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Biographie - Malcolm X (Malcolm Little)

Biographie - Malcolm X (Malcolm Little)
Biographie de Malcolm Little (alias Malcolm X) MALCOLM LITTLE, connu plus tard sous le nom de Malcolm X, est né le 19 mai 1925 à Omaha, son père Earl était pasteur de l'Eglise bâptiste et militant de la Universal Negro Improvement Association, fondé par Marcus Garvey (pasteur d'origine Jamaïquaine et qui préconisait le retour des noirs d'Amérique vers l'Afrique), sa mère Louise était d'origine antillaise et avait la peau très blanche car sa mère avait été violé par un blanc ; elle détestait son tint blanc. Malcolm était le quatrième enfant né du couple mais le septième de son père qui avait eu trois enfant d'un précédent mariage, après lui vinrent encore deux enfants. Malcolm est de ses frères et soeurs celui qui à le tint le plus blanc, ses cheveux crépus, comme sa peau, sont roux. Malcolm décide alors de quitter ce lycée et ce milieu blancs qu'il ne veux plus fréquenté. En août 1952, Malcolm Little sort de prison. "Je ne craignais pas la mort. "Cher Papa, je t'aime tant. Commentaires : Related:  merlin3573

The Official Malcolm X Malcolm X was born Malcolm Little on May 19, 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska. His mother, Louise Norton Little, was a homemaker occupied with the family's eight children. His father, Earl Little, was an outspoken Baptist minister and avid supporter of Black Nationalist leader Marcus Garvey. Earl's civil rights activism prompted death threats from the white supremacist organization Black Legion, forcing the family to relocate twice before Malcolm's fourth birthday. Regardless of the Little's efforts to elude the Legion, in 1929, their Lansing, Michigan home was burned to the ground. Eventually, Malcolm and his long-time friend, Malcolm "Shorty" Jarvis, moved back to Boston. Recalling his days in school, he used the time to further his education. Intrigued, Malcolm began to study the teachings of NOI leader Elijah Muhammad. Intelligent and articulate, Malcolm was appointed as a minister and national spokesman for the Nation of Islam. Later that year, Betty gave birth to their twin daughters.

Brève histoire de l’immigration aux États-Unis | Europe-Hollywood Promotion de la construction de la Statue de la Liberté dans la presse new-yorkaise en 1884 L’immigration européenne constitue un élément fondateur et fondamental de l’histoire des États-Unis, sorte de leitmotiv de son développement. Elle est la raison majeure de sa naissance comme de son évolution et ne connaît pas de récession véritable jusqu’à aujourd’hui. Loin d’être exhaustive ou de mentionner la totalité des mesures étatiques et des évènements qui ont jalonné ces périodes, la brève histoire de l’immigration américaine ici proposée a vocation première à contextualiser le transfert culturel Europe-Hollywood. 1820 : l’institutionnalisation de l’accueil et du recensement des migrants L’enregistrement des migrants aux États-Unis n’existe réellement que depuis le recensement de 1820 ; nous ne disposons donc de chiffres précis qu’à partir de ce moment. Ces premiers registres vont constituer le point de départ d’un référencement des migrants qui s’institutionnalise à partir de 1867.

BPP - the Black Panther Party - photographs by Roz Payne l. Demonstration out side court house for the Panther 21 trial - NYC - l969 2. Demonstration outside court house for the Panther 21 trial - NYC - 1969 3. Cops and Panthers on Court house steps for the Panther 21 trial - NYC - 1969 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 20th Anniversary of the Panther 21 - 198? 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. back to Roz's NEWSREEL Archives all material © 2002 États-Unis: Histoire- La colonisation européenne Les premiers navigateurs européens qui abordèrent les côtes du continent nord-américain furent les Italiens Jean Cabot et Sébastien Cabot (1497). Voyageant au service de Henry VII d’Angleterre, ils découvrirent Terre-Neuve et explorèrent les côtes du Labrador et de la Nouvelle-Angleterre. L’Espagnol Juan Ponce de León découvrit la Floride en 1513. L’Italien Jean de Verrazane (1524), voyageant pour le compte de François Ier, explora les côtes atlantiques de la Caroline du Sud jusqu'au Maine; puis le Français Jacques Cartier (1534) découvrit l’estuaire du Saint-Laurent. Tous ces navigateurs étaient à la recherche d’une route maritime par le nord vers les Indes et la Chine. La colonisation de l’Amérique du Nord par les Européens commença dès la fin du XVIe siècle. 1 La colonisation espagnole Dès la première moitié du XVIe siècle, les Espagnols pénétrèrent sur le territoire actuel des États-Unis, mais sans s'implanter de façon durable. 2 La colonisation française 2.1 Les alliés amérindiens

Black Power Salute: Tommie Smith and John Carlos at the 1968 Olympics When Olympic sprinters Tommie Smith and John Carlos stood atop the medal podium at the 1968 Summer Games in Mexico City, bowed their heads and raised black-gloved fists during the playing of the national anthem, millions of their fellow Americans were outraged. But countless millions more around the globe thrilled to the sight of two men standing before the world, unafraid, expressing disillusionment with a nation that so often fell, and still falls, so short of its promise. In tribute to Smith, Carlos and every other athlete—Eric Liddell, Curt Flood, Sandy Koufax and on and on—who has acted on principle in a highly public way, LIFE.com presents John Dominis’s indelible portrait of that moment. [See more of John Dominis’s amazing photography] Smith and Carlos (both of whom are National Track and Field Hall of Famers) were vilified at home for their stand. “We knew that what we were going to do was far greater than any athletic feat,” Carlos was quoted as saying at the time.

Silicon Valley: les secrets d'une r?ussite A la différence des sociétés d'informatique de la Route 128 près de Boston, celles de la Silicon Valley entretiennent des relations de coopération et de concurrence étroites entre elles et les institutions locales. Pour Anna Lee Saxenian, cette organisation en réseau, ouverte sur l'environnement extérieur, est la clé de la réussite de la mythique Silicon Valley. Ceux qui étudient le développement régional considèrent en général la Silicon Valley et la Route 128 (dans le Massachusetts, près de Boston) comme des exemples classiques de dynamisme. Cependant, cette approche ne peut rendre compte des performances divergentes que les deux économies régionales ont connues à partir des années 90. Des données régionales illustrent les différences de leur sort. Les classements que l'on observe sur le second schéma (voir «Evolution du nombre d'entreprises» en p. 47) reposent sur des taux de croissance de ventes sur cinq ans, mais la liste ne se limite pas aux petites entreprises. Anna Lee Saxenian

Le discours de Martin Luther King " I have a dream" by Histoire Des Arts on Prezi Sir Winston Churchill to feature on new banknote 26 April 2013Last updated at 11:11 ET By Kevin Peachey Personal finance reporter, BBC News Luisa Baldini has a close-up look at the note design Sir Winston Churchill will feature on the new design of a banknote which will enter circulation in 2016, the Bank of England has announced. The wartime leader's image is planned to feature on the reverse of the new £5 note, together with one of his most celebrated quotations. Churchill was chosen owing to his place as "a hero of the entire free world", said Bank governor Sir Mervyn King. The current face of the £5 note is social reformer Elizabeth Fry. 'Truly great leader' A wide range of historical characters appears on the reverse of Bank of England banknotes, with Elizabeth Fry the only woman among the current crop. The Bank of England governor has the final say about who appears on a banknote, although the public can make suggestions. "Our banknotes acknowledge the life and work of great Britons. Security measures The artwork will also include:

The Martin Luther King Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change March 7, 1965 – “Bloody Sunday” in Selma, Alabama « Rhapsody in Books Weblog On Sunday March 7, 1965 about six hundred people led by John Lewis and Hosea Williams began a fifty-four mile march from Selma, Alabama to the state capitol in Montgomery. They were demonstrating for African American voting rights and to commemorate the death of Jimmie Lee Jackson, shot three weeks earlier by an state trooper while trying to protect his mother at a civil rights demonstration. On the outskirts of Selma, after they crossed the Edmund Pettus Bridge, the marchers, in plain sight of photographers and journalists, were brutally assaulted by heavily armed state troopers and deputies. Alabama Police, March 7, 1965 The state troopers threw tear gas into the crowd, and as the crowd fled back toward downtown Selma, mounted possemen swung clubs or homemade flails of rubber hose laced with spikes. Doctors and nurses worked all night on more than one hundred patients, who were only accepted at one hospital – a Catholic mission facility in a black neighborhood. Dr. Like this:

Before Rosa Parks, A Teenager Defied Segregation On An Alabama Bus : Code Switch A teenage Claudette Colvin refused to give up her bus seat to a white passenger during the segregation era in Montgomery, Ala. Courtesy of Claudette Colvin hide caption toggle caption Courtesy of Claudette Colvin A teenage Claudette Colvin refused to give up her bus seat to a white passenger during the segregation era in Montgomery, Ala. Rosa Parks is well-known for her refusal to give up her seat to a white passenger on a public bus in Montgomery, Ala., in December 1955. Montgomery was segregated, which meant that black people couldn't use the dressing rooms at department stores or ride in the front of the bus. "I knew that this was a double standard," she says. The bus incident On March 2, 1955, Colvin got on the bus with three other students who settled themselves in a middle row. "And so as the bus proceeded on downtown, more white people got on the bus," she says. "I just couldn't move," she says. The bus driver called a police officer, who confronted Colvin. "Everything changed"

Strange Fruit, chanson qui dénonce les lynchages couramment pratiqués dans le sud des États-Unis | Strange Fruit (en français : étrange fruit) est une chanson. La chanteuse afro-américaine Billie Holiday l’interpréta pour la première fois en 1939, au Café Society à New York. Ce poème écrit en 1937 par Abel Meeropol compte parmi les réquisitoires artistiques contre les lynchages couramment pratiqués dans le sud des États-Unis ; elle est en outre considérée comme l’une des premières manifestations du mouvement pour les droits civiques dans ce pays. Le terme « Strange Fruit » est d’ailleurs devenu synonyme de lynchage. Le « Strange Fruit » évoqué dans le morceau est le corps d’un noir pendu à un arbre. Strange fruit (Les fruits étranges) Southern trees bear a strange fruit Blood on the leaves and blood at the root Black body swinging in the Southern breeze Strange fruit hanging from the poplar trees Les arbres du Sud portent un étrange fruit, Du sang sur les feuilles et du sang aux racines, Un corps noir qui se balance dans la brise du Sud, Étrange fruit suspendu aux peupliers.

Martin Luther King Jr.: Remembering a Committed Life This Martin Luther King Jr. day, we remember the civil rights leader with this essay from Gary May, who wrote the book, Bending toward Justice: The Voting Rights Act and the Transformation of American Democracy. May appeared on Moyers & Company this past July to discuss his book and the agonizing but ultimately victorious struggle to pass the 1965 voting rights legislation — which he described to Bill as “a perfect example of the value of collective change to bring about progress in this country, people getting together and being committed and willing to risk their very lives to bring something when the country desperately needs it.” The Rev. Ralph Abernathy, right, and Bishop Julian Smith, left, flank Dr. A day at the mall. Such memorials have stripped King of his humanity and overlook a life filled with so many obstacles that it is miraculous that he achieved so much. Events seemed to prove Carmichael correct. President Lyndon B. The Chicago Freedom Movement failed. J.

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