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Transport Layer Security

Transport Layer Security
Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), are cryptographic protocols designed to provide communications security over a computer network.[1] They use X.509 certificates and hence asymmetric cryptography to authenticate the counterparty with whom they are communicating,[2] and to exchange a symmetric key. This session key is then used to encrypt data flowing between the parties. This allows for data/message confidentiality, and message authentication codes for message integrity and as a by-product, message authentication.[clarification needed] Several versions of the protocols are in widespread use in applications such as web browsing, electronic mail, Internet faxing, instant messaging, and voice-over-IP (VoIP). An important property in this context is forward secrecy, so the short-term session key cannot be derived from the long-term asymmetric secret key.[3] Description[edit] History and development[edit] Secure Network Programming[edit] Dr. Notes

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transport_Layer_Security

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Internet protocol suite The Internet protocol suite is the computer networking model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks. It is commonly known as TCP/IP, because its most important protocols, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), were the first networking protocols defined in this standard. Often also called the Internet model, it was originally also known as the DoD model, because the development of the networking model was funded by DARPA, an agency of the United States Department of Defense. TCP/IP provides end-to-end connectivity specifying how data should be packetized, addressed, transmitted, routed and received at the destination. The TCP/IP model and related protocol models are maintained by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

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Cryptographic hash function A cryptographic hash function (specifically, SHA-1) at work. Note that even small changes in the source input (here in the word "over") drastically change the resulting output, by the so-called avalanche effect. A cryptographic hash function is a hash function which is considered practically impossible to invert, that is, to recreate the input data from its hash value alone. These one-way hash functions have been called "the workhorses of modern cryptography".[1] The input data is often called the message, and the hash value is often called the message digest or simply the digest. The ideal cryptographic hash function has four main properties:

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How to Know When It’s Time to Replace Your Laptop’s Battery No matter how well you treat your laptop’s battery, it will eventually die. If you’re lucky, it will be time to replace your laptop by the time its battery dies. If you’re not, you’ll need to replace the battery. Battery death can seem sudden, but it doesn’t have to. Windows will warn you when your battery reaches extremely low capacity levels, but you can also keep your own tabs on its capacity.

Block cipher In cryptography, a block cipher is a deterministic algorithm operating on fixed-length groups of bits, called blocks, with an unvarying transformation that is specified by a symmetric key. Block ciphers are important elementary components in the design of many cryptographic protocols, and are widely used to implement encryption of bulk data. The modern design of block ciphers is based on the concept of an iterated product cipher. Product ciphers were suggested and analyzed by Claude Shannon in his seminal 1949 publication Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems as a means to effectively improve security by combining simple operations such as substitutions and permutations.[1] Iterated product ciphers carry out encryption in multiple rounds, each of which uses a different subkey derived from the original key. The publication of the DES cipher by the U.S.

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