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Nelson Mandela - Facts & Summary

Nelson Mandela - Facts & Summary
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Iran Hostage Crisis - Facts & Summary By the 1970s, many Iranians were fed up with the Shah’s government. In protest, they turned to the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a radical cleric whose revolutionary Islamist movement seemed to promise a break from the past and a turn toward greater autonomy for the Iranian people. In July 1979, the revolutionaries forced the Shah to disband his government and flee to Egypt. The Ayatollah installed a militant Islamist government in its place. The United States, fearful of stirring up hostilities in the Middle East, did not come to the defense of its old ally. On November 4, just after the Shah arrived in New York, a group of pro-Ayatollah students smashed the gates and scaled the walls of the American embassy in Tehran. Diplomatic maneuvers had no discernible effect on the Ayatollah’s anti-American stance; neither did economic sanctions such as the seizure of Iranian assets in the United States.

Biography Rolihlahla Mandela was born into the Madiba clan in Mvezo, Transkei, on July 18, 1918, to Nonqaphi Nosekeni and Nkosi Mphakanyiswa Gadla Mandela, principal counsellor to the Acting King of the Thembu people, Jongintaba Dalindyebo. His father died when he was 12 years old (1930) and the young Rolihlahla became a ward of Jongintaba at the Great Place in Mqhekezweni.* Hearing the elder’s stories of his ancestor’s valour during the wars of resistance, he dreamed also of making his own contribution to the freedom struggle of his people. He attended primary school in Qunu where his teacher Miss Mdingane gave him the name Nelson, in accordance with the custom to give all school children “Christian” names. He completed his Junior Certificate at Clarkebury Boarding Institute and went on to Healdtown, a Wesleyan secondary school of some repute, where he matriculated. He completed his BA through the University of South Africa and went back to Fort Hare for his graduation in 1943.

Nelson Mandela - Biography - President (non-U.S.), Writer, Civil Rights Activist Nelson Mandela became the first black president of South Africa in 1994, serving until 1999. A symbol of global peacemaking, he won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. Synopsis Nelson Mandela was born on July 18, 1918, in Mveso, Transkei, South Africa. Becoming actively involved in the anti-apartheid movement in his 20s, Mandela joined the African National Congress in 1942. Early Life Nelson Mandela was born Rolihlahla Mandela on July 18, 1918, in the tiny village of Mvezo, on the banks of the Mbashe River in Transkei, South Africa. Nelson Mandela's father, who was destined to be a chief, served as a counselor to tribal chiefs for several years, but lost both his title and fortune over a dispute with the local colonial magistrate. At the suggestion of one of his father's friends, Mandela was baptized in the Methodist Church. When Mandela was 9 years old, his father died of lung disease, causing his life to change dramatically. Mandela's Imprisonment Prison Release and Presidency In Recent Years

Robben Island Robben Island Robben Island was used at various times between the 17th and 20th centuries as a prison, a hospital for socially unacceptable groups and a military base. Its buildings, particularly those of the late 20th century such as the maximum security prison for political prisoners, witness the triumph of democracy and freedom over oppression and racism. Robben Island a été utilisée à différentes époques entre le XVIIe et le XXe siècle comme prison, hôpital pour les malades socialement indésirables et base militaire. Ses bâtiments, et en particulier ceux du XXe siècle, la prison à haute sécurité pour les prisonniers politiques, témoignent de l'oppression et du racisme qui régnaient avant le triomphe de la démocratie et de la liberté. جزيرة روبن تمّ استعمال جزيرة روبن خلال مراحل مختلفة بين القرنين السابع عشر والعشرين كسجن وكمستشفى للمرضى غير المرغوب بهم اجتماعياً وكقاعدة عسكرية. source: UNESCO/ERI 罗布恩岛 从17世纪到20世纪罗布恩岛曾有过不同的用途,它曾经是监狱、不受社会欢迎的人的医院和军事基地。 Остров Роббен-Айленд Robben Island

Battle of Marathon - Ancient History To meet the larger invading force, the Athenian commander Militiades weakened his center and reinforced his wings, hoping that his hoplites could hold the middle while his flanks broke through the lighter-clad Persian infantry. In fact, the Athenian center broke, but it held long enough for the Athenians to rout the Persian wings and meet in the rear, causing a general panic among the invaders. Almost immediately, the victory of “the Marathon men” captured the collective imagination of the Greeks. Ceremonial funeral mounds of the legendary 192 Athenian dead and the loyal Plataeans were erected on the battlefield. Epigrams were composed and panoramic murals were put on display. No wonder: it had been Athens’s finest hour, when its democratic yeomen alone had beaten back the imperial might of Persia (see Persian Wars). The Reader’s Companion to Military History.

Nelson Mandela - Biography What did Nelson Mandela mean to you? Share your thoughts! Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was born in Transkei, South Africa on July 18, 1918. After the banning of the ANC in 1960, Nelson Mandela argued for the setting up of a military wing within the ANC. During his years in prison, Nelson Mandela's reputation grew steadily. Nelson Mandela was released on February 11, 1990. From Les Prix Nobel. This autobiography/biography was written at the time of the award and later published in the book series Les Prix Nobel/Nobel Lectures/The Nobel Prizes. Short Clip Watch a video clip of Nelson Mandela and Frederik Willem de Klerk receiving their Nobel Peace Prize medals and diplomas during the Nobel Peace Prize Award Ceremony at the Oslo City Hall in Norway, 10 December 1993. Watch the Documentary Norwegian 1 min. In order to see the video you need Adobe Flash PlayerCopyright © Norsk Rikskringkasting AS 2012 For more updated biographical information, see: Mandela, Nelson.

Nelson Mandela dies at 95 Freedom fighter, prisoner, moral compass and South Africa's symbol of the struggle against racial oppression. That was Nelson Mandela, who emerged from prison after 27 years to lead his country out of decades of apartheid. His message of reconciliation, not vengeance, inspired the world after he negotiated a peaceful end to segregation and urged forgiveness for the white government that imprisoned him. "As I walked out the door toward the gate that would lead to my freedom, I knew if I didn't leave my bitterness and hatred behind, I'd still be in prison," Mandela said after he was freed in 1990. Mandela, a former president, battled health issues in recent years, including a recurring lung infection that led to numerous hospitalizations. Despite rare public appearances, he held a special place in the consciousness of the nation and the world. "Our nation has lost its greatest son. His U.S. counterpart, Barack Obama, echoed the same sentiment. A hero to blacks and whites A nation on edge

South Africa profile - overview South Africa has one of the continent's biggest and most developed economies. Up until 1994 it was ruled by a white minority which enforced a separation of races with its policy called apartheid. The apartheid government eventually negotiated itself out of power after decades of international isolation, armed opposition and mass protests. The democratically-elected leadership encouraged reconciliation and set about redressing social imbalances. Read more country profiles - Profiles by BBC Monitoring Population 50.7 million Area 1.22 million sq km (470,693 sq miles) Major languages 11 official languages including English, Afrikaans, Sesotho, Setswana, Xhosa and Zulu Religions Christianity, Islam, indigenous beliefs Life expectancy 53 years (men), 54 years (women) Currency Rand Getty Images President: Jacob Zuma Image copyright Getty Images The leader of the ruling African National Congress party, Jacob Zuma, was chosen president by the newly-elected parliament in May 2009.

Robben Island For nearly 400 years, Robben Island, about 12 kilometres from Cape Town, was a place of exile where rulers sent those they regarded as outcasts and troublemakers. Robben Island was used at various times between the 17th and 20th centuries as a prison, a hospital for socially unacceptable groups and a military base. Its buildings, particularly those of the late 20th century such as the maximum security prison for political prisoners, witness the triumph of democracy and freedom over oppression and racism. The author Lawrence Green described Robben Island as "The Island of Exiles". MuseumSince 1997 Robben Island has been a museum acting as a focal point of South African heritage. In 1999 the island was declared a World Heritage Site. During the apartheid years Robben Island was used to isolate opponents of apartheid and to crush their morale. The IslandOn the road to the village you'll pass a square-towered church and old Sailboat cannons.

Paris Peace Accords signed - Jan 27, 1973 Also on this day Lead Story On January 27, 1888, the National Geographic Society is founded in Washington, D.C., for “the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge.” American Revolution On this day in 1785, the Georgia General Assembly incorporates the University of Georgia, the first state-funded institution of higher learning in the new republic. Automotive On this day in 1965, the Shelby GT 350, a version of a Ford Mustang sports car developed by the American auto racer and car designer Carroll Shelby, is launched. Civil War On this day in 1862, President Abraham Lincoln issues General War Order No. 1, ordering all land and sea forces to advance on February 22, 1862. Cold War The Paris Peace Accords are signed by officials from the United States and North Vietnam, bringing an official end to America’s participation in its most unpopular foreign war. Crime Disaster General Interest Hollywood Literary On this day in 2010, J.D. Music Old West Presidential Sports Vietnam War World War I

Nelson Mandela Biography - 94th Birthday, Facts, Quotes, Timeline Nelson Mandela became the first black president of South Africa in 1994, serving until 1999. A symbol of global peacemaking, he won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. Synopsis Nelson Mandela was born on July 18, 1918, in Mvezo, Transkei, South Africa. Early Life Nelson Mandela was born Rolihlahla Mandela on July 18, 1918, in the tiny village of Mvezo, on the banks of the Mbashe River in Transkei, South Africa. Nelson Mandela's father, who was destined to be a chief, served as a counselor to tribal chiefs for several years, but lost both his title and fortune over a dispute with the local colonial magistrate. At the suggestion of one of his father's friends, Mandela was baptized in the Methodist Church. When Mandela was 9 years old, his father died of lung disease, causing his life to change dramatically. Mandela was given the same status and responsibilities as the regent's two other children, his son and oldest child, Justice, and daughter Nomafu. Mandela's Imprisonment In Recent Years Videos

Nelson Mandela What did Nelson Mandela mean to you? Share your thoughts! Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was born in Transkei, South Africa on July 18, 1918. His father was Hendry Mphakanyiswa of the Tembu Tribe. After the banning of the ANC in 1960, Nelson Mandela argued for the setting up of a military wing within the ANC. During his years in prison, Nelson Mandela's reputation grew steadily. Nelson Mandela was released on February 11, 1990. From Les Prix Nobel. This autobiography/biography was written at the time of the award and later published in the book series Les Prix Nobel/ Nobel Lectures/The Nobel Prizes. Watch a video clip of Nelson Mandela and Frederik Willem de Klerk receiving their Nobel Peace Prize medals and diplomas during the Nobel Peace Prize Award Ceremony at the Oslo City Hall in Norway, 10 December 1993. Watch the Documentary Norwegian 1 min. In order to see the video you need Adobe Flash PlayerCopyright © Norsk Rikskringkasting AS 2012 Nelson Mandela died on 5 December 2013.

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