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Ethnocentrism is judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one's own culture.[1][page needed] Ethnocentric individuals judge other groups relative to their own ethnic group or culture, especially with concern for language, behavior, customs, and religion. These ethnic distinctions and subdivisions serve to define each ethnicity's unique cultural identity.[2] Ethnocentrism may be overt or subtle, and while it is considered a natural proclivity of human psychology, it has developed a generally negative connotation.[3] Origins of the concept and its study[edit] William G. Anthropologists such as Franz Boas and Bronislaw Malinowski argued that any human science had to transcend the ethnocentrism of the scientist. Anthropology[edit] Examples of ethnocentrism include religiocentric constructs claiming a divine association like "divine nation", "One Nation under God", "God's Own Country", "God's Chosen People", and "God's Promised Land".[8] See also[edit] References[edit] Related:  High Middle agesBias

Gothic architecture The interior of the western end of Reims Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture. Originating in 12th-century France and lasting into the 16th century, Gothic architecture was known during the period as Opus Francigenum ("French work") with the term Gothic first appearing during the latter part of the Renaissance. Gothic architecture is most familiar as the architecture of many of the great cathedrals, abbeys and churches of Europe. It is in the great churches and cathedrals and in a number of civic buildings that the Gothic style was expressed most powerfully, its characteristics lending themselves to appeals to the emotions, whether springing from faith or from civic pride. The term "Gothic"[edit] According to a 19th-century correspondent in the London Journal Notes and Queries: Definition and scope[edit] Influences[edit]

The Narrative Fallacy: Why You Shouldn’t Copy Steve Jobs There are dozens of blog posts about Ben Franklin’s strict daily routine (and they all almost always include this picture), advocating that we should follow suit. Writers love to point out how Maya Angelou made sure she wrote in a hotel room every day to help give her a safe space to work. A young Steve Jobs lived an extremely sparse possession-free lifestyle, and thousands of techies have attempted to emulate this no-nonsense, minimalistic living style. This kind of hero worship can be a good thing, it can be a guiding light. But this has also given rise to the dramatic oversimplification of entire lives. Pictured: A young Steve Jobs in his minimalist apartment. What happens is we have wantrepreneurs and armchair creatives thinking they are walking in the footsteps of the greats by focusing on “productivity hacks” instead of, you know, doing the work. Even our modern day tycoons are not immune. Think of the startup myth of a bunch guys in a garage.

Superfluous Things: Material Culture and Social Status in Early Modern China Now in paperback This outstanding and original book, presented here with a new preface, examines the history of material culture in early modern China. Craig Clunas analyzes “superfluous things”—the paintings, calligraphy, bronzes, ceramics, carved jade, and other objects owned by the elites of Ming China—and describes contemporary attitudes to them. illus. “The sense of completeness that characterizes Clunas’ writing has something to do with the self-assured patter of his prose, with its intense and unwavering focus on the subject before him. “Bold and insightful.... “One of those rare books whose every chapter makes you think, often about features of Chinese society that we have too long taken for granted....

Crisis of the Late Middle Ages The Crisis of the Late Middle Ages refers to a series of events in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries that brought centuries of European prosperity and growth to a halt.[1] Three major crises led to radical changes in all areas of society - they were demographic collapse, political instabilities and religious upheavals. A series of famines and plagues, beginning with the Great Famine of 1315-1317 and especially the Black Death of 1348, reduced the population perhaps by half or more as the Medieval Warm Period came to a close and the first century of the Little Ice Age began. Along with depopulation came social unrest and endemic warfare. Soil exhaustion, overpopulation, wars, and epidemic diseases helped cause hundreds of famines in Europe during the Middle Ages, including 95 in Britain and 75 in France.[2][3] In France, the Hundred Years' War, crop failures and epidemics reduced the population by two-thirds.[4] Demography[edit] Popular revolt[edit] Political and religious[edit]

Correlation does not imply causation The counter assumption, that correlation proves causation, is considered a questionable cause logical fallacy in that two events occurring together are taken to have a cause-and-effect relationship. This fallacy is also known as cum hoc ergo propter hoc, Latin for "with this, therefore because of this", and "false cause". A similar fallacy, that an event that follows another was necessarily a consequence of the first event, is sometimes described as post hoc ergo propter hoc (Latin for "after this, therefore because of this"). As with any logical fallacy, identifying that the reasoning behind an argument is flawed does not imply that the resulting conclusion is false. Usage[edit] In logic, the technical use of the word "implies" means "to be a sufficient circumstance". However, in casual use, the word "imply" loosely means suggests rather than requires. "Empirically observed covariation is a necessary but not sufficient condition for causality."" General pattern[edit] Example 1 Example 2

Ming garden social dimension Christian monasticism 'St. Paul the Hermit Fed by the Raven', after Il Guercino, Dayton Art Institute Christian monasticism is the devotional practice of individuals who live ascetic and typically cloistered lives that are dedicated to Christian worship. It began to develop early in the history of the Christian Church, modeled upon scriptural examples and ideals, including those in the Old Testament, but not mandated as an institution in the scriptures. It has come to be regulated by religious rules (e.g. the Rule of St Basil, the Rule of St Benedict, the Rule of Saint Augustine) and, in modern times, the Canon law of the respective Christian denominations that have forms of monastic living. Life[edit] The basic idea of monasticism in all its varieties is seclusion or withdrawal from the world or society. Monks and friars are two distinct roles. History[edit] Biblical precedent[edit] Early Christianity[edit] Eremitic Monasticism[edit] Another option for becoming a solitary monastic was to become an anchoress.

Work skills of the future: constructive uncertainty In recent years, science has shed a great deal of light on human cognitive bias, but, lamentably, the impacts of those breakthroughs in understanding cognition have yet to be felt in business, for the most part. The first step for anyone who wants to counter our in-built biases is to be aware of them and take actions that will counter them, to the extent that is possible. That final proviso is based on science, again. Two well-known examples are sharedness bias and preference bias in group decision making (for a longer discussion, see Dissensus, not consensus, is the shorter but steeper path). Sharedness bias is the tendency of a group to judge shared information — information which all or most are aware of prior to entering a discussion — as being more relevant, important, accurate, and influential than unshared information. But just making members of the group aware of these biases does not extinguish them. Other well-known biases lurk in our world.

Karl Marx - Die Geschichte des Opiumhandels Seitenzahlen verweisen auf: Karl Marx/Friedrich Engels - Werke, (Karl) Dietz Verlag, Berlin. Band 12, Berlin/DDR 1961. S. 549-552. Geschrieben am 31. August 1858. ["New-York Daily Tribune" Nr. 5433 vom 20. <549> Die Nachricht vom neuen Vertrag, den die Bevollmächtigten der Verbündeten China abgerungen haben, scheint genau die gleichen phantastischen Vorstellungen von einer unermeßlichen Ausdehnung des Handels erweckt zu haben, wie sie der Geschäftswelt 1845 nach Beendigung des ersten chinesischen Krieges vorschwebten. "Ja, der Sklavenhandel war barmherzig, verglichen mit dem Opiumhandel. Die Chinesen können nicht gleichzeitig Gebrauchsgüter und Rauschgift abnehmen; unter den gegenwärtigen Umständen läuft die Ausdehnung des chinesischen Handels auf die Ausdehnung des Opiumhandels hinaus; das Anwachsen des letzteren ist unvereinbar mit der Entwicklung eines legitimen Handels - diese Feststellungen wurden vor zwei Jahren eigentlich allgemein anerkannt. "The Friend of China" vom 28.

Science in the Middle Ages The history of science is the study of the historical development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural sciences and social sciences. (The history of the arts and humanities is termed as the history of scholarship.) From the 18th century through late 20th century, the history of science, especially of the physical and biological sciences, was often presented in a progressive narrative in which true theories replaced false beliefs.[1] More recent historical interpretations, such as those of Thomas Kuhn, tend to portray the history of science in more nuanced terms, such as that of competing paradigms or conceptual systems in a wider matrix that includes intellectual, cultural, economic and political themes outside of science.[2] Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by scientists who emphasize the observation, explanation, and prediction of real world phenomena. Early cultures[edit] and again: