Iran Hostage Crisis - Facts & Summary By the 1970s, many Iranians were fed up with the Shah’s government. In protest, they turned to the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a radical cleric whose revolutionary Islamist movement seemed to promise a break from the past and a turn toward greater autonomy for the Iranian people. In July 1979, the revolutionaries forced the Shah to disband his government and flee to Egypt. The Ayatollah installed a militant Islamist government in its place. The United States, fearful of stirring up hostilities in the Middle East, did not come to the defense of its old ally. On November 4, just after the Shah arrived in New York, a group of pro-Ayatollah students smashed the gates and scaled the walls of the American embassy in Tehran. Diplomatic maneuvers had no discernible effect on the Ayatollah’s anti-American stance; neither did economic sanctions such as the seizure of Iranian assets in the United States.
Robben Island Robben Island Robben Island was used at various times between the 17th and 20th centuries as a prison, a hospital for socially unacceptable groups and a military base. Its buildings, particularly those of the late 20th century such as the maximum security prison for political prisoners, witness the triumph of democracy and freedom over oppression and racism. Robben Island a été utilisée à différentes époques entre le XVIIe et le XXe siècle comme prison, hôpital pour les malades socialement indésirables et base militaire. Ses bâtiments, et en particulier ceux du XXe siècle, la prison à haute sécurité pour les prisonniers politiques, témoignent de l'oppression et du racisme qui régnaient avant le triomphe de la démocratie et de la liberté. جزيرة روبن تمّ استعمال جزيرة روبن خلال مراحل مختلفة بين القرنين السابع عشر والعشرين كسجن وكمستشفى للمرضى غير المرغوب بهم اجتماعياً وكقاعدة عسكرية. source: UNESCO/ERI 罗布恩岛 从17世纪到20世纪罗布恩岛曾有过不同的用途，它曾经是监狱、不受社会欢迎的人的医院和军事基地。 Остров Роббен-Айленд Robben Island
Biography Rolihlahla Mandela was born into the Madiba clan in the village of Mvezo, in the Eastern Cape, on 18 July 1918. His mother was Nonqaphi Nosekeni and his father was Nkosi Mphakanyiswa Gadla Mandela, principal counsellor to the Acting King of the Thembu people, Jongintaba Dalindyebo. In 1930, when he was 12 years old, his father died and the young Rolihlahla became a ward of Jongintaba at the Great Place in Mqhekezweni1. Hearing the elders’ stories of his ancestors’ valour during the wars of resistance, he dreamed also of making his own contribution to the freedom struggle of his people. He attended primary school in Qunu where his teacher, Miss Mdingane, gave him the name Nelson, in accordance with the custom of giving all schoolchildren “Christian” names. He completed his Junior Certificate at Clarkebury Boarding Institute and went on to Healdtown, a Wesleyan secondary school of some repute, where he matriculated. Nelson Mandela (top row, second from left) on the steps of Wits University.
Battle of Marathon - Ancient History To meet the larger invading force, the Athenian commander Militiades weakened his center and reinforced his wings, hoping that his hoplites could hold the middle while his flanks broke through the lighter-clad Persian infantry. In fact, the Athenian center broke, but it held long enough for the Athenians to rout the Persian wings and meet in the rear, causing a general panic among the invaders. Almost immediately, the victory of “the Marathon men” captured the collective imagination of the Greeks. Ceremonial funeral mounds of the legendary 192 Athenian dead and the loyal Plataeans were erected on the battlefield. Epigrams were composed and panoramic murals were put on display. No wonder: it had been Athens’s finest hour, when its democratic yeomen alone had beaten back the imperial might of Persia (see Persian Wars). The Reader’s Companion to Military History.
Robben Island For nearly 400 years, Robben Island, about 12 kilometres from Cape Town, was a place of exile where rulers sent those they regarded as outcasts and troublemakers. Robben Island was used at various times between the 17th and 20th centuries as a prison, a hospital for socially unacceptable groups and a military base. Its buildings, particularly those of the late 20th century such as the maximum security prison for political prisoners, witness the triumph of democracy and freedom over oppression and racism. The author Lawrence Green described Robben Island as "The Island of Exiles". MuseumSince 1997 Robben Island has been a museum acting as a focal point of South African heritage. In 1999 the island was declared a World Heritage Site. During the apartheid years Robben Island was used to isolate opponents of apartheid and to crush their morale. The IslandOn the road to the village you'll pass a square-towered church and old Sailboat cannons.
40 Interesting Nelson Mandela Facts Nelson Mandela – this name reminds us of a person who almost single-handedly led to the demise of apartheid practice in South Africa. Though Mandela won Nobel Peace Prize, he actually resorted to violent means for achieving freedom. This man spent almost 3 decades in prison and while being in prison, he graduated in law. In this article, we are going to learn about some interesting Nelson Mandela facts. Hopefully, you will find them useful. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 40 Interesting Nelson Mandela Facts was last modified: August 7th, 2017 by Virupakshi Trinayani
Paris Peace Accords signed - Jan 27, 1973 Also on this day Lead Story On January 27, 1888, the National Geographic Society is founded in Washington, D.C., for “the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge.” American Revolution On this day in 1785, the Georgia General Assembly incorporates the University of Georgia, the first state-funded institution of higher learning in the new republic. Automotive On this day in 1965, the Shelby GT 350, a version of a Ford Mustang sports car developed by the American auto racer and car designer Carroll Shelby, is launched. Civil War On this day in 1862, President Abraham Lincoln issues General War Order No. 1, ordering all land and sea forces to advance on February 22, 1862. Cold War The Paris Peace Accords are signed by officials from the United States and North Vietnam, bringing an official end to America’s participation in its most unpopular foreign war. Crime Disaster General Interest Hollywood Literary On this day in 2010, J.D. Music Old West Presidential Sports Vietnam War World War I
Nelson Mandela - Biography - President (non-U.S.), Writer, Civil Rights Activist Nelson Mandela became the first black president of South Africa in 1994, serving until 1999. A symbol of global peacemaking, he won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. Synopsis Nelson Mandela was born on July 18, 1918, in Mveso, Transkei, South Africa. Becoming actively involved in the anti-apartheid movement in his 20s, Mandela joined the African National Congress in 1942. Early Life Nelson Mandela was born Rolihlahla Mandela on July 18, 1918, in the tiny village of Mvezo, on the banks of the Mbashe River in Transkei, South Africa. Nelson Mandela's father, who was destined to be a chief, served as a counselor to tribal chiefs for several years, but lost both his title and fortune over a dispute with the local colonial magistrate. At the suggestion of one of his father's friends, Mandela was baptized in the Methodist Church. When Mandela was 9 years old, his father died of lung disease, causing his life to change dramatically. Mandela's Imprisonment Prison Release and Presidency In Recent Years
Nelson Mandela | Biography, Life, Death, & Facts Nelson Mandela , in full Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, byname Madiba, (born July 18, 1918, Mvezo, South Africa—died December 5, 2013, Johannesburg), Black nationalist and the first Black president of South Africa (1994–99). His negotiations in the early 1990s with South African Pres. F.W. de Klerk helped end the country’s apartheid system of racial segregation and ushered in a peaceful transition to majority rule. Mandela and de Klerk were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 1993 for their efforts. Top Questions When and where was Nelson Mandela born? Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, also known as Madiba, was born Rolihlahla Mandela on July 18, 1918, in Mvezo, South Africa; the name Nelson was later added by one of his teachers. When did Nelson Mandela die? Nelson Mandela died on December 5, 2013, in Johannesburg. What is Nelson Mandela known for? To whom was Nelson Mandela married? What publications did Nelson Mandela write? Early life and work Underground activity and the Rivonia Trial
Reagan and Gorbachev Agreed to Pause the Cold War in Case of an Alien Invasion | Smart News | Smithsonian At one point during the 1985 Geneva Summit, President Ronald Reagan and Soviet Premier Mikhail Gorbachev took a break from negotiations to take a walk. Only their private interpreters were present and for years, the details of what they talked about were kept secret from both the Russian and American public. But during a 2009 interview with Charlie Rose and Reagan’s Secretary of State George Shultz, Gorbachev revealed that Reagan asked him point-blank if they could set aside their differences in case the world was invaded by aliens. As Jimmy Orr reported for the Christian Science Monitor at the time: Shultz was talking about the Lake Geneva summit and mentioned the two leaders ducked out of a meeting to take a walk to a nearby cabin. "I wasn't there...," Shultz said before Gorbachev cut him off. As far as we know, aliens never tried to take over the planet during the 1980s, so Reagan and Gorbachev’s informal agreement wasn’t put to the test.
South Africa profile - overview South Africa has one of the continent's biggest and most developed economies. Up until 1994 it was ruled by a white minority which enforced a separation of races with its policy called apartheid. The apartheid government eventually negotiated itself out of power after decades of international isolation, armed opposition and mass protests. The democratically-elected leadership encouraged reconciliation and set about redressing social imbalances. Read more country profiles - Profiles by BBC Monitoring Population 50.7 million Area 1.22 million sq km (470,693 sq miles) Major languages 11 official languages including English, Afrikaans, Sesotho, Setswana, Xhosa and Zulu Religions Christianity, Islam, indigenous beliefs Life expectancy 53 years (men), 54 years (women) Currency Rand Getty Images President: Jacob Zuma Image copyright Getty Images The leader of the ruling African National Congress party, Jacob Zuma, was chosen president by the newly-elected parliament in May 2009.
Why was Nelson Mandela important? - CBBC Newsround Media playback is unsupported on your device Nelson Mandela is seen as one of history's most inspirational figures. He became his country's first black president after spending 27 years in jail and is held up as one of the greatest leaders the world has ever seen. After his death, aged 95, Newsround explains why he is held in such high regard. Why was Nelson Mandela important? When Nelson Mandela was a young man, white and black people in South Africa lived separate lives under a system called apartheid. White people, who were a small part of the population, were in charge of the country. It was illegal for black people to use the same schools, hospitals, and even beaches as white people. Apartheid Black people were also denied basic rights - like being allowed to vote in elections. But Nelson Mandela believed that everybody should be treated equally. Prison Sometimes the demonstrations turned violent and in 1964 Mandela was sentenced to life in prison on Robben Island. Freedom Presidency & Peace
Indo-Pakistan Wars - 1947, 1965, 1971, And 1999 - WorldAtlas.com 7. Two Neighbours And Their Tales Of War - India and Pakistan share a long history that dates back to their time under British rule. For nearly 200 years, India fought for its independence from England, first from the East India Company and later from the British Raj. During the 1940’s, the Muslim-dominated area of British India joined the fight, beginning the Pakistan Movement with the hope of creating a sovereign Muslim state. On August 15, 1947, independence was won, and British India was separated into the Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. These new political borders could not be completely established according to religion, leaving many Hindus in Pakistan and Muslims in India. 6. Shortly after gaining independence, the two new countries went to war in what is called the First Kashmir War. Pakistan refused to recognize Jammu and Kashmir as an Indian state. 5. The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was instigated by several events. 4. 3. 2. 1. 2016 Uri attack -