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Ethnocentrism is judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one's own culture.[1][page needed] Ethnocentric individuals judge other groups relative to their own ethnic group or culture, especially with concern for language, behavior, customs, and religion. These ethnic distinctions and subdivisions serve to define each ethnicity's unique cultural identity.[2] Ethnocentrism may be overt or subtle, and while it is considered a natural proclivity of human psychology, it has developed a generally negative connotation.[3] Origins of the concept and its study[edit] William G. Anthropologists such as Franz Boas and Bronislaw Malinowski argued that any human science had to transcend the ethnocentrism of the scientist. Anthropology[edit] Examples of ethnocentrism include religiocentric constructs claiming a divine association like "divine nation", "One Nation under God", "God's Own Country", "God's Chosen People", and "God's Promised Land".[8] See also[edit] References[edit] Related:  High Middle agesBias

Gothic architecture The interior of the western end of Reims Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture. Originating in 12th-century France and lasting into the 16th century, Gothic architecture was known during the period as Opus Francigenum ("French work") with the term Gothic first appearing during the latter part of the Renaissance. Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of the great cathedrals, abbeys and churches of Europe. It is in the great churches and cathedrals and in a number of civic buildings that the Gothic style was expressed most powerfully, its characteristics lending themselves to appeals to the emotions, whether springing from faith or from civic pride. The term "Gothic"[edit] According to a 19th-century correspondent in the London Journal Notes and Queries: Definition and scope[edit] Influences[edit]

The Narrative Fallacy: Why You Shouldn’t Copy Steve Jobs There are dozens of blog posts about Ben Franklin’s strict daily routine (and they all almost always include this picture), advocating that we should follow suit. Writers love to point out how Maya Angelou made sure she wrote in a hotel room every day to help give her a safe space to work. A young Steve Jobs lived an extremely sparse possession-free lifestyle, and thousands of techies have attempted to emulate this no-nonsense, minimalistic living style. This kind of hero worship can be a good thing, it can be a guiding light. But this has also given rise to the dramatic oversimplification of entire lives. Pictured: A young Steve Jobs in his minimalist apartment. What happens is we have wantrepreneurs and armchair creatives thinking they are walking in the footsteps of the greats by focusing on “productivity hacks” instead of, you know, doing the work. Even our modern day tycoons are not immune. Think of the startup myth of a bunch guys in a garage.

:: S.I.Lex :: | Au croisement du droit et des sciences de l'information. Syllabus Anth 330 Syllabus, Anthropology 330 Origins of Culture & Civilization Fall Semester 2001 College 220, MWF 12:10 Professor: T. A. Kohler Office: College Hall 394/396 Office Hours: M, Th 8-9:30 AM (or by appointment) Phone: 335-2698; e-mail I. To explore cultural evolution and diversity from the origins of the earliest hominids to the beginnings of state societies in the Old World, covering a time span of some 4 million years. the archaeology of the first hominids; the problem of the evolution of human cooperation; the in-creas-ing use of symbols in human communication in Upper Paleolithic art and in the appearance of writing; the rise and spread of the agricultural way of life and the formation of villages and towns; and the appearance and spread of "complex," state-level societies. This course is designed to serve both majors in anthropology (typically 30-40% of the class), and as a Tier II S GER. II. Class will meet M, W, & F at 12:10 for 50 minutes. III. IV. V. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Reward system Drugs of abuse target the brain's pleasure center.[1] Certain neural structures, called the reward system, are critically involved in mediating the effects of reinforcement. A reward is an appetitive stimulus given to a human or some other animal to alter its behavior. Reward or reinforcement is an objective way to describe the positive value that an individual ascribes to an object, behavioral act or an internal physical state. Definition[edit] In neuroscience, the reward system is a collection of brain structures that attempts to regulate and control behavior by inducing pleasurable effects. History[edit] James Olds and Peter Milner were researchers who found the reward system in 1954. Skinner box Anatomy of the reward system[edit] The major neurochemical pathway of the reward system in the brain involves the mesolimbic and mesocortical pathways. Animals vs humans[edit] Modulation by drugs[edit] Psychological drug tolerance[edit] Sensitization[edit] Neurotransmitters and reward circuits[edit]

Crisis of the Late Middle Ages The Crisis of the Late Middle Ages refers to a series of events in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries that brought centuries of European prosperity and growth to a halt.[1] Three major crises led to radical changes in all areas of society - they were demographic collapse, political instabilities and religious upheavals. A series of famines and plagues, beginning with the Great Famine of 1315-1317 and especially the Black Death of 1348, reduced the population perhaps by half or more as the Medieval Warm Period came to a close and the first century of the Little Ice Age began. Along with depopulation came social unrest and endemic warfare. Soil exhaustion, overpopulation, wars, and epidemic diseases helped cause hundreds of famines in Europe during the Middle Ages, including 95 in Britain and 75 in France.[2][3] In France, the Hundred Years' War, crop failures and epidemics reduced the population by two-thirds.[4] Demography[edit] Popular revolt[edit] Political and religious[edit]

Correlation does not imply causation The counter assumption, that correlation proves causation, is considered a questionable cause logical fallacy in that two events occurring together are taken to have a cause-and-effect relationship. This fallacy is also known as cum hoc ergo propter hoc, Latin for "with this, therefore because of this", and "false cause". A similar fallacy, that an event that follows another was necessarily a consequence of the first event, is sometimes described as post hoc ergo propter hoc (Latin for "after this, therefore because of this"). As with any logical fallacy, identifying that the reasoning behind an argument is flawed does not imply that the resulting conclusion is false. Usage[edit] In logic, the technical use of the word "implies" means "to be a sufficient circumstance". However, in casual use, the word "imply" loosely means suggests rather than requires. "Empirically observed covariation is a necessary but not sufficient condition for causality."" General pattern[edit] Example 1 Example 2

Au commencement était Gertrude Stein Stein est une poétesse, écrivaine, dramaturge, collectionneuse et féministe américaine. Elle fut l’une des premières lesbiennes célèbres à l’être ouvertement. Gertrude Stein est de ces femmes et hommes dont la clairvoyance a consacré des artistes que la postérité a loués, mais qui souvent, sont montés au ciel sans avoir tutoyé les sommets. Nous n’estimons l’exacte valeur d’une chose qu’en la perdant. Il en va ainsi, bien souvent, du génie. Evidemment, Stein est bien plus qu’une simple visionnaire. Quand éclate la grande guerre, les deux femmes quitteront épisodiquement la France pour l’Espagne notamment. Getrude Stein et Alice Toklas dans leur maison à Bilignin. Dans les années 1930, les deux femmes achètent une maison à Bilignin. Accueillie en véritable star dans son pays d’origine, Gertrude Stein entame avec celle qu’elle appelait ouvertement “sa femme” une série de conférences qui la mèneront à Washington, Harvard, Atlanta, Dallas. Rania

Aarne–Thompson–Uther Index Index used to classify folk narratives The Aarne–Thompson–Uther Index (ATU Index) is a catalogue of folktale types used in folklore studies. The ATU Index is the product of a series of revisions and expansions by an international group of scholars: Originally composed in German by Finnish folklorist Antti Aarne (1910); the index was translated into English, revised, and expanded by American folklorist Stith Thompson (1928, 1961); and later further revised and expanded by German folklorist Hans-Jörg Uther (2004). The ATU Index, along with Thompson's Motif-Index of Folk-Literature (1932) (with which it is used in tandem) is an essential tool for folklorists.[1] Definition of tale type[edit] In The Folktale, Thompson defines a tale type as follows: A type is a traditional tale that has an independent existence. Predecessors[edit] History[edit] System[edit] The Aarne–Thompson Tale Type Index divides tales into sections with an AT number for each entry. 510A Cinderella. Critical response[edit]

Pair bond In biology, a pair bond is the strong affinity that develops in some species between a pair consisting of a male and female, or in some cases as a same-sex pairing, potentially leading to producing offspring and/or a lifelong bond. Pair-bonding is a term coined in the 1940s[1] that is frequently used in sociobiology and evolutionary psychology circles. The term often implies either a lifelong socially monogamous relationship or a stage of mating interaction in socially monogamous species. It is sometimes used in reference to human relationships. Monogamous voles, such as prairie voles, have significantly greater density and distribution of vasopressin receptors in their brain when compared to polygamous voles. Both vasopressin and dopamine act in this region to coordinate rewarding activities such as mating, and regulate selective affiliation. Varieties[edit] Black-backed jackals are one of very few monogamous mammals. Examples[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] Jump up ^ "Pair-bond".