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Working backward

Working backward
See Maurice Ashley's blog here. He's the international chess grandmaster, and his motto is, "Your passion is your window to the world." In chess, retrograde analysis is a computational method used to solve game positions for optimal play by working backward from known outcomes (e.g. checkmate), such as the construction of endgame tablebases. In game theory at large, this method is called backward induction. For most games, retrograde analysis is only feasible in late game situations of reduced complexity, such as a chess position where few pieces remain in play. Here is a list of requirements (the whole handbook, actually) for a chess grandmaster. Related:  Innovative Mindset for becoming an innovator

180-degree thinking/reversal Micheal Michalko calls it "reversal of assumptions." Tom Monahan calls it "180 Degree Thinking." Ultimately, it's about pushing your mind in the opposite direction to develop accidental or reverse directed brilliance. Professorial Stuff. Think of ideas as a see saw. On one end is all your conventional ideas. Now you work with the reversed assumption. Now you build upon the reversals. The company reversed their this to a policy that they would not only service the competitions machines, but would honor their service warranties as well. Is less more? What makes a hero? - Matthew Winkler The Hero Archetype in Literature, Religion, and Popular Culture: (along with a useful PowerPoint presentation teachers can download at this URL: ) Maricopa Center for Learning and Instruction (users embark on their own hero's journey): An American Masters Lesson from PBS for Teachers on George Lucas, the Power of Myth, and the Hero's Journey: And an interactive approach to the Hero's Journey: And of course, information about Joseph Campbell's works on the subject, on the Joseph Campbell Foundation site: The Hero With A Thousand Faces The Hero's Journey (semi-biographical film): Challenge the paradigm.

Os festivais mais legais para você conhecer pelo mundo Muitas pessoas defendem que viajar é o melhor jeito de gastar dinheiro. E que a boa viagem é aquela em que o objetivo principal não é fazer compras ou tirar fotos, mas sim conhecer outras pessoas e culturas. Uma boa oportunidade para experimentar novos lugares pode ser conhecer seus festivais. 1. Quando: Terça-feira de carnaval (em 2014, no dia 4 de março) Onde: New Orleans, EUA Por que ir: Pelas simbólicas ruas da cidade sulista passa essa espécie de carnaval com máscaras e colares de contas coloridas. 2. Quando: Última quarta-feira de agosto. Onde: Buñol, Espanha Por que ir: na década de 1940, alguns moradores da pequena cidade mediterrânea começaram a atirar frutas e verduras durante um desfile. 3. Quando: De 25 de agosto a 1º de setembro (em 2014) Onde: Black Rock City, EUA Por que ir: O evento de contracultura tem um caráter diferenciado dos demais. 4. Quando: Final de fevereiro até 14 de março (em 2014) Onde: Veneza, Itália 5. Quando: No primeiro dia de novembro.

Parallel thinking Parallel thinking is a term coined and implemented by Edward de Bono.[1][2] Parallel thinking is described as a constructive alternative to "adversarial thinking", debate and in general the approach the GG3 (Greek gang of three) has been known to advocate.[3] In general parallel thinking is a further development of the well known lateral thinking processes, focusing even more on explorations—looking for what can be rather than for what is. Definition[edit] Parallel thinking is defined as a thinking process where focus is split in specific directions. When done in a group it effectively avoids the consequences of the adversarial approach (as used in courts). In adversarial debate, the objective is to prove or disprove statements put forward by the parties (normally two). Crucial to the method is that the process is done in a disciplined manner, and that all participants play along and contribute in parallel. Implementations[edit] Six Thinking Hats[2] See also[edit] References[edit]

The most popular 20 TED Talks, as of now UPDATED: To see all these talks at one click, check out our updated Playlist: The 20 Most Popular Talks of All Time. As 2013 draws to a close, TED is deeply humbled to have posted 1600+ talks, each representing an idea worth spreading. So which ideas have had the most widespread impact? Below, a look at the 20 most-watched talks as of December 2013. These viewership numbers include all the platforms we track:, YouTube, iTunes, embed and download, Hulu and more. Some fascinating things to notice on this list, if you’d like to compare and contrast it to the most popular talks in 2012, and to the list we shared back in 2011: Amy Cuddy, Susan Cain, David Blaine and Pamela Meyer are all newcomers to the list, with Cuddy’s talk storming to spot #5 thanks to you sharing it. But what really makes this list so incredible is the fact that it spans so many areas of interest, from education to happiness, statistics to creativity, tech demos to illusions.

Pensée divergente Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. La pensée divergente est un processus ou une méthode de pensée utilisée pour produire des idées créatives en envisageant de nombreuses solutions possibles. Ce concept est souvent utilisé en conjonction avec la pensée convergente, qui suit un ensemble particulier d'étapes logiques pour parvenir à une solution qui, dans certains cas, est une solution « correcte ». La pensée divergente se produit en principe dans un cadre spontané et non dirigé, de façon à ce que de nombreuses idées soient générées d'une façon aléatoire et non organisée. Plusieurs solutions possibles sont envisagées dans un court laps de temps, et des possibilités inattendues se dessinent. Des psychologues ont prouvé qu'une personne seule, même dotée d'un QI élevé, ne garantit pas la créativité. Références[modifier | modifier le code] Articles connexes[modifier | modifier le code] Le concept de « pensée latérale » d'Edward de Bono Portail de la psychologie

Pensée convergente Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. La Pensée convergente est un terme inventé par Joy Paul Guilford en opposition à la pensée divergente[1]. En général, ce terme exprime la capacité à donner la réponse "correcte" à des questions standardisées qui ne requiert pas de créativité particulière. C'est une pensée qui utilise les connaissances et les capacités de raisonnement d'une personne pour obtenir une série de solutions à un problème donné et pour en sélectionner la seule correcte[2]. (en) Emotional Intelligence: Key Readings on the Mayer and Salovey Model, Port Chester, NPR Inc.,‎ 2004, 2e éd.

Visual thinking Visual thinking, also called visual/spatial learning, picture thinking, or right brained learning, is the phenomenon of thinking through visual processing. Visual thinking has been described as seeing words as a series of pictures.[citation needed] It is common in approximately 60%–65% of the general population. "Real picture thinkers", those persons who use visual thinking almost to the exclusion of other kinds of thinking, make up a smaller percentage of the population. Research and theoretical background[edit] In the Netherlands there is a strong and growing interest in the phenomenon of 'true' "picture thinking", or "beelddenken". Non-verbal thought[edit] Thinking in mental images is one of a number of other recognized forms of non-verbal thought, such as kinesthetic, musical and mathematical thinking. Linguistics[edit] A common assumption is that people think in language, and that language and thought influence each other. Multiple intelligences[edit] Split-brain research[edit] Autism[edit]

Critical thinking Critical thinking is a type of clear, reasoned thinking. According to Beyer (1995) Critical thinking means making clear, reasoned judgements. While in the process of critical thinking, ideas should be reasoned and well thought out/judged.[1] The National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking defines critical thinking as the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.'[2] Etymology[edit] In the term critical thinking, the word critical, (Grk. κριτικός = kritikos = "critic") derives from the word critic, and identifies the intellectual capacity and the means "of judging", "of judgement", "for judging", and of being "able to discern".[3] Definitions[edit] According to the field of inquiry [weasel words], critical thinking is defined as: Skills[edit] In sum:

Thinking Futures – Futures Methods There are a range of futures methods available to use. The links below will take to you information about methods that have been organised using the Generic Foresight Process, developed by Dr Joseph Voros. Joe describes the model helps to identify and separate out the stages that precede decision making about possible strategic options - that is, the strategic thinking hase of strategy development. The model highlights the need to use four stages, each with its own methods, in strategy development: input methods (what is happening out there?),analytical methods (what seems to be happening?) Only if each of these four stages are considered in the development of strategy can we begin to say that we have considered the future. It is the combination of input, analysis, interpretation and prospection that helps to build a foresight capacity. Choosing A Futures Method Resources on Futures Methods

Lateral Thinking Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. La pensée latérale est un ensemble de techniques théorisées par Edward de Bono, Docteur maltais en médecine et en philosophie, Master en psychologie et physiologie et auteur de plusieurs livres sur la créativité. Cet ensemble de méthodes de résolution de problème consiste à approcher les problèmes sous plusieurs angles au lieu de se concentrer sur une approche unique[1]. Définition et application[modifier | modifier le code] La pensée latérale se définit par opposition à la pensée verticale, qui est la pensée classique, caractérisée par la continuité entre les étapes et la validation pas à pas des hypothèses et de chaque résultat intermédiaire. si cela était vrai, c'est tellement simple qu'on l'aurait trouvé auparavant.ce n'est pas une nouvelle idéece n'est pas comme çaça ne peut pas marcherc'est trop cherc'est irréalistec'est stupide Ces discontinuités peuvent être provoquées de plusieurs manières (Cf. Exemple 1[modifier | modifier le code]