Social psychology (sociology) Sociological social psychology was born in 1902 with the landmark study by sociologist Charles Horton Cooley, Human Nature and the Social Order, which presented Cooley's concept of the looking glass self. The first textbook in social psychology by a sociologist appeared in 1908 — Social Psychology by Edward Alsworth Ross. The area's main journal was founded as Sociometry by Jacob L. In the 1920s W. One of the major currents of theory in this area sprang from work by philosopher and sociologist George Herbert Mead at the University of Chicago from 1894 forward. Contemporary symbolic interactionism originated out of ideas of George Herbert Mead and Max Weber. The structural school of symbolic interactionism uses shared social knowledge from a macro-level culture, natural language, social institution, or organization to explain relatively enduring patterns of social interaction and psychology at the micro-level, typically investigating these matters with quantitative methods.
Post-industrial society Clark's Sector model for US economy 1850 -2009. In sociology, the post-industrial society is the stage of society's development when the service sector generates more wealth than the manufacturing sector of the economy. The concept was popularized by Daniel Bell, and is closely related to similar sociological theoretical constructs such as post-fordism, information society, knowledge economy, post-industrial economy, liquid modernity, and network society. They all can be used in economics or social science disciplines as a general theoretical backdrop in research design. As the term has been used, a few common themes (not limited to those below) have begun to emerge. Origins Daniel Bell popularized the term through his 1974 work The Coming of Post-Industrial Society. Although some have credited Bell with coining the term, it was also used extensively by social philosopher Ivan Illich in his 1973 paper Tools for Conviviality. Valuation of knowledge Critics
Introduction to Human Evolution Human evolution Human evolution is the lengthy process of change by which people originated from apelike ancestors. Scientific evidence shows that the physical and behavioral traits shared by all people originated from apelike ancestors and evolved over a period of approximately six million years. One of the earliest defining human traits, bipedalism -- the ability to walk on two legs -- evolved over 4 million years ago. Other important human characteristics -- such as a large and complex brain, the ability to make and use tools, and the capacity for language -- developed more recently. Many advanced traits -- including complex symbolic expression, art, and elaborate cultural diversity -- emerged mainly during the past 100,000 years. Humans are primates. Most scientists currently recognize some 15 to 20 different species of early humans. Early humans first migrated out of Africa into Asia probably between 2 million and 1.8 million years ago. Paleoanthropology The process of evolution
Transformation of culture - Wikipedia Transformation of culture, or cultural change, is the dynamic process whereby the living cultures of the world are changing and adapting to external or internal forces. This process is occurring within Western culture as well as non-Western and indigenous cultures and cultures of the world. Forces which contribute to the cultural change described in this article include: colonization, globalization, advances in communication, transport and infrastructure improvements, and military expansion. Theories of cultural change Various scholars have proposed different theories of cultural change. Thomas R. Transformation of Western culture "Western" or European culture began to undergo rapid change starting with the arrival of Columbus in the New World, and continuing with the Industrial Revolution. Transformation of indigenous cultures Around the world many indigenous groups have over centuries or millennia successfully sustained economies in one particular place and ecosystem.
Cybernetics Cybernetics is a transdisciplinary approach for exploring regulatory systems, their structures, constraints, and possibilities. Cybernetics is relevant to the study of systems, such as mechanical, physical, biological, cognitive, and social systems. Cybernetics is applicable when a system being analyzed incorporates a closed signaling loop; that is, where action by the system generates some change in its environment and that change is reflected in that system in some manner (feedback) that triggers a system change, originally referred to as a "circular causal" relationship. Some say this is necessary to a cybernetic perspective. Concepts studied by cyberneticists (or, as some prefer, cyberneticians) include, but are not limited to: learning, cognition, adaptation, social control, emergence, communication, efficiency, efficacy, and connectivity. Norbert Wiener defined cybernetics in 1948 as "the scientific study of control and communication in the animal and the machine History
Technological determinism Technological determinism is a reductionist theory that presumes that a society's technology drives the development of its social structure and cultural values. The term is believed to have been coined by Thorstein Veblen (1857–1929), an American sociologist and economist. The most radical technological determinist in the United States in the 20th century was most likely Clarence Ayres who was a follower of Thorstein Veblen and John Dewey. The first major elaboration of a technological determinist view of socioeconomic development came from the German philosopher and economist Karl Marx, whose theoretical framework was grounded in the perspective that changes in technology, and specifically productive technology, are the primary influence on human social relations and organizational structure, and that social relations and cultural practices ultimately revolve around the technological and economic base of a given society. Origin Explanation Hard and soft determinism
10 Daily Habits That are Killing the Environment Image Source Fotopedia They say it takes 21 days to form a habit, and many of us have daily habits that are slowly destroying the environment. Here is a list of 10 things we can easily change to reduce our impact on the planet, with suggestions for ways to develop new, environmentally-friendly habits instead. 1. Leaving The Lights On You’ve probably heard this a million times before but turning the light off when you leave the room, even if you’re only going for a few minutes, really does make a difference to the environment, since it saves a finite source of energy that can’t be replaced. 2. Many people guess the amount of water they need when they boil the kettle, and they end up boiling too much. 3. Maybe you’re not ready to take a step in the veggie or vegan direction, but if you’re eating farmed meat, you’re supporting an incredibly environmentally damaging industry. 4. 5. 6. 7. It’s remarkably easy to compost at home, and you don’t need a garden to do it. 8. 9. 10.
Critical theory Critical theory is a school of thought that stresses the reflective assessment and critique of society and culture by applying knowledge from the social sciences and the humanities. As a term, critical theory has two meanings with different origins and histories: the first originated in sociology and the second originated in literary criticism, whereby it is used and applied as an umbrella term that can describe a theory founded upon critique; thus, the theorist Max Horkheimer described a theory as critical insofar as it seeks "to liberate human beings from the circumstances that enslave them." In philosophy, the term critical theory describes the neo-Marxist philosophy of the Frankfurt School, which was developed in Germany in the 1930s. Frankfurt theorists drew on the critical methods of Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud. Definitions In social theory Postmodern critical theory Language and construction Language and communication Construction See also Lists Related subjects
The Californian Ideology Richard Barbrook (left) and Andy Cameron (right) "The Californian Ideology" is a critique of dotcom neoliberalism by English media theorists Richard Barbrook and Andy Cameron of the University of Westminster. Barbrook and Cameron argue that the rise of networking technologies in Silicon Valley in the 1990s was linked to American neoliberalism and a paradoxical hybridization of beliefs from the political left and right in the form of hopeful technological determinism. Andrew Leonard of Salon.com called Barbrook & Cameron's work "one of the most penetrating critiques of neo-conservative digital hypesterism yet published. Critique "This new faith has emerged from a bizarre fusion of the cultural bohemianism of San Francisco with the hi-tech industries of Silicon Valley...the Californian Ideology promiscuously combines the free-wheeling spirit of the hippies and the entrepreneurial zeal of the yuppies." Richard Barbrook and Andy Cameron Influences Reception See also
How the Concept of "God" Influences Goal Pursuit Does thinking about god help you in life? It’s a question whose answer will likely never be accepted by many, but that hasn’t stopped researchers from trying to find it. A new study examining self-regulation reveals that thinking about god does help you achieve your goal, but only if your goal is to successfully resist the urge to do something. Leveraging classic and recent theorizing on self-regulation and social cognition, we predict and test for 2 divergent effects of exposure to notions of God on self-regulatory processes. Specifically, we show that participants reminded of God (vs. neutral or positive concepts) demonstrate both decreased active goal pursuit (Studies 1, 2, and 5) and increased temptation resistance (Studies 3, 4, and 5). The researchers believe the findings are due to god’s reputation for omnipotence and omniscience. From an evolutionary standpoint, the idea that God helps you resist temptation while decreasing your pursuit of other goals makes a lot of sense.
Global Environmental Politics: From Person to Planet - Simon Nicholson, Paul Wapner