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Norman Borlaug

Norman Borlaug
Norman Ernest Borlaug (March 25, 1914 – September 12, 2009)[2] was an American biologist, humanitarian and Nobel laureate who has been called "the father of the Green Revolution",[3] "agriculture's greatest spokesperson"[4] and "The Man Who Saved A Billion Lives".[5][6] He is one of seven people to have won the Nobel Peace Prize, the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal[7] and was also awarded the Padma Vibhushan, India's second highest civilian honor.[8] During the mid-20th century, Borlaug led the introduction of these high-yielding varieties combined with modern agricultural production techniques to Mexico, Pakistan, and India. As a result, Mexico became a net exporter of wheat by 1963. Later in his life, he helped apply these methods of increasing food production to Asia and Africa.[11] Early life, education and family[edit] Borlaug had the great-grandchild of Norwegian immigrants to the United States. "Wrestling taught me some valuable lessons ...

Green Revolution — — Readability The Green Revolution increased in production needed to make India self-sufficient in food grains. These three measures adopted for the improvement of agriculture, food grain production in India increased by 25% in 1967-68 as compared to 1966-67. It was a revolution because of so much increase in the production in just one year. The term "Green Revolution" was first used in 1968 by then USAID director William Gaud. Was Green Revolution confined to India? No, It started from Mexico with the efforts of Dr. Who was Dr. Dr. How Norman's efforts in Mexico expanded? Dr. In India, M. Which were the High Yielding Variety Seeds? The following HYV seeds were used in the green revolution: Wheat: Sona, PB 18, Kalyan Bajra: HV 1 Maize: Ganga 101, Ranjit Jowar : CSH 2 The seeds were first used under IADP but the HVYP used these seeds exhastively along with the other measures. What was the result of the Green Revolution? The green revolution resulted in increased productivity in India. What was role of Dr. Dr.

Green Revolution Increased use of various technologies such as pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers as well as new breeds of high yield crops were employed in the decades after the Second World War to greatly increase global food production. The Green Revolution refers to a series of research, and development, and technology transfer initiatives, occurring between the 1940s and the late 1960s, that increased agriculture production worldwide, particularly in the developing world, beginning most markedly in the late 1960s.[1] The initiatives, led by Norman Borlaug, the "Father of the Green Revolution" credited with saving over a billion people from starvation, involved the development of high-yielding varieties of cereal grains, expansion of irrigation infrastructure, modernization of management techniques, distribution of hybridized seeds, synthetic fertilizers, and pesticides to farmers. History[edit] Wheat yields in developing countries, 1950 to 2004, kg/HA baseline 500. IR8 and the Philippines[edit]

Rural Electrification Corporation Limited National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research The National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research (NCAUR) (sometimes still called the Northern Lab) is an United States Department of Agriculture laboratory center in Peoria, Illinois. The Center researches new industrial and food uses for agricultural commodities, develops new technology to improve environmental quality, and provides technical support to federal regulatory and action agencies.[1] With approximately 270,000 square feet (25,000 m2), NCAUR is the largest of the Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) research centers. The world renowned ARS Microbial Culture Collection is maintained at this facility.[1] History[edit] NCAUR was one of four regional labs set up by the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938, when Peoria, Illinois was chosen to host this facility, named the Northern Regional Laboratory. The Northern Lab was renamed the National Center for Agricultural Utilization research in 1990. Operation[edit] See also[edit] Penicillin References[edit] External links[edit]

High Yielding Variety Programme — — Readability High Yielding Variety Programme (HYVP): 1966-67 The High Yielding Variety Programme (HYVP) was launched in the Kharif of 1966-67 with an objective to attain self-sufficiency in food by 1970-71. The core philosophy of the programme was to increase the productivity of food grains by adopting latest varieties of inputs of crops. Introduction of new high yielding varieties of improved seeds and enhanced application of the fertilizers and extended use of pesticides were its main features. The Farmers were extended finance through a relaxed mechanism by the Reserve Bank of India through the Central Cooperative Banks. This programme in the 4th five year plan was a major breakthrough and a turning point in the history of agriculture development in India. The High Yielding Variety Programme envisaged the introduction of High-yielding varieties of seeds Increased use of fertilizers Increased irrigation. Download article as PDF

Haber process The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is the industrial implementation of the reaction of nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas. It is the main industrial procedure to produce ammonia:[1] Nitrogen is a strong limiting mineral nutrient in plant growth. Carbon and oxygen are also critical, but are easily obtained by plants from soil and air. Even though air is 78% nitrogen, atmospheric nitrogen is nutritionally unavailable because nitrogen molecules are held together by strong triple bonds. Nitrogen must be 'fixed', i.e. converted into some bioavailable form, through natural or man-made processes. Fertilizer generated from ammonia produced by the Haber process is estimated to be responsible for sustaining one-third of the Earth's population.[6] It is estimated that half of the protein within human beings is made of nitrogen that was originally fixed by this process; the remainder was produced by nitrogen fixing bacteria and archaea.[7] History[edit] The process[edit] energy diagram

Short Notes on Credit Authorisation Scheme of Credit — — Readability The Credit Authorisation Scheme (CAS) for bank advances was introduced by the Reserve Bank of India in 1965. Under the Scheme, all scheduled commercial banks have to obtain prior authorisation of the Reserve Bank before granting any fresh credit limit of Rs. 1 crore or more to any single borrower. This limit was, however, raised to Rs. 2 crores in 1975. The banks first scrutinise the proposals of the borrowers and then send them to the Reserve Bank for approval. The Reserve Bank goes through the proposal and if found suitable, then it may authorise the concerned bank to sanction the loans asked for. Recently, following the Vaghul Committee's Report on Money Market, certain changes have been introduced in the CAS for promoting the bill financing. (ii) Sanctioning of separate additional ad hoc inland bill limit is left to the discretion of the banks. (Hi) All borrowers subject to the CAS have to attain a ratio of bill acceptances to total inland credit purchases of 25 per cent.

Fritz Haber Fritz Haber (9 December 1868 – 29 January 1934) was a German chemist of Jewish origin, who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his development for synthesizing ammonia, important for fertilizers and explosives. The food production for half the world's current population depends on this method for producing fertilizer. Haber, along with Max Born, proposed the Born–Haber cycle as a method for evaluating the lattice energy of an ionic solid. Early life, education and early career[edit] Haber was born in Breslau, Prussia (now Wrocław, Poland), into a Hasidic Jewish family. Nobel Prize[edit] During his time at University of Karlsruhe from 1894 to 1911, Fritz Haber and Carl Bosch developed the Haber process, which is the catalytic formation of ammonia from hydrogen and atmospheric nitrogen under conditions of high temperature and pressure.[3] He was awarded the 1918 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for this work (he actually received the award in 1919).[4] World War I[edit] Post-war[edit]

Intensive Agriculture Area programme (IAAP): Forgotten Benefactor of Humanity - Gregg Easterbrook Norman Borlaug, the agronomist whose discoveries sparked the Green Revolution, has saved literally millions of lives, yet he is hardly a household name AMERICA has three living winners of the Nobel Peace Prize, two universally renowned and the other so little celebrated that not one person in a hundred would be likely to pick his face out of a police lineup, or even recognize his name. The universally known recipients are Elie Wiesel, who for leading an exemplary life has been justly rewarded with honor and acclaim, and Henry Kissinger, who in the aftermath of his Nobel has realized wealth and prestige. America's third peace-prize winner, in contrast, has been the subject of little public notice, and has passed up every opportunity to parley his award into riches or personal distinction. And the third winner's accomplishments, unlike Kissinger's, are morally unambiguous. NORMAN BORLAUG was born in Cresco, Iowa, in 1914. At the same time, the Midwest was becoming the Dust Bowl.

Intensive Agriculture Development program — — Readability Intensive Agriculture Development program (IADP) Intensive Agriculture Development program (IADP) was the first major experiment of Indian government in the field of agriculture and it was also known as a "package programme" as it was based upon the package approach. The core philosophy was to provide loan for seeds and fertilizers to farmers. Intensive Agriculture Development program was started with the assistance of Ford Foundation. It was launched as pilot basis in one district of 7 states at that time. The BDOs and VLWs were made double in number and "Agriculture Extension Officers" were appointed. The major difference between the CDP and IADP was that CDP was a generalized development programme while the IADP was a "sectoral development programme" However, when this programme was expanded to rest of the country, the staff of BDOs and VLWs was reduced, to compromise on economic backend. Production of wheat as well rice increased. Download article as PDF

Notes on the structure of community development programme in India — — Readability Community development programme being one of the most priorities in the planning of the country has drawn the attention of thinkers, leaders and administrators. There have been constant trials to develop an organisational pattern which will be able to keep vertical as well horizontal relationship between people and government machinery at all levels from village to country. Thus its organisatiooal pattern has been changing from time to time. Hence a variation is marked in its organisation in different states. At an initial stage, the programme had a central committee at the national level. This committee was given the responsibility of making decisions for implementation of the programme. A separate central ministry was created in 1956 to look into the works of community development under the name ministry of community development. i) It serves as a co ordinate at the Centre: ii) It works as a propagator of the ideology of community development: iii) It also helps in promoting people: