Japanese grammar Some distinctive aspects of modern Japanese sentence structure Word order: head final and left branching The modern theory of constituent order ("word order"), usually attributed to Joseph Greenberg, identifies several kinds of phrase. genitive phrase, i.e., noun modified by another noun ("the cover of the book", "the book's cover");noun governed by an adposition ("on the table", "underneath the table");comparison ("[X is] bigger than Y", i.e., "compared to Y, X is big").noun modified by an adjective ("black cat"). Some languages are inconsistent in constituent order, having a mixture of head initial phrase types and head final phrase types. genitive phrase: neko no iro, cat GEN color = "the cat's (neko no) color (iro)";noun governed by an adposition: nihon ni, Japan in = "in Japan";comparison: Y yori ookii, Y than big = "bigger than Y";noun modified by an adjective: kuroi neko = "black cat". Head finality prevails also when sentences are coordinated instead of subordinated.
Gray - Using Translated First Language Literature in the Second Language Classroom The Internet TESLJournal Ronald Graymnenomic_2000 [at] yahoo.comBeijing Language and Culture University (Beijing, China) Introduction Finding appropriate literature to teach in the second language (L2) classroom has always been a major challenge. Value of Teaching Literature There are five reasons commonly given for teaching literature in the L2 classroom:It helps students understand and appreciate cultures and beliefs different from their own. Advantages to Teaching Translated First Language Literature One excellent but frequently overlooked type of literature is the translated first language literature of the student. Practical Classroom Implications First language literature used in the second language classroom should have the following characteristics: obviously it should be well known to the students, the translation must be faithful to the original, and it should be accessible, not too long, and tailored to the level of the students. Conclusion References Cao Xueqin (1978).
EnglishSpeak.com Inductive approach and Deductive approach in TESOL. Teach English Abroad Inspiring Education & Travel Find here your TEFL COURSE LOCATIONS You are here > Home > Articles > Inductive approach and Deductive approach in TESOL Back Teaching English: Articles Share Your TEFL Adventure! inShare0 Inductive approach and Deductive approach in TESOL By International Teacher Training Organization In teaching, there are many theoretical approaches that have been developed to promote the students' success in learning new information. The deductive approach represents a more traditional style of teaching in that the grammatical structures or rules are dictated to the students first, a more effective and time saving way under certain circumstances, namely monolingual classes- (Rivers and Temperley 110). The inductive approach represents a different style of teaching where the new grammatical structures or rules are presented to the students in a real language context (Goner, Phillips, and Walters 135). References: Goner, Phillips, and Walters. Mon - Fri
Japanese "adjectives" [Back to the main Japanese page] Why do I write "adjectives" in quotes for this chapter? Because your mind has a preset idea of what an adjective is-- based on how English uses words called adjectives to modify nouns-- and the Japanese adjective is not quite the same. Two Kinds of Adjectives There are two classes of objects that act as what we call adjectives in English. In Japanese, adjectives may act differently when used to modify nouns ("the green table") vs. when used as predicates ("the table is green"), so these cases are separated. In -na adjectives, the -na ending is used when the adjective modifies a noun, but not when it's used as a predicate. Kireina kimono (pretty kimono)Kimono wa kirei desu ([your] kimono is pretty)Kimono wa kirei dewa arimasen orKimono wa kirei ja nai desu ([your] kimono is not pretty)Kimono wa kirei deshita ([your] kimono was pretty)Kimono wa kirei dewa arimasendeshita or Kimono wa kirei ja nakatta desu ([your] kimono was not pretty) watashi ga kaita hon
Michael Swan | The influence of the mother tongue on second language vocabulary acquisition and use (In Vocabulary: Description, Acquisition and Pedagogy, ed. Schmitt and McCarthy, CUP 1997, pp. 156–180) 1 introduction "… contrastive analysis, error analysis, etc., are not simply unrelated to linguistic theory in particular, they are dead meat in general." Oh, well … In this paper I shall consider the ways in which the mother tongue can support, fail to support or actively hinder someone who is learning or using the vocabulary of a second language. "As a learning process, transfer supports the learner's selection and remodelling of input structures as he progresses in the development of his interlanguage knowledge. Before looking at these three areas, it will be useful to consider briefly how languages differ in the ways they encode the world through lexis, and to settle on a definition of crosslinguistic influence. 2 how languages differ "The vodka is all right, but the meat is bad." English French Danish Swedish tree wood (material) wood (small forest) forest arbre bois forêt træ skov träd trä skog 1.
How to Detect Lies - body language, reactions, speech patterns Interesting Info -> Lying Index -> How to Detect Lies Become a Human Lie Detector (Part 1) Warning: sometimes ignorance is bliss. After gaining this knowledge, you may be hurt when it is obvious that someone is lying to you. Introduction to Detecting Lies: This knowledge is also useful for managers, employers, and for anyone to use in everyday situations where telling the truth from a lie can help prevent you from being a victim of fraud/scams and other deceptions. This is just a basic run down of physical (body language) gestures and verbal cues that may indicate someone is being untruthful. If you got here from somewhere else, be sure to check out our Lie Detection index page for more info including new research in the field of forensic psychology. Signs of Deception: Body Language of Lies: • Physical expression will be limited and stiff, with few arm and hand movements. • A person who is lying to you will avoid making eye contact. • Hands touching their face, throat & mouth. Final Notes:
Noonan - Teaching ESL Students to "Notice" Grammar The Internet TESL Journal Francis J. Noonan IIIchipperchina [at] hotmail.comEaston Area School District (Easton, PA, USA) This article explains how to teach ESL/EFL students to notice grammar. Introduction Many teachers are confused on how to teach grammar. Why Noticing? The theoretical basis for noticing centers around the relationship between explicit and implicit knowledge. The question is can explicit grammar knowledge (Li's knowledge) become implicit knowledge (Jim's knowledge)? What is Noticing? Noticing is basically the idea that if learners pay attention to the form and meaning of certain language structures in input, this will contribute to the internalization of the rule (Batstone, 1996). ". . . we don't actually try to influence the construction of the complex network [implicit knowledge] . . . because really learners can only do it themselves. How Do Teachers Help Students Notice? How can we as teachers help students notice target forms? Conclusion Lesson Plan John: Hello.
Reviewing the Kanji History of English Language Teaching Dimitrios Thanasoulas Introduction The English language teaching tradition has been subject to tremendous change, especially throughout the twentieth century. Perhaps more than any other discipline, this tradition has been practiced, in various adaptations, in language classrooms all around the world for centuries. The Classical Method In the Western world back in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, foreign language learning was associated with the learning of Latin and Greek, both supposed to promote their speakers' intellectuality. It is widely recognised that the Grammar Translation Method is still one of the most popular and favourite models of language teaching, which has been rather stalwart and impervious to educational reforms, remaining a standard and sine qua non methodology. Gouin and Berlitz - The Direct Method The last two decades of the nineteenth century ushered in a new age. I stretch out my arm. The Audiolingual Method The "Designer" Methods of the 1970s Suggestopedia
5 examples of how the languages we speak can affect the way we think Keith Chen (TED Talk: Could your language affect your ability to save money?) might be an economist, but he wants to talk about language. For instance, he points out, in Chinese, saying “this is my uncle” is not as straightforward as you might think. “All of this information is obligatory. This got Chen wondering: Is there a connection between language and how we think and behave? While “futured languages,” like English, distinguish between the past, present and future, “futureless languages” like Chinese use the same phrasing to describe the events of yesterday, today and tomorrow. But that’s only the beginning. Navigation and Pormpuraawans In Pormpuraaw, an Australian Aboriginal community, you wouldn’t refer to an object as on your “left” or “right,” but rather as “northeast” or “southwest,” writes Stanford psychology professor Lera Boroditsky (an expert in linguistic-cultural connections) in the Wall Street Journal. Featured illustration via iStock.
Teaching approaches: functional approaches in EFL/ ESL By Tim Bowen An article discussing functional approaches to teaching English. Methods and approaches such as Grammar Translation, Audiolingualism and Situational Language teaching are based on the presentation and practice of grammatical structures and, essentially, a grammar-based syllabus. In 1972, the British linguist D.A. Wilkins’ work was used by the Council of Europe in drawing up a communicative language syllabus, which specified the communicative functions a learner would need in order to communicate effectively at a given level of competence. Criticisms of functional approaches include the difficulty in deciding the order in which different functions should be presented. On the positive side, however, there is little doubt that functional approaches have contributed a great deal to the overall store of language teaching methodology.
AJATT | All Japanese All The Time | You don't know a language, you live it. You don't learn a language, you get used to it.