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Ethnocentrism is judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one's own culture.[1][page needed] Ethnocentric individuals judge other groups relative to their own ethnic group or culture, especially with concern for language, behavior, customs, and religion. These ethnic distinctions and subdivisions serve to define each ethnicity's unique cultural identity.[2] Ethnocentrism may be overt or subtle, and while it is considered a natural proclivity of human psychology, it has developed a generally negative connotation.[3] Origins of the concept and its study[edit] William G. Anthropologists such as Franz Boas and Bronislaw Malinowski argued that any human science had to transcend the ethnocentrism of the scientist. Anthropology[edit] Examples of ethnocentrism include religiocentric constructs claiming a divine association like "divine nation", "One Nation under God", "God's Own Country", "God's Chosen People", and "God's Promised Land".[8] See also[edit] References[edit] Related:  Antropologia, etnologia, sociologia

Superfluous Things: Material Culture and Social Status in Early Modern China Now in paperback This outstanding and original book, presented here with a new preface, examines the history of material culture in early modern China. Craig Clunas analyzes “superfluous things”—the paintings, calligraphy, bronzes, ceramics, carved jade, and other objects owned by the elites of Ming China—and describes contemporary attitudes to them. illus. “The sense of completeness that characterizes Clunas’ writing has something to do with the self-assured patter of his prose, with its intense and unwavering focus on the subject before him. “Bold and insightful.... “One of those rare books whose every chapter makes you think, often about features of Chinese society that we have too long taken for granted....

Syllabus Anth 330 Syllabus, Anthropology 330 Origins of Culture & Civilization Fall Semester 2001 College 220, MWF 12:10 Professor: T. A. Kohler Office: College Hall 394/396 Office Hours: M, Th 8-9:30 AM (or by appointment) Phone: 335-2698; e-mail I. To explore cultural evolution and diversity from the origins of the earliest hominids to the beginnings of state societies in the Old World, covering a time span of some 4 million years. the archaeology of the first hominids; the problem of the evolution of human cooperation; the in-creas-ing use of symbols in human communication in Upper Paleolithic art and in the appearance of writing; the rise and spread of the agricultural way of life and the formation of villages and towns; and the appearance and spread of "complex," state-level societies. This course is designed to serve both majors in anthropology (typically 30-40% of the class), and as a Tier II S GER. II. Class will meet M, W, & F at 12:10 for 50 minutes. III. IV. V. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Reward system Drugs of abuse target the brain's pleasure center.[1] Certain neural structures, called the reward system, are critically involved in mediating the effects of reinforcement. A reward is an appetitive stimulus given to a human or some other animal to alter its behavior. Reward or reinforcement is an objective way to describe the positive value that an individual ascribes to an object, behavioral act or an internal physical state. Definition[edit] In neuroscience, the reward system is a collection of brain structures that attempts to regulate and control behavior by inducing pleasurable effects. History[edit] James Olds and Peter Milner were researchers who found the reward system in 1954. Skinner box Anatomy of the reward system[edit] The major neurochemical pathway of the reward system in the brain involves the mesolimbic and mesocortical pathways. Animals vs humans[edit] Modulation by drugs[edit] Psychological drug tolerance[edit] Sensitization[edit] Neurotransmitters and reward circuits[edit]

Ming garden social dimension Aarne–Thompson–Uther Index Index used to classify folk narratives The Aarne–Thompson–Uther Index (ATU Index) is a catalogue of folktale types used in folklore studies. The ATU Index is the product of a series of revisions and expansions by an international group of scholars: Originally composed in German by Finnish folklorist Antti Aarne (1910); the index was translated into English, revised, and expanded by American folklorist Stith Thompson (1928, 1961); and later further revised and expanded by German folklorist Hans-Jörg Uther (2004). The ATU Index, along with Thompson's Motif-Index of Folk-Literature (1932) (with which it is used in tandem) is an essential tool for folklorists.[1] Definition of tale type[edit] In The Folktale, Thompson defines a tale type as follows: A type is a traditional tale that has an independent existence. Predecessors[edit] History[edit] System[edit] The Aarne–Thompson Tale Type Index divides tales into sections with an AT number for each entry. 510A Cinderella. Critical response[edit]

Pair bond In biology, a pair bond is the strong affinity that develops in some species between a pair consisting of a male and female, or in some cases as a same-sex pairing, potentially leading to producing offspring and/or a lifelong bond. Pair-bonding is a term coined in the 1940s[1] that is frequently used in sociobiology and evolutionary psychology circles. The term often implies either a lifelong socially monogamous relationship or a stage of mating interaction in socially monogamous species. It is sometimes used in reference to human relationships. Monogamous voles, such as prairie voles, have significantly greater density and distribution of vasopressin receptors in their brain when compared to polygamous voles. Both vasopressin and dopamine act in this region to coordinate rewarding activities such as mating, and regulate selective affiliation. Varieties[edit] Black-backed jackals are one of very few monogamous mammals. Examples[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] Jump up ^ "Pair-bond".

Karl Marx - Die Geschichte des Opiumhandels Seitenzahlen verweisen auf: Karl Marx/Friedrich Engels - Werke, (Karl) Dietz Verlag, Berlin. Band 12, Berlin/DDR 1961. S. 549-552. Geschrieben am 31. August 1858. ["New-York Daily Tribune" Nr. 5433 vom 20. <549> Die Nachricht vom neuen Vertrag, den die Bevollmächtigten der Verbündeten China abgerungen haben, scheint genau die gleichen phantastischen Vorstellungen von einer unermeßlichen Ausdehnung des Handels erweckt zu haben, wie sie der Geschäftswelt 1845 nach Beendigung des ersten chinesischen Krieges vorschwebten. "Ja, der Sklavenhandel war barmherzig, verglichen mit dem Opiumhandel. Die Chinesen können nicht gleichzeitig Gebrauchsgüter und Rauschgift abnehmen; unter den gegenwärtigen Umständen läuft die Ausdehnung des chinesischen Handels auf die Ausdehnung des Opiumhandels hinaus; das Anwachsen des letzteren ist unvereinbar mit der Entwicklung eines legitimen Handels - diese Feststellungen wurden vor zwei Jahren eigentlich allgemein anerkannt. "The Friend of China" vom 28.

Life expectancy a measure of average lifespan in a given population Life expectancy at birth, measured by region, between 1950 and 2050 Life expectancy by world region, from 1770 to 2018 National LEB figures reported by statistical national agencies and international organizations are indeed estimates of period LEB. Mathematically, life expectancy is the mean number of years of life remaining at a given age, assuming age-specific mortality rates remain at their most recently measured levels.[3] It is denoted by ,[a] which means the mean number of subsequent years of life for someone now aged , according to a particular mortality experience. Life expectancy is also used in plant or animal ecology;[4] life tables (also known as actuarial tables). Human patterns[edit] Maximum[edit] Variation over time[edit] The following information is derived from the 1961 Encyclopædia Britannica and other sources, some with questionable accuracy. Regional variations[edit] Economic circumstances[edit] Sex differences[edit] to age .

Dopamine Dopamine (contracted from 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is a hormone (also known as Prolactin Inhibiting Hormone/Factor - PIH or PIF) and neurotransmitter of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays a number of important roles in the human brain and body. Its name derives from its chemical structure: it is an amine that is formed by removing a carboxyl group from a molecule of L-DOPA. In the brain, dopamine functions as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other nerve cells. The brain includes several distinct dopamine systems, one of which plays a major role in reward-motivated behavior. Most types of reward increase the level of dopamine in the brain, and a variety of addictive drugs increase dopamine neuronal activity. Several important diseases of the nervous system are associated with dysfunctions of the dopamine system. Outside the nervous system, dopamine functions in several parts of the body as a local chemical messenger.

What is a Thesis Statement? - Stating the Aim of Your Paper One of the most important components of most scientific papers, whether essay or research paper, is the thesis statement. A thesis statement is a sentence that states what you want your paper to show, what you want to convince your readers after having read your thesis. This is the foundation of the entire work and informs the reader exactly what you wish to achieve with the paper, what you wish to prove or disprove. Unless you are documenting research or writing a purely descriptive essay, you will be basing the paper around this thesis statement, so it needs to be well thought out and described. What is a Thesis Statement Good For? If an assignment asks you analyze, argue, compare and contrast, establish a cause or otherwise interpret, the chances are that you will need to base it around a clearly defined thesis statement. This sets out your position, and every part of the paper will need to refer to back to it in some way. The Four Step Plan to Writing a Good Thesis Statement 1. 2. 3. 4.