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Thinking, Fast and Slow

Thinking, Fast and Slow
Thinking, Fast and Slow is a best-selling[1] 2011 book by Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics winner Daniel Kahneman which summarizes research that he conducted over decades, often in collaboration with Amos Tversky.[2][3] It covers all three phases of his career: his early days working on cognitive biases, his work on prospect theory, and his later work on happiness. The book's central thesis is a dichotomy between two modes of thought: "System 1" is fast, instinctive and emotional; "System 2" is slower, more deliberative, and more logical. The book delineates cognitive biases associated with each type of thinking, starting with Kahneman's own research on loss aversion. From framing choices to substitution, the book highlights several decades of academic research to suggest that people place too much confidence in human judgment. Prospect theory[edit] One example is that people are loss-averse: they are more likely to act to avert a loss than to achieve a gain. Two systems[edit] Related:  Critical Thinkingodysseus2016

Made to Stick Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die is a book by brothers Chip and Dan Heath published by Random House on January 2, 2007.[1] The book continues the idea of "stickiness" popularized by Malcolm Gladwell in The Tipping Point, seeking to explain what makes an idea or concept memorable or interesting. A similar style to Gladwell's is used, with a number of stories and case studies followed by principles. The stories range from urban legends, such as the "Kidney Heist" in the introduction; to business stories, as with the story of Southwest Airlines, "the low price airline"; to inspirational, personal stories such as that of Floyd Lee, a passionate mess hall manager. Each chapter includes a section entitled "Clinic", in which the principles of the chapter are applied to a specific case study or idea to demonstrate the principle's application. Overview[edit] The book's outline follows the acronym "SUCCES" (with the last s omitted). Authors[edit] See also[edit] References[edit]

What are “Mental Models”? | Making Connections Editor’s note: This is part one of a two part series on Systems Thinking and mental models In writing and teaching people about Systems Thinking, we often refer to “mental models”. For some people, this comes as a bit of a surprise, because the context usually involves building models with the iThink or STELLA software. They don’t expect us to start talking metaphysically about thinking. “Is this about philosophy or modeling software?” they may wonder. Let’s define the term model: A model is an abstraction or simplification of a system. So, what is a “mental model”? Imagine that you are standing outside, looking at a tree. So at this point, we’ve only addressed the mechanisms by which you perceive the tree. What makes the image of a tree in your minds click as an actual tree that exists right there in front of you? A tree is a plant. Take a look at these images for a few moments and then think about what is happening inside your mind as you look at them. Thinking About Systems

Heidegger: Thinking the Unthinkable | Watch Free Documentary Onl German philosopher Martin Heidegger addressed the central question of human existence full on, by examining how human self-awareness depends on concepts of time and death. His preoccupation with ontology - the form of metaphysical inquiry concerned with the study of existence itself - dominated his work. The central idea of his complex Sein und Zeit (Being and Time) (1927) could be summed up in the phrase 'being is'. Man had to ask himself 'what is it to be?' and only by doing this, and standing back from absorption into objects and other distractions, could he actually exist. Heidegger also felt that art, like language, was important evidence of existence, something which was a real existence rather than a mere recreation of reality. Despite this, his work has been widely influential, especially on the thought of twentieth century philosophical giants such as Sartre, Lacan and Derrida. Watch the full documentary now -

Save The Pacific Northwest Tree Octopus Help Save The ENDANGERED From EXTINCTION! The Pacific Northwest Tree Octopus Rare photo of the elusive tree octopus The Pacific Northwest tree octopus (Octopus paxarbolis) can be found in the temperate rainforests of the Olympic Peninsula on the west coast of North America. An intelligent and inquisitive being (it has the largest brain-to-body ratio for any mollusk), the tree octopus explores its arboreal world by both touch and sight. Reaching out with one of her eight arms, each covered in sensitive suckers, a tree octopus might grab a branch to pull herself along in a form of locomotion called tentaculation; or she might be preparing to strike at an insect or small vertebrate, such as a frog or rodent, or steal an egg from a bird's nest; or she might even be examining some object that caught her fancy, instinctively desiring to manipulate it with her dexterous limbs (really deserving the title "sensory organs" more than mere "limbs",) in order to better know it. Why It's Endangered

22 Ways to Overclock Your Brain “I just found out that the brain is like a computer. If that’s true, then there really aren’t any stupid people. Just people running DOS.” - Anonymous The brain is a three-pound supercomputer. Your brain is more complicated than any computer we can imagine. It’s simple, your brain is at the center of everything you do, all you feel and think, and every nuance of how you relate to people. No matter what your age, mental exercise has a global, positive effect on the brain. 1. Research suggests that people who get plenty of physical exercise can wind up with better brains. 2. It isn’t just physical exercise that gets those brain cells jumping. 3. Our brains are wired to be curious. 4. Scientists tell us that laughter is good for our health; that it releases endorphins and other positively powerful chemicals into our system. 5. Omega-3 oils, found in walnuts, flaxseed and especially fish, have long been touted as being healthy for the heart. 6. 7. Can “bad” fats make you dumb? 8. 9. 10. 11.

The Century of the Self This series is about how those in power have used Freud's theories to try and control the dangerous crowd in an age of mass democracy. Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, changed the perception of the human mind and its workings profoundly. His influence on the 20th century is widely regarded as massive. The documentary describes the impact of Freud's theories on the perception of the human mind, and the ways public relations agencies and politicians have used this during the last 100 years for their engineering of consent. Among the main characters are Freud himself and his nephew Edward Bernays, who was the first to use psychological techniques in advertising. He is often seen as the father of the public relations industry. Freud's daughter Anna Freud, a pioneer of child psychology, is mentioned in the second part, as well as Wilhelm Reich, one of the main opponents of Freud's theories. Happiness Machines. The Engineering of Consent. Eight People Sipping Wine In Kettering.

DAVID FOSTER WALLACE, IN HIS OWN WORDS IN MEMORIAM | September 19th 2008 The world of letters has lost a giant. We have felt nourished by the mournful graspings of sites dedicated to his memory ("He was my favourite" ~ Zadie Smith), and we grieve for the books we will never see. Special to MORE INTELLIGENT LIFE This is the commencement address he gave to the graduates of Kenyon College in 2005. (If anybody feels like perspiring [cough], I'd advise you to go ahead, because I'm sure going to. This is a standard requirement of US commencement speeches, the deployment of didactic little parable-ish stories. Of course the main requirement of speeches like this is that I'm supposed to talk about your liberal arts education's meaning, to try to explain why the degree you are about to receive has actual human value instead of just a material payoff. Here's another didactic little story. The point here is that I think this is one part of what teaching me how to think is really supposed to mean. Everyone here has done this, of course.

How to Learn a Little Every Day Something can be said for knowing a little bit about a lot of things. Being an everyman or everywoman can propel you to a more efficient, productive and fulfilled personal and professional life. Whether it’s keeping up on current events, a new hobby or interest or simply any new idea, taking a small amount of time to learn something every day is a great way to add to your personal knowledgebase. Incorporating bits of learning into your every day experience puts you on a path to lifelong learning. Lifelong learning keeps you engaged in your environment, builds your knowledgebase, ensures that you use your mind, provides a sense of accomplishment and simply makes you feel good. The knowledge you gain, tools you get and experiences you have with learning a little bit everyday all work together to achieve real personal advancement. If you can’t start your day with a little time for learning something new, try doing it at lunch time or at the end of the day.

Nietzsche: Beyond Good and Evil A brilliant young man, he was appointed professor at the University of Basel aged 24 having not even finished his degree. His evanescent philosophical life ended 20 years later when he went insane and died shortly afterwards. Nietzsche's argued that the Christian system of faith and worship was not only incorrect, but harmful to society because it allowed the weak to rule the strong - it suppressed the will to power which was the driving force of human character. Nietzsche wanted people to throw of the shackles of our misguided Christian morality and become supermen - free and titanic. However, without God he felt that the future of man might spiral into a society of nihilism, devoid of any meaning; his aim was for man to realise the lack of divine purpose and create his own values. The core of Nietzsche's work, including Thus Spake Zarathustra (1883-92), Beyond Good and Evil (1886), The Birth of Tragedy (1872) was to find a meaning and morality in the absence of God.

Conjunction fallacy I am particularly fond of this example [the Linda problem] because I know that the [conjoint] statement is least probable, yet a little homunculus in my head continues to jump up and down, shouting at me—“but she can’t just be a bank teller; read the description.” The conjunction fallacy is a formal fallacy that occurs when it is assumed that specific conditions are more probable than a single general one. The most often-cited example of this fallacy originated with Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman:[2][3] Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken, and very bright. The majority of those asked chose option 2. , and For example, even choosing a very low probability of Linda being a bank teller, say Pr(Linda is a bank teller) = 0.05 and a high probability that she would be a feminist, say Pr(Linda is a feminist) = 0.95, then, assuming independence, Pr(Linda is a bank teller and Linda is a feminist) = 0.05 × 0.95 or 0.0475, lower than Pr(Linda is a bank teller). Other demonstrations[edit]

Accelerate Learning | Scientific Learning Global Philosophy Karl Popper: Discussion Popper's Problem of Induction. Quotes Karl Popper Discussion of Metaphysics / Philosophy of Karl Popper's Problem of Induction & the Evolution of Absolute Truth Karl Popper Pictures, Quotes 'Objective Knowledge' In my opinion, the greatest scandal of philosophy is that, while all around us the world of nature perishes - and not the world of nature alone - philosophers continue to talk, sometimes cleverly and sometimes not, about the question of whether this world exists. They get involved in scholasticism, in linguistic puzzles such as, for example, whether or not there are differences between 'being' and 'existing'. (Popper, 1975) Introduction to Karl Popper The philosophy of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn are very similar - they argue that truth is evolving and can never be absolutely known. I apologise if this is abrupt - but we can now deduce what reality is without opinion, so this is stated absolutely simply because it is true. Geoff Haselhurst Realism of Karl Popper My thesis is that realism is neither demonstrable nor refutable.

The Flame Challenge | Center for Communicating Science Winner: Written CategoryNick WilliamsLivermore, California Winner: Visual CategorySteve MaguireOntario, Canada Click to see the winning entries and finalists in each category! This Year Hundreds of scientists tackled this year’s question, “What is time?” What should next year’s Flame Challenge question be? If you are a 9 to 12 year-old and have always wanted to know the answer to a burning question about science, click here (kids only!). In the fall, judging schools will be contacted to vote on the 2014 Flame Challenge question.