Predicting Reactions There are five different types of reactions possible in the reactions section in the AP Test: 1. Double Replacement Reactions (Metathesis) 2. 3. 4. 5. Other tips and Final Touches. Some practice problems extracted from The Chem Team internet site. ouble Replacement or (Metathesis) Reactions When you see two binary ionic compounds (including acids), the compounds switch partners to form two new compounds. Watchout for: Important stoichiometry...key words "equimolar", etc. for the formation of acid salts like HPO42- Complex ion formation through double replacement does not seem to form new compounds. Zn(OH)42- + Na+. edOx (Oxidation - Reduction) Reactions Memorize the common strong oxidizers, generally ions with lots of oxygen, MnO4-, Cr2O72-, IO3-, etc. Memorize the common strong reducers (on the handout mentioned above), memorize what they turn into, and look for something to reduce. Memorize the equations for the oxidation and the reduction reactions of water during the electrolysis of water.
Medicine in Plain Words Epigenomics Fact Sheet Epigenomics What is the epigenome? A genome is the complete set of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, in a cell. DNA carries the instructions for building all of the proteins that make each living creature unique. Derived from the Greek, epigenome means "above" the genome. Top of page What does the epigenome do? Each person's body contains trillions of cells, all of which have essentially the same genome. The protein-coding parts of your genome, called genes, do not make proteins all of the time in all of your cells. So, the epigenome is what tells your skin cells to behave like skin cells, heart cells like heart cells and so on. What makes up the epigenome? The epigenome is made up of chemical compounds, some of which come from natural sources like food and others from man-made sources like medicines or pesticides. The epigenome marks your genome in two main ways, both of which play a role in turning genes off or on. Is the epigenome inherited? What is imprinting? Can the epigenome change?
Molecular Geometry Molecular Geometry At this point we are ready to explore the three dimensional structure of simple molecular (covalent) compounds and polyatomic ions. We will use a model called the Valence Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) model that is based on the repulsive behavior of electron-pairs. This model is fairly powerful in its predictive capacity. To use the model we will have to memorize a collection of information. The table below contains several columns. The table below summarizes the molecular and electron-pair geometries for different combinations of bonding groups and nonbonding pairs of electrons on the central atom. Note: for bent molecular geometry when the electron-pair geometry is trigonal planar the bond angle is slightly less than 120 degrees, around 118 degrees. Lets consider the Lewis structure for CCl4. Notice that there are two kinds of electron groups in this structure. The arrangement of the atoms is correct in my structure. Two Electron Pairs (Linear)
digested coconut oil attacks tooth decay bacteria Posted 3 September 2012 Digested coconut oil is able to attack the bacteria that cause tooth decay. It is a natural antibiotic that could be incorporated into commercial dental care products, say scientists at Athlone Institute of Technology (AIT). The team from AIT tested the antibacterial action of coconut oil in its natural state and coconut oil that had been treated with enzymes, in a process similar to digestion. The oils were tested against strains of Streptococcus bacteria which are common inhabitants of the mouth. The researchers in AIT’s Bioscience Research Institute, led by Dr Damien Brady, are presenting their work today at the Society for General Microbiology’s autumn conference at the University of Warwick. Many previous studies have shown that partially digested foodstuffs are active against micro-organisms. The work also contributes to our understanding of antibacterial activity in the human gut. « Back to News Listing
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Reconstructing the tree of life March 2008 Ernst Haeckel's Monophyletic tree of organisms, 1866. Biologists at the time identified three major groups of species: animals, plants and protista; primitive, mostly unicellular, organisms. Modern biologists also classify all life into three groups, but now animals and plants are considered to belong to the same group, with two different types of bacteria making up the other two groups. Next year is a great one for biology: not only will we celebrate 150 years since the publication of On the origin of species, but also 200 years since the birth of its author, Charles Darwin. And two important anniversaries these are indeed: Darwin's theory of evolution through natural selection revolutionised vast swathes of human thought, from hard science to religion. Mathematics has remained largely untouched by this revolution. But it's not all about quantity. The tree of life A modern phylogenetic tree. Trees like these are not only used to represent the evolution of a group of species.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Special Features Clinical Review: Vitamin D Supplementation and Risk of Toxicity in Pediatrics: A Review of Current Literature April 01, 2014 | Maria G. Vogiatzi, Elka Jacobson-Dickman, and Mark D. Although rare, cases of vitamin D intoxication that present with dramatic life-threatening symptoms still occur in children. Commentary: Advances in Target-Specific Therapy for Osteoporosis April 01, 2014 | Nelson B. Advances in bone biology have catalyzed target-specific drug development for osteoporosis at a startling pace. Original Research Interpretation of Plasma PTH Concentrations According to 25OHD Status, Gender, Age, Weight Status, and Calcium Intake: Importance of the Reference Values April 01, 2014 | Mathilde Touvier, Mélanie Deschasaux, Marion Montourcy, Angela Sutton, Nathalie Charnaux, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Léopold K. Assessing the Impact of Growth Hormone Deficiency and Treatment in Adults: Development of a New Disease-Specific Measure
American Association of Anthropological Genetics Quantum Consciousness Tony's Home | Clifford Math of Consciousness at the Edge of Chaos | | Superposition Separation | Structures | OrchOR | TimeScales - Table - Graph | | Cycles: Biology and Quantum | | Conscious Universe | Quantum Mind 2003 | QuanCon | Clifford Math of Consciousness The Discrete HyperDiamond Generalized Feynman Checkerboard and Continuous Manifolds are related by Quantum Superposition: Elements of a Discrete Clifford algebra correspond to Basis Elements of a Real Clifford algebra. Dimi Chakalov said: "... 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. My thoughts are: It looks to me as though "re-annealing" (in 2) = "collapse" (in 5 and 6). In the Many-Worlds picture of the Multiverse Macrospace, you don't have collapse, but what happens is that you cease to experience ALL AT ONCE many superposed possibilities and you begin to experience EACH possibility IN ITS OWN "world" with no (or very limited) connections among the different "worlds". Robert Neil Boyd has suggested that Consciousness could be modeled by Clifford algebras.
Optimal Breathing | What every body needs to know about breathing. ASBH Home Page Searching for the World's First Zero | Amir Aczel Mathematicians consider the invention (or discovery, depending on your point of view) of zero as one of the most important intellectual advances humans have ever made. Why? Isn't zero just sheer nothingness? Nothing could be further from the truth. Zero is not only a concept of nothingness, which allows us to do arithmetic well and to algebraically define negative numbers, but it is also an important place-holding device. In that role, zero enables our base-10 number system to work, so that the same 10 numerals can be used over and over again, at different positions in a number. The Roman system, for example, which preceded our number system and surprisingly remained in use in Europe until as late as the thirteenth century, employed Latin letters for quantities (I for 1, X for 10, L for 50, C for 100, M for 1,000). The millennia-old Babylonian system, for example, which predated the Greco-Roman letter-based number system, used base-60 with no place-holding zero. So who invented it?