American Thinker: Leftists Are Neither Progressive Nor Liberal The left changes monikers whenever their chosen title becomes too easily identified with their collectivist political intentions. They seized the title "Progressives" in the early 20th century and adopted "Liberal" when the progressive image became tarnished. Today, with liberalism inextricably linked to collectivism, the left has returned to the progressive label. But one problem remains. The case has been made, on the pages of American Thinker itself, that identifying the leftist as a Progressive or Liberal is erroneous. To state the case further, not even the definition of "progressive" or "liberal" identifies with the leftist ideology. "Progressive" is defined as advocating, attaining, or being characterized by improvement and forward thinking. Early Progressives certainly desired social change, but they regularly utilized private organizations -- such as churches and charities -- for effecting their transformations. Leftist liberalism defines not freedom, but the welfare state.
Committee on Public Information The Committee on Public Information, also known as the CPI or the Creel Committee, was an independent agency of the government of the United States created to influence U.S. public opinion regarding American participation in World War I. Over just 28 months, from April 13, 1917, to August 21, 1919, it used every medium available to create enthusiasm for the war effort and enlist public support against foreign attempts to undercut America's war aims. It primarily used the propaganda techniques to accomplish these goals. Organizational history Establishment President Woodrow Wilson established the Committee on Public Information (CPI) through Executive Order 2594 on April 13, 1917. The committee consisted of George Creel (chairman) and as ex officio members the Secretaries of: State (Robert Lansing), War (Newton D. Activities Poster encouraging consumption of more cottage cheese as a replacement for meat. Organizational structure Media incidents Staff
Federal Trade Commission Act The Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914 (15 U.S.C §§ 41-58, as amended) (FTC Act) established the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). As initially established it consisted of a bipartisan body of five members appointed by the president of the United States for seven-year terms. This commission was authorized to issue “cease and desist” orders to large corporations to curb unfair trade practices. Some of the unfair methods of competition that were targeted include deceptive advertisements and pricing. It passed the Senate by a 43-5 vote on September 8, 1914; passed the House on September 10, without a tally of yeas and nays, and was signed into law by President Wilson on September 26. References External links Full text of current act, from the Legal Information Institute.
Federal Reserve Act Federal Reserve The Federal Reserve Act (ch. 6, 38 Stat. 251, enacted December 23, 1913, 12 U.S.C. ch. 3) is an Act of Congress that created and set up the Federal Reserve System, the central banking system of the United States of America, and granted it the legal authority to issue Federal Reserve Notes, now commonly known as the U.S. Dollar, and Federal Reserve Bank Notes as legal tender. The Act was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson. The Act The Federal Reserve Act created a system of private and public entities; there were to be at least eight, and no more than 12, private regional Federal Reserve banks. With the passing of the Federal Reserve Act, Congress required that all nationally chartered banks become members of the Federal Reserve System. Background Central banking has made various institutional appearances throughout the history of the United States. The First Bank of United States The 2nd Bank of the United States Subsequent Amendments
Extended Republic or Centralized Nation-State? Herbert Croly, Pr It has often been observed that the 20th century was the most violent in world history. Wars dominated world affairs on an unprecedented scale. What has been less often noted, particularly in the American experience, is the number of wars declared by national governments on social problems like poverty and drugs--and the appallingly low victory rate in those wars. In a very real sense, the 20th century on the domestic front was an extended cold war between the American federal government and social problems inherited from the 19th century. By transforming domestic policy into a climactic struggle between the national government and every conceivable social ill, the early Progressives raised the scale of the solution along with that of the problem. A Hundred Years' War The year 2009 marks the centennial of the publication of The Promise of American Life by Herbert Croly. President after President since then has sought to fight American individualism by new offensives in the war.
Walter Lippmann, wikipedia Early life Career Lippmann was a journalist, a media critic and an amateur philosopher who tried to reconcile the tensions between liberty and democracy in a complex and modern world, as in his 1920 book Liberty and the News. In 1913, Lippmann, Herbert Croly, and Walter Weyl became the founding editors of The New Republic magazine. During World War I, Lippmann was commissioned a captain in the Army on June 28, 1918 and was assigned to the intelligence section of the AEF headquarters in France. He was assigned to the staff of Colonel Edward M. Through his connection to Colonel House, he became an adviser to President Woodrow Wilson and assisted in the drafting of Wilson's Fourteen Points speech. Walter Lippmann in 1914 It was Lippmann who first identified the tendency of journalists to generalize about other people based on fixed ideas. Though a journalist himself, he did not assume that news and truth are synonymous. Legacy: Almond–Lippmann consensus Death
Cease and desist A cease and desist letter, also known as an "infringement letter" or a "demand letter," is an order or request that a party halt an activity ("cease") and not take it up again later ("desist"), else face legal action. The recipient of the letter may be an individual or an organization. Although cease and desist letters are not exclusively used in the area of intellectual property, such letters "are frequently utilized in disputes concerning intellectual property and represent an important feature of the intellectual property law landscape." The holder of an intellectual property right such as a copyrighted work, a trademark, or a patent, may send the cease and desist letter to inform a third party "of the right holders' rights, identity, and intentions to enforce the rights. Receiving numerous cease and desist letters may be very costly for the recipient. See also References External links
Great Depression USA annual real GDP from 1910–60, with the years of the Great Depression (1929–1939) highlighted. The unemployment rate in the US 1910–1960, with the years of the Great Depression (1929–1939) highlighted. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how far the world's economy can decline. The depression originated in the U.S., after the fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, and became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929 (known as Black Tuesday). The Great Depression had devastating effects in countries rich and poor. Personal income, tax revenue, profits and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%. Unemployment in the U.S. rose to 25%, and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities all around the world were hit hard, especially those dependent on heavy industry. Some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. Start Economic indicators Causes General theoretical explanations
“Progressive” The Real Meaning of “Progressive” Politics By Barry Loberfeld To the American mind, the most formal connotation of the term progressive is the Progressive Movement, a period of reform that ranged from the late 1800s to the end of World War I. Unlike its predecessor, the Populist Party, Progressivism was not a movement of farmers or manual laborers. Its guiding lights were college-educated men who were consequently steeped in the post-Enlightenment collectivism that had taken hold of the universities both here and in Europe. Among its apostles were “economists who adopted the ‘organic’ collectivism of the German historical school, sociologists and historians who interpreted Darwin according to the social ideas of Hegel (the ‘reform’ Darwinists), clergymen who interpreted Jesus according to the moral ideas of Kant (the Social Gospelers), single-taxers who followed Henry George, Utopians who followed Edward Bellamy ... of individual subordination and self-denial." mistakes of humanity."
Ministry of Information (United Kingdom) Lord Beaverbrook (10 February 1918 – 4 November 1918)Lord Downham (4 November 1918 – 10 January 1919) Keep Calm and Carry On, a wartime poster from the MOI in 1939 which, although printed and distributed, was never posted. The Ministry of Information was formed on 4 September 1939, the day after Britain's declaration of war, and the first Minister was sworn in on 5 September 1939. The Ministry’s function was ‘To promote the national case to the public at home and abroad in time of war’ by issuing ‘National Propaganda’ and controlling news and information. It was initially responsible for censorship, issuing official news, home publicity and overseas publicity in Allied and neutral countries. The Ministry was responsible for information policy and the output of propaganda material in Allied and neutral countries, with overseas publicity organised geographically. American and Empire Divisions continued throughout the war, other areas being covered by a succession of different divisions.
Bar (law) Bar in a legal context has three possible meanings: the physical division of a courtroom between its working and public areas; the process of qualifying to practice law; and the legal profession. The origin of the term bar is from the barring furniture dividing a medieval European courtroom, similarly as the origin of the term bank for the location of financial transactions in medieval Europe. In the USA, Europe and many other countries referring to the law traditions of Europe, the area in front of the barrage is restricted to participants in the trial: the judge or judges, other court officials, the jury (if any), the lawyers for each party, the parties to the case, and witnesses giving testimony. The area behind the bar is open to the public. This restriction is enforced in nearly all courts. In most courts, the bar is represented by a physical partition: a railing or barrier that serves as a bar. The Bar commonly refers to the legal profession as a whole.
Gold standard All references to "dollars" in this article refer to the United States dollar, unless otherwise stated. Under a gold standard, paper notes are convertible into preset, fixed quantities of gold. A gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is based on a fixed quantity of gold. Three types may be distinguished: specie, exchange, and bullion. As of 2013 no country used a gold standard as the basis of its monetary system, although some hold substantial gold reserves. A total of 174,100 tonnes of gold have been mined in human history, according to GFMS as of 2012. History Origin The gold specie standard arose from the widespread acceptance of gold as currency. In modern times, the British West Indies was one of the first regions to adopt a gold specie standard. Australia and New Zealand adopted the British gold standard, as did the British West Indies, while Newfoundland was the only British Empire territory to introduce its own gold coin. Silver Japan
Wisconsin Idea The Wisconsin Idea is the political policy developed in the American state of Wisconsin that fosters public universities' contributions to the state: "to the government in the forms of serving in office, offering advice about public policy, providing information and exercising technical skill, and to the citizens in the forms of doing research directed at solving problems that are important to the state and conducting outreach activities." A second facet of the philosophy is the effort "to ensure well-constructed legislation aimed at benefiting the greatest number of people." During the Progressive Era, proponents of the Wisconsin Idea saw the state as "the laboratory for democracy", resulting in legislation that served as a model for other states and the federal government. The Wisconsin Idea in education The Wisconsin Idea in politics The Wisconsin Idea would go on to set an example for other states in the United States. The Wisconsin Idea in media