Anarchism The central tendency of anarchism as a social movement has been represented by anarcho-communism and anarcho-syndicalism, with individualist anarchism being primarily a literary phenomenon which nevertheless did have an impact on the bigger currents and individualists have also participated in large anarchist organisations. Many anarchists oppose all forms of aggression, supporting self-defense or non-violence (anarcho-pacifism), while others have supported the use of some coercive measures, including violent revolution and propaganda of the deed, on the path to an anarchist society. Etymology and terminology The term anarchism is a compound word composed from the word anarchy and the suffix -ism, themselves derived respectively from the Greek ἀναρχία, i.e. anarchy (from ἄναρχος, anarchos, meaning "one without rulers"; from the privative prefix ἀν- (an-, i.e. "without") + ἀρχός, archos, i.e. History Origins
Free-market anarchism The term may be used to refer to diverse economic and political concepts, such as those proposed by anarchist libertarian socialists like Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Benjamin Tucker, and Lysander Spooner, or alternatively anarcho-capitalists like Murray Rothbard and David D. Friedman. The ideology in favor of capitalism has ancestry in the laissez-faire ideas of Julius Faucher and Gustave de Molinari. History Gustave de Molinari was one of the first to discuss competition in security. One of the first individuals to propose the concept of market protection of individual liberty and property was France's Jakob Mauvillon in the 18th century. Internal disputes Aside from their agreement that security should be privately provided by market-based entities, proponents of free-market anarchism differ in other details and aspects of their philosophies, particularly justification, tactics and property rights. Views on property Tuckerites Rothbardians
Peggy Kornegger Peggy Kornegger is an American writer and editor whose work has appeared in a wide variety of feminist, spiritual, and political publications, including Spirit of Change, Bay Windows, Sojourner, Second Wave, Sinister Wisdom, and Plexus. In the 1970s, she was an editor of Second Wave magazine and the book Women and Literature: An Annotated Bibliography of Women Writers. Her Second Wave article "Anarchism: The Feminist Connection" was reprinted as a booklet in New York and London, translated into Italian for a journal in Italy, and included in the book Reinventing Anarchy. In the 1990s, she changed the focus of her writing to a more spiritual perspective. Her book Living with Spirit, Journey of a Flower Child was published in 2009. Publications Anarchism: The Feminist Connection (1975)Living with Spirit, Journey of a Flower Child (2009) References Jump up ^ Peggy Kornegger (1982).
Conspiracy of Fire Nuclei - Wikipedia The Conspiracy of Fire Nuclei (Greek: Συνωμοσία των Πυρήνων της Φωτιάς, Synomosía Pyrínon Tis Fotiás –SPF), also translated as Conspiracy of Fire Cells or Conspiracy of Cells of Fire, is a radical anarchist organization based in Greece. The SPF first surfaced on January 21, 2008, with a wave of 11 firebombings against luxury car dealerships and banks in Athens and Thessaloniki. Monthly waves of arson have been followed by proclamations expressing solidarity with arrested anarchists in Greece and elsewhere. In September 2009, following an escalation to the use of crude time bombs, four suspected members of the group were arrested. In November 2010 two more suspects were arrested while attempting to mail parcel bombs to embassies and EU leaders and organizations. History 2010 parcel bombs and arrests On November 1, a package addressed to the Mexican Embassy in Athens exploded in the office of a courier company, scorching the hands of the employee who handled it.
Collectivist anarchism For the collectivization of the means of production, it was originally envisaged that workers will revolt and forcibly collectivize the means of production. Once collectivization takes place, money would be abolished to be replaced with labour notes and workers' salaries would be determined, in democratic organizations of voluntary membership, based on job difficulty and the amount of time they contributed to production. These salaries would be used to purchase goods in a communal market. This contrasts with anarcho-communism where wages would be abolished, and where individuals would take freely from a storehouse of goods "to each according to his need." Thus, Bakunin's "Collectivist Anarchism," notwithstanding the title, is seen as a blend of individualism and collectivism. Collectivist anarchism is most commonly associated with Mikhail Bakunin, the anti-authoritarian sections of the First International, and the early Spanish anarchist movement. The First International
Communist state Map of countries that declared themselves to be socialist states under the Marxist–Leninist or Maoist definition - that is to say, "Communist states" - between 1979 and 1983. This period marked the greatest territorial extent of Communist states. In a Communist state, the Communist party is the nucleus of socialist society. Other parties may function alongside the Communist party occasionally, but parties advocating the restoration of capitalism are typically prohibited. Using Marxism-Leninism as a method of understanding the material and social conditions of society, the Communist party governs according to what the society's historical and national characteristics demand in order to unleash the productive forces and further advance towards communism. During the 20th century, the world's first constitutionally socialist state was in Russia in 1917. Types of socialist states State institutions State social institutions In some socialist states,[which?] Political power Criticism Modern period
Social anarchism Libertarian socialists believe in converting present-day private property into the commons or public goods, while retaining respect for personal property. Social anarchism is used to specifically describe tendencies within anarchism that have an emphasis on the communitarian and cooperative aspects of anarchist theory and practice. Social anarchism is generally considered an umbrella term that includes (but is not limited to) anarcho-collectivism, anarcho-communism, anarcho-syndicalism, and social ecology. Social anarchism is often used as a term interchangeably with libertarian socialism, left-libertarianism, or left-anarchism. The term emerged in the late 19th century as a distinction from individualist anarchism. Historical currents Mutualism Collectivist anarchism Anarchist communism Anarcho-communist Peter Kropotkin believed that in anarchy, workers would spontaneously self-organize to produce goods for all of society. Anarcho-syndicalism
The Case Against Hierarchy Pequeño manual individualista de Han Ryner. captura y diseño, Chantal Lopez y Omar Cortes para la Biblioteca Virtual Antorcha De las relaciones sociales ¿El trabajo es una ley social o una ley natural? El trabajo es una ley natural agravada por la sociedad. ¿Cómo la sociedad agrava la ley natural del trabajo? De tres modos: 1.- Exime arbitrariamente a un cierto número de hombres de todo trabajo y echa la parte de carga sobre los demás hombres; 2.- Emplea muchos hombres en trabajos inútiles, en funciones sociales; 3.- Multiplica en todos, y particularmente, en los ricos, las necesidades imaginarias e impone al pobre el odioso trabajo necesario a la satisfacción de estas necesidades. ¿Por qué encontráis natural la ley del trabajo? Porque mi cuerpo tiene necesidades naturales que sólo los productos del trabajo satisfarán. ¿No consideráis, entonces, como trabajo más que el trabajo manual? Sin duda. ¿No tiene también necesidades naturales el espíritu? La sola necesidad natural de nuestras facultades intelectuales es el ejercicio. ¿No son necesarios obreros especiales para dar al espíritu ocasiones de jugar? Puede. Sí. ¿Por qué?
Freethought For the Ukrainian language newspaper published in Australia, see The Free Thought. Freethought or free thought is a philosophical viewpoint which holds that positions regarding truth should be formed on the basis of logic, reason, and empiricism, rather than authority, tradition, or other dogmas. The cognitive application of freethought is known as "freethinking", and practitioners of freethought are known as "freethinkers". Freethought holds that individuals should not accept ideas proposed as truth without recourse to knowledge and reason. A line from "Clifford's Credo" by the 19th-century British mathematician and philosopher William Kingdon Clifford perhaps best describes the premise of freethought: "It is wrong always, everywhere, and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence Symbol The pansy, symbol of freethought History Pre-modern movement "So had Gargantua established it. Modern movements England France Germany
Free love Free love is a social movement that rejects marriage, which is seen as a form of social and financial bondage. The Free Love movement's initial goal was to separate the state from sexual matters such as marriage, birth control, and adultery. It claimed that such issues were the concern of the people involved, and no one else. Many people believe marriage is an important aspect of life to "fulfil earthly human happiness." According to today's stereotype, earlier middle-class Americans wanted the home to be a place of stability in an uncertain world. To this mentality are attributed strongly defined gender roles, which led to a minority reaction in the form of the free love movement. While the phrase free love is often associated with promiscuity in the popular imagination, especially in reference to the counterculture of the 1960s and 1970s, historically the free-love movement has not advocated multiple sexual partners or short-term sexual relationships. The women's movement
Green anarchism Green anarchism (or eco-anarchism) is a school of thought within anarchism which puts a particular emphasis on environmental issues. A green anarchist theory is normally one that extends anarchist ideology beyond a critique of human interactions, and includes a critique of the interactions between humans and non-humans as well. This often culminates in an anarchist revolutionary praxis that is not merely dedicated to human liberation, but also to some form of ecological liberation, and that aims to bring about an environmentally sustainable anarchist society. Early ecoanarchism Henry David Thoreau Anarchism started to have an ecological view mainly in the writings of American anarchist and transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau. As such "Many have seen in Thoreau one of the precursors of ecologism and anarcho-primitivism represented today in John Zerzan. Élisée Reclus Main article: Élisée Reclus Élisée Reclus, French anarchist geographer and early environmentalist