Wheeler's delayed choice experiment Wheeler's delayed choice experiment is actually several thought experiments in quantum physics, proposed by John Archibald Wheeler, with the most prominent among them appearing in 1978 and 1984. These experiments are attempts to decide whether light somehow "senses" the experimental apparatus in the double-slit experiment it will travel through and adjusts its behavior to fit by assuming the appropriate determinate state for it, or whether light remains in an indeterminate state, neither wave nor particle, and responds to the "questions" asked of it by responding in either a wave-consistent manner or a particle-consistent manner depending on the experimental arrangements that ask these "questions." This line of experimentation proved very difficult to carry out when it was first conceived. Introduction "Wheeler's delayed choice experiment" refers to a series of thought experiments in quantum physics, the first being proposed by him in 1978. Simple interferometer
Fusion reactor achieves tenfold increase in plasma confinement time The promise of fusion is immense. Its fuel is hydrogen plasma, made from the most abundant atom in the Universe, and the major byproduct is helium, an inert gas. In this era with the threat of climate change, clean alternative sources of energy are more necessary than ever. However, even after decades of research and enormous investments of money, scientists haven't succeeded in producing a working nuclear fusion plant. Nevertheless, many feel the potential payoff is worth continued investment. For that reason, work is proceeding apace on the next generation of fusion reactors. Nuclear fusion requires overcoming the electric repulsion between positively charged nuclei until the strong nuclear force exerts itself. Ultimately the problem is one of plasma confinement: holding the nuclei within a limited space at sufficiently high temperature. Fusion requires temperatures greater than 15 million degrees Celsius; many reactors top 100 million degrees.
NWS JetStream The atmosphere is a cloud of gas and suspended solids extending from the Earth's surface out many thousands of miles, becoming increasingly thinner with distance but always held by the Earth's gravitational pull. The atmosphere is made up of layers. it surrounds the Earth and holds the air we breathe; it protects us from outer space; and holds moisture (clouds), gases, and tiny particles. In short, the atmosphere is the protective bubble we live in. This protective bubble consists of several gases (listed in the table to the right) with the top four making up 99.998% of all gases. Of the dry composition of the atmosphere nitrogen, by far, is the most common. Nitrogen dilutes oxygen and prevents rapid burning at the Earth's surface. It is also necessary for combustion or burning. Argon is used in light bulbs, in double-pane windows, and to preserve the original Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. These percentages of atmospheric gases are for a completely dry atmosphere.
Beyond Zero Emissions Scientists Are Beginning To Figure Out Why Conservatives Are…Conservative Scientists are using eye-tracking devices to detect automatic response differences between liberals and conservatives.University of Nebraska-Lincoln You could be forgiven for not having browsed yet through the latest issue of the journal Behavioral and Brain Sciences. If you care about politics, though, you'll find a punchline therein that is pretty extraordinary. Click here to read more from Mooney on the science of why people don't believe in science. Behavioral and Brain Sciences employs a rather unique practice called "Open Peer Commentary": An article of major significance is published, a large number of fellow scholars comment on it, and then the original author responds to all of them. That's a big deal. It is a "virtually inescapable conclusion" that the "cognitive-motivational styles of leftists and rightists are quite different." The authors go on to speculate that this ultimately reflects an evolutionary imperative. That's pretty extraordinary, when you think about it.
Exciting MIT droplet discovery could turbocharge power plants, airships and more Top engineers at MIT say they have come across a handy effect which could seriously boost the efficiency of a critical piece of kit used in many important technologies. The piece of kit in question is the humble water condenser, which has been in use for hundreds of years: James Watt introduced it to the earliest steam engines, turning them from inefficient curiosities to the motors which powered the Industrial Revolution. Today, condensers are critical to the functioning of most powerplants - and if they can be made better, they could greatly strengthen the case for the reintroduction of airships. In essence, a condenser works by exposing steam to a cold surface. In a powerplant, the condenser is attached to the exhaust end of the turbines which drive the generators. What the MIT boffins have found is a way of getting water droplets to jump off the cold pipes in the condenser and fall into the sump more quickly than they otherwise would, clearing room for new droplets to form. Bootnote
NASA Innovations in Climate Education Bushlight - Welcome to Bushlight 10 More Common Faults in Human Thought Humans This list is a follow up to Top 10 Common Faults in Human Thought. Thanks for everyone’s comments and feedback; you have inspired this second list! The confirmation bias is the tendency to look for or interpret information in a way that confirms beliefs. The Availability heuristic is gauging what is more likely based on vivid memories. Illusion of Control is the tendency for individuals to believe they can control or at least influence outcomes that they clearly have no influence on. Interesting Fact: when playing craps in a casino, people will throw the dice hard when they need a high number and soft when they need a low number. The Planning fallacy is the tendency to underestimate the time needed to complete tasks. Interesting Fact: “Realistic pessimism” is a phenomenon where depressed or overly pessimistic people more accurately predict task completion estimations. Interesting Fact: unfortunately, this bias has serious consequences. Bonus Attribute Substitution
Thorium-based nuclear power Thorium-based nuclear power is nuclear reactor-based electrical power generation fueled primarily by the fission of the isotope uranium-233 produced from the fertile element thorium. According to proponents, a thorium fuel cycle offers several potential advantages over a uranium fuel cycle—including much greater abundance on Earth, superior physical and nuclear fuel properties, and reduced nuclear waste production. However, development of Thorium power has significant start-up costs. A nuclear reactor consumes certain specific fissile isotopes to make energy. Uranium-235, purified (i.e. After studying the feasibility of using thorium, nuclear scientists Ralph W. Background and brief history After World War II, uranium-based nuclear reactors were built to produce electricity. So far the molten-salt reactor experiment has operated successfully and has earned a reputation for reliability. Possible benefits The World Nuclear Association explains some of the possible benefits