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How Cells Obtain Energy

How Cells Obtain Energy
Related:  Physiology & GeneticsGeneral Biology

Antibiotics resistance 'as big a risk as terrorism' - medical chief 11 March 2013Last updated at 09:36 ET By Fergus Walsh Medical correspondent Professor Dame Sally Davies: "If you get an infection in your bloodstream, in about 10, 20 years it might be untreatable" The danger posed by growing resistance to antibiotics should be ranked along with terrorism on a list of threats to the nation, the government's chief medical officer for England has said. Professor Dame Sally Davies described it as a "ticking time bomb". She warned that routine operations could become deadly in just 20 years if we lose the ability to fight infection. Dame Sally urged the government to raise the issue during next month's G8 Summit in London. Continue reading the main story Antimicrobial resistance Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat. It happens when organisms are able to survive medicines aimed to destroy them. Bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics, viruses to antivirals and parasites to drugs like antimalarials. Continue reading the main story Your stories

New wonder drug matches and kills all kinds of cancer — human testing starts 2014 Stanford researchers are on track to begin human trials of a potentially potent new weapon against cancer, and would-be participants are flooding in following the Post’s initial report on the discovery. The progress comes just two months after the groundbreaking study by Dr Irv Weissman, who developed an antibody that breaks down a cancer’s defense mechanisms in the body. A protein called CD47 tells the body not to “eat” the cancer, but the antibody developed by Dr Weissman blocks CD47 and frees up immune cells called macrophages — which can then engulf the deadly cells. The new research shows the miraculous macrophages effectively act as intelligence gatherers for the body, pointing out cancerous cells to cancer-fighting “killer T” cells. The T cells then “learn” to hunt down and attack the cancer, the researchers claim. The clinical implications of the process could be profound in the war on cancer. This turns them into a personalized cancer vaccine.

EnergyDrinksLesson.pdf Voyage inside the cell Célula: Teoría celular Los conceptos de materia viva y célula están estrechamente ligados. La materia viva se distingue de la no viva por su capacidad para metabolizar y autoperpetuarse, además de contar con las estructuras que hacen posible la ocurrencia de estas dos funciones; si la materia metaboliza y se autoperpetúa por sí misma, se dice que está viva. La célula es el nivel de organización de la materia más pequeño que tiene la capacidad para metabolizar y autoperpetuarse, por lo tanto, tiene vida y es la responsable de las características vitales de los organismos. En la célula ocurren todas las reacciones químicas que nos ayudan a mantenernos como individuos y como especie. Estas reacciones hacen posible la fabricación de nuevos materiales para crecer, reproducirse, repararse y autorregularse; asimismo, produce la energía necesaria para que esto suceda. Para 1838 Mathias Schleiden, un botánico de origen alemán, llegaba a la conclusión de que todos los tejidos vegetales estaban formados por células. 1.

Dundee-led project to create an ultrasound pill 12 March 2013Last updated at 07:13 ET The "sonopill" aims to avoid the need for uncomfortable endoscopic exams A University of Dundee-led project to develop a pill that can carry ultrasound technology has been awarded a £5m grant. The "sonopill" would relay ultrasound images from inside the body after being swallowed by patients. It is hoped it could allow gastrointestinal problems to be diagnosed without the need for uncomfortable endoscopic exams. The funding is from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. Researchers have already developed pills that contain tiny cameras. The "sonopill" aims to push that technology further. Less discomfort Prof Sandy Cochran, from the Institute for Medical Science and Technology at the University of Dundee, said: "The principal current method of examining problems within the gastrointestinal tract is endoscopy, which is very uncomfortable and requires a high-level of clinical skill.

Testicle size 'link to father role' 9 September 2013Last updated at 20:28 ET A link between the size of a father's testicles and how active he is in bringing up his children has been suggested by scientists. Researchers at Emory University, US, said those with smaller testicles were more likely to be involved with nappy changing, feeding and bath time. They also found differences in brain scans of fathers looking at images of their child, linked to testicle size. But other factors, such as cultural expectations, also played a role. Levels of promiscuity and testicle size are strongly linked in animals, those with the largest pair tending to mate with more partners. The researchers were investigating an evolutionary theory about trade-offs between investing time and effort in mating or putting that energy into raising children. The study, in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, looked at the relationship between testicle size and fatherhood in 70 men who had children between the ages of one and two.

How does caffeine affect the body? Biologist Neal J. Smatresk--Dean of the College of Science at the University of Texas at Arlington--offers this explanation: Caffeine--the drug that gives coffee and cola its kick--has a number of physiological effects. At the cellular level, caffeine blocks the action of a chemical called phosphodiesterase (PDE). Inside cells, PDE normally breaks down the second chemical messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Many hormones and neurotransmitters cannot cross the cell membrane, and so they exert their actions indirectly via such second messengers; when they bind to a receptor on the surface of a cell, it initiates a chemical chain reaction called an enzyme cascade that results in the formation of second messenger chemicals. Historically, cAMP was the first second messenger ever described. Thus, when caffeine stops the breakdown of cAMP, its effects are prolonged, and the response throughout the body is effectively amplified.

Proyecto Biosfera En este reino se incluyen organismos muy pequeños, que sólo pueden ser observados con microscopios muy potentes. Todos los individuos de este Reino se caracterizan por ser: Estructura de las células procariotas Las células procariotas tienen una estructura muy sencilla. Una pared celular rígida y dura. Child born with HIV cured by US doctors Link to video: HIV baby cured by US doctors Doctors in the US have made medical history by effectively curing a child born with HIV, the first time such a case has been documented. The infant, who is now two and a half, needs no medication for HIV, has a normal life expectancy and is highly unlikely to be infectious to others, doctors believe. Though medical staff and scientists are unclear why the treatment was effective, the surprise success has raised hopes that the therapy might ultimately help doctors eradicate the virus among newborns. Doctors did not release the name or sex of the child to protect the patient's identity, but said the infant was born, and lived, in Mississippi state. Dr Hannah Gay, who cared for the child at the University of Mississippi medical centre, told the Guardian the case amounted to the first "functional cure" of an HIV-infected child. "We expect that this baby has great chances for a long, healthy life. Doctors began treating the baby 30 hours after birth.

Peru Bans Monsanto and GMOs The first time I ever tasted a real tomato, I was in Cusco, Peru. I had picked them up at a Farmer’s Market, bought them from an old lady with wizened wrinkles and sun-browned skin. She’d carried a basket of them to market on foot from her scrap of land somewhere far down the mountain. I fell in love with the country and it’s people, the Quechua indians who are the remnants of the once proud Incas. Thanks to the indomitable spirit of that people, a ten-year ban on GMOs takes effect this week in Peru! Stephanie Whiteside reports, Peru’s ban on GMO foods prohibits the import, production and use of genetically modified foods. The victory is a long time coming. The decree banning GMO foods was drafted in 2008. A study done in April of 2011 by the Peruvian Association of Consumers and Users (ASPEC) tested 13 products purchased in major supermarkets and shops in Lima, Peru. President of ASPEC, Crisólogo Cáceres, comments, Protecting Bio-diversity Why 10 years? Want to know more about GMOs?

How do you cite website material that has no author, no year, and no page numbers? Because the material does not include page numbers, you can include any of the following in the text to cite the quotation (from pp. 170–171 of the Publication Manual): A paragraph number, if provided; alternatively, you could count paragraphs down from the beginning of the document. An overarching heading plus a paragraph number within that section. A short title in quotation marks, in cases in which the heading is too unwieldy to cite in full. Because there is no date and no author, your text citation would include the title (or short title) "n.d." for no date, and paragraph number (e.g., "Heuristic," n.d., para. 1). Heuristic. (adapted from the sixth edition of the APA Publication Manual, © 2010) Because the material does not include page numbers, you can include any of the following in the text to cite the quotation (from pp. 170–171 of the Publication Manual): A paragraph number, if provided; alternatively, you could count paragraphs down from the beginning of the document.

El límite de lo que se considera vida: viroides y partículas de RNA La capacidad de hacer copias de uno mismo es la base misma de la herencia, y por lo tanto, es lo que permite la evolución biológica. Hasta principios de los años 70 se pensaba que la única molécula capaz de lograr esto era el DNA, pero en esa década quedó comprobado que el RNA también podía autoreplicarse. El proceso de copia normal tanto en las pequeñas bacterias como en nuestras células más complejas implica a una enzima, la RNA-polimerasa, que, a partir de la doble hélice de DNA, genera una “copia” o transcripción en el formato de una larga molécula de RNA, que a su vez acabará dando lugar a la síntesis de proteínas. Un proceso que está ocurriendo millones de veces en paralelo ahora mismo en tu cuerpo. Para más detalles sobre esto, ver el siguiente vídeo o este post antiguo. De manera similar a las enzimas que permiten transformar cadenas de DNA en RNA mensajero, existen algunas versiones de RNA polimerasa que generan RNA… a partir de RNA. Esquema de partícula viral de la gripe.

Getting stem cells from urine Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been generated with varied efficiencies from multiple tissues. Yet, acquiring donor cells is, in most instances, an invasive procedure that requires laborious isolation. Here we present a detailed protocol for generating human iPSCs from exfoliated renal epithelial cells present in urine. This method is advantageous in many circumstances, as the isolation of urinary cells is simple (30 ml of urine are sufficient), cost-effective and universal (can be applied to any age, gender and race). Moreover, the entire procedure is reasonably quick—around 2 weeks for the urinary cell culture and 3–4 weeks for the reprogramming—and the yield of iPSC colonies is generally high—up to 4% using retroviral delivery of exogenous factors. View full text Figures

Les explications sont bonnes et exactes, par contre la qualité vidéo laisse à désirer. by juliendemers Feb 12