Harry S. Truman Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the 33rd President of the United States of America (1945–1953). The final running mate of President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1944, Truman succeeded to the presidency on April 12, 1945, when Roosevelt died after months of declining health. Under Truman, the U.S. successfully concluded World War II; in the aftermath of the conflict, tensions with the Soviet Union increased, marking the start of the Cold War. Truman was born in Missouri, and spent most of his youth on his family's farm. While Germany surrendered a few weeks after Truman assumed the Presidency, the war with Japan was expected to last another year or more. On domestic issues, bills endorsed by Truman often faced opposition from a conservative Congress dominated by the South, but his administration successfully guided the American economy through post-war economic challenges. Early life and career Harry S. John Truman was a farmer and livestock dealer. World War I Politics
American Thinker: Leftists Are Neither Progressive Nor Liberal The left changes monikers whenever their chosen title becomes too easily identified with their collectivist political intentions. They seized the title "Progressives" in the early 20th century and adopted "Liberal" when the progressive image became tarnished. Today, with liberalism inextricably linked to collectivism, the left has returned to the progressive label. But one problem remains. The case has been made, on the pages of American Thinker itself, that identifying the leftist as a Progressive or Liberal is erroneous. To state the case further, not even the definition of "progressive" or "liberal" identifies with the leftist ideology. "Progressive" is defined as advocating, attaining, or being characterized by improvement and forward thinking. Early Progressives certainly desired social change, but they regularly utilized private organizations -- such as churches and charities -- for effecting their transformations. Leftist liberalism defines not freedom, but the welfare state.
Committee on Public Information The Committee on Public Information, also known as the CPI or the Creel Committee, was an independent agency of the government of the United States created to influence U.S. public opinion regarding American participation in World War I. Over just 28 months, from April 13, 1917, to August 21, 1919, it used every medium available to create enthusiasm for the war effort and enlist public support against foreign attempts to undercut America's war aims. It primarily used the propaganda techniques to accomplish these goals. Organizational history Establishment President Woodrow Wilson established the Committee on Public Information (CPI) through Executive Order 2594 on April 13, 1917. The committee consisted of George Creel (chairman) and as ex officio members the Secretaries of: State (Robert Lansing), War (Newton D. Activities Poster encouraging consumption of more cottage cheese as a replacement for meat. Organizational structure Media incidents Staff
Federal Reserve Act Federal Reserve The Federal Reserve Act (ch. 6, 38 Stat. 251, enacted December 23, 1913, 12 U.S.C. ch. 3) is an Act of Congress that created and set up the Federal Reserve System, the central banking system of the United States of America, and granted it the legal authority to issue Federal Reserve Notes, now commonly known as the U.S. Dollar, and Federal Reserve Bank Notes as legal tender. The Act was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson. The Act The Federal Reserve Act created a system of private and public entities; there were to be at least eight, and no more than 12, private regional Federal Reserve banks. With the passing of the Federal Reserve Act, Congress required that all nationally chartered banks become members of the Federal Reserve System. Background Central banking has made various institutional appearances throughout the history of the United States. The First Bank of United States The 2nd Bank of the United States Subsequent Amendments
William Howard Taft William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was the 27th President of the United States (1909–1913) and later the tenth Chief Justice of the United States (1921–1930). He is the only person to have served in both of these offices. Before becoming President, Taft, a Republican, was appointed to serve on the Superior Court of Cincinnati in 1887. Riding a wave of popular support for fellow Republican Roosevelt, Taft won an easy victory in his 1908 bid for the presidency. In his only term, Taft's domestic agenda emphasized trust-busting, civil service reform, strengthening the Interstate Commerce Commission, improving the performance of the postal service, and passage of the Sixteenth Amendment. After leaving office, Taft spent his time in academia, arbitration, and the pursuit of world peace through his self-founded League to Enforce Peace. Early life and education Legal career and early politics Secretary of War (1904–1908) Electoral votes by state, 1908.
Theodore Roosevelt When Roosevelt's first wife, Alice, died two days after giving birth in February 1884 and when his mother died the same day in the same house, he was heartbroken and in despair. Roosevelt temporarily left politics and became a cattle rancher in the Dakotas. When blizzards destroyed his herd, he returned to New York City politics, running in and losing a race for mayor. In the 1890s, he took vigorous charge of the city police as New York City Police Commissioner. Roosevelt became President after McKinley was assassinated in 1901. At the end of his second term, Roosevelt supported his close friend, William Howard Taft, for the 1908 Republican nomination. Early life and family Theodore Roosevelt at age 11 Theodore Roosevelt was born as Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. on October 27, 1858, in a four-story brownstone at 28 East 20th Street, in the modern-day Gramercy section of New York City. Roosevelt's father significantly influenced him. Education Roosevelt's taxidermy kit Early political career
Extended Republic or Centralized Nation-State? Herbert Croly, Pr It has often been observed that the 20th century was the most violent in world history. Wars dominated world affairs on an unprecedented scale. What has been less often noted, particularly in the American experience, is the number of wars declared by national governments on social problems like poverty and drugs--and the appallingly low victory rate in those wars. In a very real sense, the 20th century on the domestic front was an extended cold war between the American federal government and social problems inherited from the 19th century. By transforming domestic policy into a climactic struggle between the national government and every conceivable social ill, the early Progressives raised the scale of the solution along with that of the problem. A Hundred Years' War The year 2009 marks the centennial of the publication of The Promise of American Life by Herbert Croly. President after President since then has sought to fight American individualism by new offensives in the war.
Walter Lippmann, wikipedia Early life Career Lippmann was a journalist, a media critic and an amateur philosopher who tried to reconcile the tensions between liberty and democracy in a complex and modern world, as in his 1920 book Liberty and the News. In 1913, Lippmann, Herbert Croly, and Walter Weyl became the founding editors of The New Republic magazine. During World War I, Lippmann was commissioned a captain in the Army on June 28, 1918 and was assigned to the intelligence section of the AEF headquarters in France. He was assigned to the staff of Colonel Edward M. Through his connection to Colonel House, he became an adviser to President Woodrow Wilson and assisted in the drafting of Wilson's Fourteen Points speech. Walter Lippmann in 1914 It was Lippmann who first identified the tendency of journalists to generalize about other people based on fixed ideas. Though a journalist himself, he did not assume that news and truth are synonymous. Legacy: Almond–Lippmann consensus Death
Great Depression USA annual real GDP from 1910–60, with the years of the Great Depression (1929–1939) highlighted. The unemployment rate in the US 1910–1960, with the years of the Great Depression (1929–1939) highlighted. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how far the world's economy can decline. The depression originated in the U.S., after the fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, and became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929 (known as Black Tuesday). The Great Depression had devastating effects in countries rich and poor. Personal income, tax revenue, profits and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%. Unemployment in the U.S. rose to 25%, and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities all around the world were hit hard, especially those dependent on heavy industry. Some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. Start Economic indicators Causes General theoretical explanations
Warren G. Harding Harding was the compromise candidate in the 1920 election, when he promised the nation a "return to normalcy", in the form of a strong economy, independent of foreign influence. This program was designed to rid Americans of the tragic memories and hardships they faced during World War I. Harding and the Republican Party wanted to move away from the progressivism that dominated the early 20th century. He defeated Democrat and fellow Ohioan James M. Cox in the largest presidential popular vote landslide (60.32% to 34.15%) since popular-vote totals were first recorded. Harding not only put the "best minds" in his cabinet, including Herbert Hoover as Secretary of Commerce and Charles Evans Hughes as Secretary of State, but also rewarded his friends and contributors, known as the Ohio Gang, with powerful positions. In August 1923, Harding suddenly collapsed and died in California. Early life Childhood and education Harding, age 17 Journalism career and marriage U.S.
James K. Polk Polk was the last strong pre–Civil War president, and he is the earliest of whom there are surviving photographs taken during a term in office. He is noted for his foreign policy successes. He threatened war with Britain over the issue of which nation owned the Oregon Country, then backed away and split the ownership of the region with Britain. When Mexico rejected American annexation of Texas, Polk led the nation to a sweeping victory in the Mexican-American War, which gave the United States most of its present Southwest. Polk oversaw the opening of the U.S. Scholars have ranked him favorably on the list of greatest presidents for his ability to set an agenda and achieve all of it. Early life Polk was home schooled. His health was problematic and in 1812 his pain became so unbearable that he was taken to Dr. The house where Polk spent his adult life before his presidency, in Columbia, Tennessee, is his only private residence still standing. Early political career James K.
“Progressive” The Real Meaning of “Progressive” Politics By Barry Loberfeld To the American mind, the most formal connotation of the term progressive is the Progressive Movement, a period of reform that ranged from the late 1800s to the end of World War I. Unlike its predecessor, the Populist Party, Progressivism was not a movement of farmers or manual laborers. Its guiding lights were college-educated men who were consequently steeped in the post-Enlightenment collectivism that had taken hold of the universities both here and in Europe. Among its apostles were “economists who adopted the ‘organic’ collectivism of the German historical school, sociologists and historians who interpreted Darwin according to the social ideas of Hegel (the ‘reform’ Darwinists), clergymen who interpreted Jesus according to the moral ideas of Kant (the Social Gospelers), single-taxers who followed Henry George, Utopians who followed Edward Bellamy ... of individual subordination and self-denial." mistakes of humanity."
Ministry of Information (United Kingdom) Lord Beaverbrook (10 February 1918 – 4 November 1918)Lord Downham (4 November 1918 – 10 January 1919) Keep Calm and Carry On, a wartime poster from the MOI in 1939 which, although printed and distributed, was never posted. The Ministry of Information was formed on 4 September 1939, the day after Britain's declaration of war, and the first Minister was sworn in on 5 September 1939. The Ministry’s function was ‘To promote the national case to the public at home and abroad in time of war’ by issuing ‘National Propaganda’ and controlling news and information. It was initially responsible for censorship, issuing official news, home publicity and overseas publicity in Allied and neutral countries. The Ministry was responsible for information policy and the output of propaganda material in Allied and neutral countries, with overseas publicity organised geographically. American and Empire Divisions continued throughout the war, other areas being covered by a succession of different divisions.