FOURTEEN EYES 1943 BRUSA Agreement The 1943 BRUSA Agreement was an agreement between the British and US governments to facilitate co-operation between the US War Department and the British Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS). It followed the Holden Agreement of October 1942. This led to the signing of the 1943 BRUSA Agreement on 17 May, which was a formal agreement to share intelligence information. It covered: the exchange of personneljoint regulations for the handling and distribution of the highly sensitive material The security regulations, procedures and protocols for co-operation formed the basis for all SIGINT activities of both the US National Security Agency and the British GCHQ. See also References
ECHELON & 5 Eyes Concept ECHELON[needs IPA], originally a code-name, is now used in global media and in popular culture to describe a signals intelligence (SIGINT) collection and analysis network operated on behalf of the five signatory nations to the UKUSA Security Agreement — Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Referred to by a number of other abbreviations, including AUSCANNZUKUS and Five Eyes, it has also been described as the only software system which controls the download and dissemination of the intercept of commercial satellite trunk communications. It was created in the early 1960s to monitor the military and diplomatic communications of the Soviet Union and its Eastern Bloc allies during the Cold War, and was formally established in the year of 1971. §Name Britain's The Guardian newspaper summarized the capabilities of the ECHELON system as follows: §History §Origins (1960s–1970s) §Expansion (1980s) §Organization
Mutual assured destruction Aftermath of the atomic bomb explosion over Hiroshima, August 6, 1945 Mutual assured destruction, or mutually assured destruction (MAD), is a doctrine of military strategy and national security policy in which a full-scale use of high-yield weapons of mass destruction by two opposing sides would cause the complete annihilation of both the attacker and the defender. It is based on the theory of deterrence where the threat of using strong weapons against the enemy prevents the enemy's use of those same weapons. The strategy is a form of Nash equilibrium in which neither side, once armed, has any incentive to initiate a conflict or to disarm. Theory The doctrine of Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD) assumes that each side has enough nuclear weaponry to destroy the other side; and that either side, if attacked for any reason by the other, would retaliate without fail with equal or greater force. This MAD scenario is often referred to as nuclear deterrence. History Pre-1945
five eye members NINE EYES 1941 Atlantic Charter The Atlantic Charter was a pivotal policy statement issued in August 14, 1941 that, early in World War II, defined the Allied goals for the post-war world. It was drafted by the leaders of Britain and the United States, and later agreed to by all the Allies. The Charter stated the ideal goals of the war: no territorial aggrandizement; no territorial changes made against the wishes of the people; restoration of self-government to those deprived of it; reduction of trade restrictions; global cooperation to secure better economic and social conditions for all; freedom from fear and want; freedom of the seas; and abandonment of the use of force, as well as disarmament of aggressor nations. In the "Declaration by United Nations" of 1 January 1942, the Allies of World War II pledged adherence to this charter's principles. The Atlantic Charter set goals for the post-war world and inspired many of the international agreements that shaped the world thereafter. Origin British Empire
SIGINT | Australian Defence News & Articles | Asia Pacific Defence Reporter The ADF’s fourth arm Less well known than the Australian Defence Force (ADF) itself is the Australian Defence Intelligence Group (DIG), a division of the Australian Department of Defence that comes under the auspices of the Deputy Secretary for Intelligence, Security and International Policy (DEPSEC IS&IP). DIG provides national and international intelligence for the Australian Government and the Australian Defence Force and comprises three discrete Defence agencies: DIG is responsible for the: • Defence Intelligence Organisation (DIO) • Defence Imagery and Geospatial Organisation (DIGO) • Defence Signals Directorate (DSD) DepSec IS&IP is also responsible for: • Defence Security Authority (DSA) • International Policy Division (IP) • Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Branch (ISR) • Business Management - Intelligence Branch (BM-I) Functions of the DIG organizations: Defence Programs that may interact with DSD. Conclusion.
Historical Geography of Transportation: The Emergence of Mechanized Systems Transportation is closely linked with the process of globalization. Efficiently distributing freight and moving people has always been an important factor for maintaining the cohesion of economic systems from empires to modern nation states and economic blocs. With technological and economic developments, the means to achieve such a goal have evolved considerably with a series of historical revolutions and evolutions. This process is very complex and is related to the spatial evolution of economic systems and associated technical developments. It is possible to summarize this evolution, from the pre-industrial era to transportation in the early 21st century, in four major stages, each linked with specific technological innovations in the transport sector; the pre-industrial era, the industrial revolution, fordism and post-fordism (globalization). Because the efficiency of the land transport system of this era was poor, the overwhelming majority of trade was local in scope.
additional 9 eyes members US spies on UK for UK Telecommunications industry experts and the pressure group Liberty fear the top-secret US listening-post on the edge of moorland six miles west of Harrogate, is being used by Britain's intelligence agencies and police to avoid the requirement to obtain Home Office warrants authorising tapping. A university computer lecturer who has made a study of electronic eavesdropping told the Independent on Sunday he understood that the 1,760 staff at the heavily-guarded base were used regularly to tap phones in this country. He said: "If the security service wants to tap your phone and wants nobody to know, there are two ways they can do it: illegally - or, entirely above board, ask US personnel at Menwith Hill to do it." Under US law, the phone-tapping of foreign nationals in a foreign country does not require any licence. Even though it is on British soil, Menwith Hill is US-owned and regarded by the US government as under its jursidiction.
AUSCANNZUKUS Info Portal Notices OWG 10-2 Minutes Posted The OWG 10-2 Minutes are posted under Groups / OWG. C4C 10-2 Documentation Posted The Chairman's Report and Enclosures for C4C 10-2 are posted under Groups / C4C. C4C, TWG, OWG 10-2 Documentation Posted The Agendas, Schedules, OPP and Roadmaps for C4C 10-2 and the WG are posted under AZ Plans. SB 26 Minutes and Enclosures Posted The SB 26 Minutes and Enclosures are posted under Groups / SB on the protected site. C4C 10/1 Minutes and Enclosures Posted The C4C 10/1 Minutes and Enclosures are posted under Groups / C4C on the protected site. Handbook 1 Posted Handbook 1 - Revision 7 is posted under Documents on the protected site. Updated TW10 Schedule (v1) and EWG 10-3 Enclosures posted Version 1 of the TW10 Schedule is posted in the A-Z Plans dropdown menu. C4C 10/1 Schedule and Agenda, SB 26 C4C Pt2 Draft Schedule Posted Version 1 of the C4C 10/1 Schedule and Agenda, along with a draft Schedule for SB 26 and C4C Pt2 have been posted under the A-Z Plans dropdown menu.
History of the Australian Intelligence Community (AIC) - Office of National Assessments Where the AIC began Australia's intelligence effort started in the lead-up to the First World War, when it emphasised counter-espionage. During the Second World War, the first parts of what became today's AIC sigint organisation were formed to support US and Australian forces in the Pacific. The Defence Signals Bureau (now known as the Defence Signals Directorate - DSD), formally came into existence in 1947. Following the Second World War, the sigint focus was on Soviet communications. The Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS) was formed in the Department of Defence in 1952. The AIC includes two assessment agencies. The newest member of the AIC is the Defence Imagery and Geospatial Organisation (DIGO). Shaping the AIC Over the years the demands on the AIC have changed, and there have been a number of inquiries into various aspects of the community. In his first Royal Commission, Justice Hope articulated a number of key principles that are still at the root of the AIC today.
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