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Woodrow Wilson

Woodrow Wilson
In his first term as President, Wilson persuaded a Democratic Congress to pass a legislative agenda that few presidents have equaled, remaining unmatched up until the New Deal in 1933.[2] This agenda included the Federal Reserve Act, Federal Trade Commission Act, the Clayton Antitrust Act, the Federal Farm Loan Act and an income tax. Child labor was curtailed by the Keating–Owen Act of 1916, but the U.S. Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional in 1918. In the late stages of the war, Wilson took personal control of negotiations with Germany, including the armistice. Early life Wilson was born in Staunton, Virginia, on December 28, 1856. Wilson c. mid 1870s Wilson's father Joseph Ruggles Wilson was originally from Steubenville, Ohio, where his grandfather published a newspaper, The Western Herald and Gazette, which was pro-tariff and anti-slavery.[20] Wilson's parents moved south in 1851 and identified with the Confederacy. Wilson was over ten years of age before he learned to read. Related:  Banking and finance issues

American Thinker: Leftists Are Neither Progressive Nor Liberal The left changes monikers whenever their chosen title becomes too easily identified with their collectivist political intentions. They seized the title "Progressives" in the early 20th century and adopted "Liberal" when the progressive image became tarnished. Today, with liberalism inextricably linked to collectivism, the left has returned to the progressive label. But one problem remains. The case has been made, on the pages of American Thinker itself, that identifying the leftist as a Progressive or Liberal is erroneous. To state the case further, not even the definition of "progressive" or "liberal" identifies with the leftist ideology. "Progressive" is defined as advocating, attaining, or being characterized by improvement and forward thinking. Early Progressives certainly desired social change, but they regularly utilized private organizations -- such as churches and charities -- for effecting their transformations. Leftist liberalism defines not freedom, but the welfare state.

Federal Reserve Act Federal Reserve The Federal Reserve Act (ch. 6, 38 Stat. 251, enacted December 23, 1913, 12 U.S.C. ch. 3) is an Act of Congress that created and set up the Federal Reserve System, the central banking system of the United States of America, and granted it the legal authority to issue Federal Reserve Notes, now commonly known as the U.S. Dollar, and Federal Reserve Bank Notes as legal tender. The Act was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson. The Act[edit] The Federal Reserve Act created a system of private and public entities; there were to be at least eight, and no more than 12, private regional Federal Reserve banks. With the passing of the Federal Reserve Act, Congress required that all nationally chartered banks become members of the Federal Reserve System. Background[edit] Central banking has made various institutional appearances throughout the history of the United States. The First Bank of United States[edit] The 2nd Bank of the United States[edit] Subsequent Amendments[edit]

William Howard Taft William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was the 27th President of the United States (1909–1913) and later the tenth Chief Justice of the United States (1921–1930). He is the only person to have served in both of these offices. Before becoming President, Taft, a Republican, was appointed to serve on the Superior Court of Cincinnati in 1887. Riding a wave of popular support for fellow Republican Roosevelt, Taft won an easy victory in his 1908 bid for the presidency.[2] In his only term, Taft's domestic agenda emphasized trust-busting, civil service reform, strengthening the Interstate Commerce Commission, improving the performance of the postal service, and passage of the Sixteenth Amendment. After leaving office, Taft spent his time in academia, arbitration, and the pursuit of world peace through his self-founded League to Enforce Peace. Early life and education[edit] Legal career and early politics[edit] Secretary of War (1904–1908)[edit] Electoral votes by state, 1908.

Extended Republic or Centralized Nation-State? Herbert Croly, Pr It has often been observed that the 20th century was the most violent in world history. Wars dominated world affairs on an unprecedented scale. What has been less often noted, particularly in the American experience, is the number of wars declared by national governments on social problems like poverty and drugs--and the appallingly low victory rate in those wars. In a very real sense, the 20th century on the domestic front was an extended cold war between the American federal government and social problems inherited from the 19th century. By transforming domestic policy into a climactic struggle between the national government and every conceivable social ill, the early Progressives raised the scale of the solution along with that of the problem. A Hundred Years' War The year 2009 marks the centennial of the publication of The Promise of American Life by Herbert Croly. President after President since then has sought to fight American individualism by new offensives in the war.

Great Depression USA annual real GDP from 1910–60, with the years of the Great Depression (1929–1939) highlighted. The unemployment rate in the US 1910–1960, with the years of the Great Depression (1929–1939) highlighted. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how far the world's economy can decline.[2] The depression originated in the U.S., after the fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, and became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929 (known as Black Tuesday). The Great Depression had devastating effects in countries rich and poor. Personal income, tax revenue, profits and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%. Unemployment in the U.S. rose to 25%, and in some countries rose as high as 33%.[3] Cities all around the world were hit hard, especially those dependent on heavy industry. Some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. Start Economic indicators Causes General theoretical explanations

Warren G. Harding Harding was the compromise candidate in the 1920 election, when he promised the nation a "return to normalcy", in the form of a strong economy, independent of foreign influence. This program was designed to rid Americans of the tragic memories and hardships they faced during World War I. Harding and the Republican Party wanted to move away from the progressivism that dominated the early 20th century. He defeated Democrat and fellow Ohioan James M. Cox in the largest presidential popular vote landslide (60.32% to 34.15%) since popular-vote totals were first recorded.[3] Harding not only put the "best minds" in his cabinet, including Herbert Hoover as Secretary of Commerce and Charles Evans Hughes as Secretary of State, but also rewarded his friends and contributors, known as the Ohio Gang, with powerful positions. In August 1923, Harding suddenly collapsed and died in California. Early life[edit] Childhood and education[edit] Harding, age 17 Journalism career and marriage[edit] U.S.

“Progressive” The Real Meaning of “Progressive” Politics By Barry Loberfeld To the American mind, the most formal connotation of the term progressive is the Progressive Movement, a period of reform that ranged from the late 1800s to the end of World War I. Unlike its predecessor, the Populist Party, Progressivism was not a movement of farmers or manual laborers. Its guiding lights were college-educated men who were consequently steeped in the post-Enlightenment collectivism that had taken hold of the universities both here and in Europe. Among its apostles were “economists who adopted the ‘organic’ collectivism of the German historical school, sociologists and historians who interpreted Darwin according to the social ideas of Hegel (the ‘reform’ Darwinists), clergymen who interpreted Jesus according to the moral ideas of Kant (the Social Gospelers), single-taxers who followed Henry George, Utopians who followed Edward Bellamy ... of individual subordination and self-denial." mistakes of humanity."

Gold standard All references to "dollars" in this article refer to the United States dollar, unless otherwise stated. Under a gold standard, paper notes are convertible into preset, fixed quantities of gold. A gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold. Three types may be distinguished: specie, exchange, and bullion. As of 2013 no country used a gold standard as the basis of its monetary system, although some hold substantial gold reserves. A total of 174,100 tonnes of gold have been mined in human history, according to GFMS as of 2012. History Origin The gold specie standard arose from the widespread acceptance of gold as currency. In modern times, the British West Indies was one of the first regions to adopt a gold specie standard. Australia and New Zealand adopted the British gold standard, as did the British West Indies, while Newfoundland was the only British Empire territory to introduce its own gold coin. Silver Japan

Theodore Roosevelt When Roosevelt's first wife, Alice, died two days after giving birth in February 1884 and when his mother died the same day in the same house, he was heartbroken and in despair. Roosevelt temporarily left politics and became a cattle rancher in the Dakotas. When blizzards destroyed his herd, he returned to New York City politics, running in and losing a race for mayor. In the 1890s, he took vigorous charge of the city police as New York City Police Commissioner. Roosevelt became President after McKinley was assassinated in 1901. At the end of his second term, Roosevelt supported his close friend, William Howard Taft, for the 1908 Republican nomination. Early life and family Theodore Roosevelt at age 11 Theodore Roosevelt was born as Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. on October 27, 1858, in a four-story brownstone at 28 East 20th Street, in the modern-day Gramercy section of New York City. Roosevelt's father significantly influenced him. Education Roosevelt's taxidermy kit[18] Early political career

Wisconsin Idea The Wisconsin Idea is the political policy developed in the American state of Wisconsin that fosters public universities' contributions to the state: "to the government in the forms of serving in office, offering advice about public policy, providing information and exercising technical skill, and to the citizens in the forms of doing research directed at solving problems that are important to the state and conducting outreach activities."[1] A second facet of the philosophy is the effort "to ensure well-constructed legislation aimed at benefiting the greatest number of people."[2] During the Progressive Era, proponents of the Wisconsin Idea saw the state as "the laboratory for democracy", resulting in legislation that served as a model for other states and the federal government.[2] The Wisconsin Idea in education[edit] The Wisconsin Idea in politics[edit] The Wisconsin Idea would go on to set an example for other states in the United States. The Wisconsin Idea in media[edit]

J. P. Morgan John Pierpont "J. P." Morgan (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913) was an American financier, banker, philanthropist and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time. In 1892 Morgan arranged the merger of Edison General Electric and Thomson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric. After financing the creation of the Federal Steel Company, he merged in 1901 with the Carnegie Steel Company and several other steel and iron businesses, including Consolidated Steel and Wire Company owned by William Edenborn, to form the United States Steel Corporation. Morgan died in Rome, Italy, in his sleep in 1913 at the age of 75, leaving his fortune and business to his son, John Pierpont "Jack" Morgan, Jr., and bequeathing his mansion and large book collections to The Morgan Library & Museum in New York. Childhood and education[edit] J. Career[edit] Early years and life[edit] J. J.P. After the 1893 death of Anthony Drexel, the firm was rechristened "J.

Herbert Hoover Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) was the 31st President of the United States (1929–1933). Hoover, born to a Quaker family, was a professional mining engineer. He achieved American and international prominence in humanitarian relief efforts in war-time Belgium and served as head of the U.S. Food Administration during World War I.[1] As the United States Secretary of Commerce in the 1920s under Presidents Warren G. Hoover, a globally experienced engineer, believed strongly in the Efficiency Movement, which held that the government and the economy were riddled with inefficiency and waste, and could be improved by experts who could identify the problems and solve them. Family background and early life[edit] 1877 Hoover Tintype Herbert Hoover was born on August 10, 1874, in West Branch, Iowa, the first of his office born in that state and west of the Mississippi River. Hoover birthplace cottage, West Branch, Iowa Mining engineer[edit] Australia[edit]

Progressivism and the Wisconsin Idea - Wisconsin Historical Soci Progressivism and the Wisconsin Idea In the first quarter of the twentieth century, Wisconsin leaders began to seek new answers to problems caused by an increasingly industrial and technological society. To a people born and raised mostly on farms, the explosive growth of cities, rising importance of large-scale industry, transformation of the workforce by new immigrants and rigid class stratification, and the overall speed of daily life brought uncertainty and confusion. In other states social movements such as the Greenback Party and Populist Party tried to address these changes, but little was accomplished in Wisconsin until after the year 1900 when "Progressives" gained control of the Republican Party. The Republicans were the party of Lincoln and the Union Army, and in the decades following the Civil War, they held a virtual monopoly on state government by organizing and satisfying the needs of Civil War veterans. What did the Progressive Movement accomplish in Wisconsin?

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