Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Quoting § Harvard Guide to Using Sources Depending on the conventions of your discipline, you may have to decide whether to... Summarize a Source Paraphrase a Source Quote from a Source Scholars in the humanities tend to summarize, paraphrase, and quote texts; social scientists and natural scientists rely primarily on summary and paraphrase. When and how to summarize When you summarize, you provide your readers with a condensed version of an author's key points. Before you summarize a source in your paper, you should decide what your reader needs to know about that source in order to understand your argument. Example This summary of Stanley Milgram's 1974 essay, "The Perils of Obedience," provides a brief overview of Milgram's 12-page essay, along with an APA style parenthetical citation. Stanley Milgram (1974) reports that ordinarily compassionate people will be cruel to each other if they are commanded to be by an authority figure. When you include a summary of a paper in your essay, you must cite the source. Source material
Quoting, Paraphrasing, Summarizing Summary: This handout is intended to help you become more comfortable with the uses of and distinctions among quotations, paraphrases, and summaries. This handout compares and contrasts the three terms, gives some pointers, and includes a short excerpt that you can use to practice these skills. Contributors:Dana Lynn Driscoll, Allen BrizeeLast Edited: 2013-02-15 09:44:45 What are the differences among quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing? These three ways of incorporating other writers' work into your own writing differ according to the closeness of your writing to the source writing. Quotations must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of the source. Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s). Why use quotations, paraphrases, and summaries? Quotations, paraphrases, and summaries serve many purposes.
Avoiding Plagiarism: Quoting and Paraphrasing Paraphrasing is often defined as putting a passage from an author into “your own words.” But what are your own words? How different must your paraphrase be from the original? The paragraphs below provide an example by showing a passage as it appears in the source, two paraphrases that follow the source too closely, and a legitimate paraphrase. The student’s intention was to incorporate the material in the original passage into a section of a paper on the concept of “experts” that compared the functions of experts and nonexperts in several professions. The Passage as It Appears in the Source Critical care nurses function in a hierarchy of roles. Word-for-Word Plagiarism Critical care nurses have a hierarchy of roles. Why this is plagiarism Notice that the writer has not only “borrowed” Chase’s material (the results of her research) with no acknowledgment, but has also largely maintained the author’s method of expression and sentence structure. top A Patchwork Paraphrase A Legitimate Paraphrase
RAFT:read/Audience/Format/Topic Classroom Strategies Background RAFT is a writing strategy that helps students understand their role as a writer, the audience they will address, the varied formats for writing, and the topic they'll be writing about. Role of the Writer: Who are you as the writer? Benefits Students must think creatively and critically in order to respond to prompts, making RAFT a unique way for students to apply critical thinking skills about new information they are learning. Create the strategy Explain to your students the various perspectives (mentioned above) writers must consider when completing any writing assignment.Display a RAFT writing prompt to your class and model on an overhead or Elmo how you would write in response to the prompt. Sample RAFT prompts Example 1: R: Citizen A: Congress F: Letter T: Taxation Example 2: R: Scout Finch A: Community of Monroeville, Alabama F: Eulogy for Atticus Finch T: Social Inequality References
Avoiding Plagiarism: Quoting and Paraphrasing Use the menu below to learn more about quoting and paraphrasing. Download this handout College writing often involves integrating information from published sources into your own writing in order to add credibility and authority--this process is essential to research and the production of new knowledge. However, when building on the work of others, you need to be careful not to plagiarize: "to steal and pass off (the ideas and words of another) as one's own" or to "present as new and original an idea or product derived from an existing source."1 The University of Wisconsin takes very seriously this act of "intellectual burglary," and the penalties are severe. These materials will help you avoid plagiarism by teaching you how to properly integrate information from published sources into your own writing. 1.
Avoiding Plagiarism and Lazy Writing Students are often confused about how to use materials from sources (e. g., journals and books) that they read. Too often material is used inappropriately, in most cases because a student may not know how to properly use such material. The information on this page will help you to avoid two serious flaws in writing plagiarism and lazy writing . What is Plagiarism? Plagiarism occurs when you use someone else's words or ideas from a copyrighted source. When most students think of plagiarism they think of using someone else's words or ideas without properly citing the source. The dynamic nature of human memory suggests that information in memory can be influenced by a variety of factors. If you were to reproduce this passage without placing the material in quotation marks and citing the source, you would be guilty of plagiarism. The dynamic character of human memory suggests that information stored in memory can be acted upon by many factors. How can I avoid plagiarism? What is Lazy Writing?
Avoiding Plagiarism Summary: There are few intellectual offenses more serious than plagiarism in academic and professional contexts. This resource offers advice on how to avoid plagiarism in your work. Contributors:Karl Stolley, Allen Brizee, Joshua M. There are some actions that can almost unquestionably be labeled plagiarism. But then there are actions that are usually in more of a gray area. However, other teachers and administrators may not distinguish between deliberate and accidental plagiarism. When do we give credit? The key to avoiding plagiarism is to make sure you give credit where it is due. Bottom line, document any words, ideas, or other productions that originate somewhere outside of you. There are, of course, certain things that do not need documentation or credit, including: Deciding if something is "common knowledge" Generally speaking, you can regard something as common knowledge if you find the same information undocumented in at least five credible sources.
December 2012 Lesson Plan: Creative Writing Story Starters by Sarah Sahr Creative writing is one of the best ways to get to know your students. Once students are comfortable enough in English to put pen to paper (or fingers to keyboard), a wealth of teaching and learning opens up. Lesson Preparation Student preparation: Ask each student to bring a household item from home. Teacher preparation: Prepare enough brown paper bags for each student in class. As the teacher, you may want to bring several household items from home as well, as some students may forget to bring something to class. Also, it might be useful for the teacher to write a paragraph about his or her own household item before class for the closure part of this lesson plan. Introduction (10 minutes) As students enter the classroom, give each person a brown paper bag with the paper attached to it (giving out the bags at the door saves time). Next, do a quick review of parts of speech, especially nouns, verbs, adjectives, and prepositions.