renaissance Italy, and also in the transmission of Arabic science to Renaissance Italy.[1] Its rich historiographical tradition preserved ancient knowledge upon which splendid art, architecture, literature and technological achievements were built. Classical and ecclesiastical studies[edit] Byzantine science was essentially classical science.[2] Therefore, Byzantine science was in every period closely connected with ancient-pagan philosophy, and metaphysics. Mathematics[edit] Byzantine scientists preserved and continued the legacy of the great Ancient Greek mathematicians and put mathematics in practice. Medicine[edit] Medicine was one of the sciences in which the Byzantines improved on their Greco-Roman predecessors. Greek fire[edit] Greek fire was an incendiary weapon used by the Byzantine Empire. Byzantine and Islamic science[edit] Humanism and Renaissance[edit] See also[edit]

Timeline of science and engineering in the Islamic world This timeline of science and engineering in the Islamic world covers the time period from the eighth century AD to the introduction of European science to the Islamic world in the ninteenth century. All year dates are given according to the Gregorian calendar except where noted. Eighth century[edit] 770–840 – Mathematics: Khwarizmi Developed the "calculus of resolution and juxtaposition" (hisab al-jabr w'al-muqabala), more briefly referred to as al-jabr, or algebra. Ninth century[edit] Tenth century[edit] By this century, three systems of counting are used in the Arab world. Eleventh century[edit] 1044 or 1048–1123 Mathematics: Omar Al-Khayyam. Twelfth century[edit] 1100–1166 Cartography: Muhammad al-Idrissi, aka Idris al-Saqalli aka al-sharif al-idrissi of Andalusia and Sicily. Thirteenth century[edit] Fourteenth century[edit] 1380- Mathematics: al-Kashi. Fifteenth century[edit] Sixteenth century[edit] Seventeenth century[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] External links[edit] References[edit]

Science in the Middle Ages The history of science is the study of the historical development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural sciences and social sciences. (The history of the arts and humanities is termed as the history of scholarship.) From the 18th century through late 20th century, the history of science, especially of the physical and biological sciences, was often presented in a progressive narrative in which true theories replaced false beliefs.[1] More recent historical interpretations, such as those of Thomas Kuhn, tend to portray the history of science in more nuanced terms, such as that of competing paradigms or conceptual systems in a wider matrix that includes intellectual, cultural, economic and political themes outside of science.[2] Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by scientists who emphasize the observation, explanation, and prediction of real world phenomena. Early cultures[edit] and again:

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