Secure copy The term SCP can refer to one of two related things, the SCP protocol or the SCP program. SCP protocol How it works Normally, a client initiates an SSH connection to the remote host, and requests an SCP process to be started on the remote server. The remote SCP process can operate in one of two modes: source mode, which reads files (usually from disk) and sends them back to the client, or sink mode, which accepts the files sent by the client and writes them (usually to disk) on the remote host. For most SCP clients, source mode is generally triggered with the -f flag (from), while sink mode is triggered with -t (to). These flags are used internally and are not documented outside the SCP source code.
Internet protocol suite The Internet protocol suite is the computer networking model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks. It is commonly known as TCP/IP, because its most important protocols, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP), were the first networking protocols defined in this standard. Often also called the Internet model, it was originally also known as the DoD model, because the development of the networking model was funded by DARPA, an agency of the United States Department of Defense. TCP/IP provides end-to-end connectivity specifying how data should be packetized, addressed, transmitted, routed and received at the destination. The TCP/IP model and related protocol models are maintained by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).
Cryptographic Module Validation Program Logo of the Cryptographic Module Validation Program. The Cryptographic Module Validation Program (CMVP) is a joint American and Canadian security accreditation program for cryptographic modules. The program is available to any vendors who seek to have their products certified for use by the U.S. Government and regulated industries (such as financial and health-care institutions) that collect, store, transfer, share and disseminate "sensitive, but not classified" information.
How to Use the Traceroute Command Traceroute is a command which can show you the path a packet of information takes from your computer to one you specify. It will list all the routers it passes through until it reaches its destination, or fails to and is discarded. In addition to this, it will tell you how long each 'hop' from router to router takes. In Windows, select Start > Programs > Accessories > Command Prompt. This will give you a window like the one below. Merkle tree A binary hash tree In cryptography and computer science a hash tree or Merkle tree is a tree in which every non-leaf node is labelled with the hash of the labels of its children nodes. Hash trees are useful because they allow efficient and secure verification of the contents of larger data structures. Hash trees are a generalization of hash lists and hash chains. Demonstrating that a leaf node is a part of the given hash tree requires processing an amount of data proportional to the logarithm of the number of nodes of the tree; this contrasts with hash lists, where the amount is proportional to the number of nodes.
Cryptographic hash function A cryptographic hash function (specifically, SHA-1) at work. Note that even small changes in the source input (here in the word "over") drastically change the resulting output, by the so-called avalanche effect. A cryptographic hash function is a hash function which is considered practically impossible to invert, that is, to recreate the input data from its hash value alone. These one-way hash functions have been called "the workhorses of modern cryptography". The input data is often called the message, and the hash value is often called the message digest or simply the digest. The ideal cryptographic hash function has four main properties:
Understanding Key Differences Between FTP, FTPS and SFTP Understanding Key Differences Between FTP, FTPS and SFTP Posted by Van Glass on Mon, Jan 02, 2012 @ 11:56 AM Perhaps the most common protocols used in file transfer today are FTP, FTPS and SFTP. While the acronyms for these protocols are similar, there are some key differences among them, in particular how data are exchanged, the level of security provided and firewall considerations. Learning these key differences can help you when choosing a file transfer protocol or troubleshooting common connection issues. The FTP (File Transfer Protocol) protocol has been around for quite some time.
Address Tracker (at) Inverted magnet icon The Magnet URI scheme is a de facto standard defining a URI scheme for Magnet links, which mainly refer to resources available for download via peer-to-peer networks. Such a link typically identifies a file not by location, but by content—more precisely, by the content's cryptographic hash value. Lead time A lead time is the latency (delay) between the initiation and execution of a process. For example, the lead time between the placement of an order and delivery of a new car from a manufacturer may be anywhere from 2 weeks to 6 months. In industry, lead time reduction is an important part of lean manufacturing.
Computer and network protocols; TCP / IP - OSI The Defense Advance Research Projects Agency (DARPA) originally developed Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP / IP) as a mechanism for connecting different networks in the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) in a way that communication can 'survive' in any conditions. Internet, international, very widespread international network (WAN) using TCP / IP protocol into an environment of institutional and government institutions worldwide. This protocol suite is widely distributed in commercial and private networks.
Avalanche effect The SHA-1 hash function exhibits good avalanche effect. When a single bit is changed the hash sum becomes completely different. If a block cipher or cryptographic hash function does not exhibit the avalanche effect to a significant degree, then it has poor randomization, and thus a cryptanalyst can make predictions about the input, being given only the output. This may be sufficient to partially or completely break the algorithm.
How to Know When It’s Time to Replace Your Laptop’s Battery No matter how well you treat your laptop’s battery, it will eventually die. If you’re lucky, it will be time to replace your laptop by the time its battery dies. If you’re not, you’ll need to replace the battery. Battery death can seem sudden, but it doesn’t have to. Windows will warn you when your battery reaches extremely low capacity levels, but you can also keep your own tabs on its capacity.
Block cipher In cryptography, a block cipher is a deterministic algorithm operating on fixed-length groups of bits, called blocks, with an unvarying transformation that is specified by a symmetric key. Block ciphers are important elementary components in the design of many cryptographic protocols, and are widely used to implement encryption of bulk data. The modern design of block ciphers is based on the concept of an iterated product cipher. Product ciphers were suggested and analyzed by Claude Shannon in his seminal 1949 publication Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems as a means to effectively improve security by combining simple operations such as substitutions and permutations. Iterated product ciphers carry out encryption in multiple rounds, each of which uses a different subkey derived from the original key. The publication of the DES cipher by the U.S.