Table of similar systems of comparison of temperaments Beginnings The Roman physician Galen mapped the four temperaments (sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric and melancholic) to a matrix of hot/cold and dry/wet, taken from the four classical elements. Two of these temperaments, sanguine and choleric, shared a common trait: quickness of response (corresponding to "heat"), while the melancholic and phlegmatic shared the opposite, a longer response (coldness). The melancholic and choleric, however, shared a sustained response (dryness), and the sanguine and phlegmatic shared a short-lived response (wetness). This meant that the choleric and melancholic both would tend to hang on to emotions like anger, and thus appear more serious and critical than the fun-loving sanguine, and the peaceful phlegmatic. However, the choleric would be characterized by quick expressions of anger (like the sanguine, with the difference being that the sanguine cools off); while the melancholic would build up anger slowly, silently, before exploding. David W.
How walking through a doorway increases forgetting Like information in a book, unfolding events are stored in human memory in successive chapters or episodes. One consequence is that information in the current episode is easier to recall than information in a previous episode. An obvious question then is how the mind divides experience up into these discrete episodes? A new study led by Gabriel Radvansky shows that the simple act of walking through a doorway creates a new memory episode, thereby making it more difficult to recall information pertaining to an experience in the room that's just been left behind. Dozens of participants used computer keys to navigate through a virtual reality environment presented on a TV screen. The virtual world contained 55 rooms, some large, some small. The key finding is that memory performance was poorer after travelling through an open doorway, compared with covering the same distance within the same room. But what if this result was only found because of the simplistic virtual reality environment?
PsyArt: An Online Journal for the Psychological Study of the Arts The gestalt notion "figure-ground phenomenon" refers to the characteristic organization of perception into a figure that 'stands out' against an undifferentiated background. What is figural at any one moment depends on patterns of sensory stimulation and on the momentary interests of the perceiver. Figure-ground relationship is an important element of the way we organise reality in our awareness, including works of art. There was an old joke in Soviet Russia about a guard at the factory gate who at the end of every day saw a worker walking out with a wheelbarrow full of straw. figure-ground phenomenon. Look, for instance, at this "droodle," entitled "Four Ku Klux Klansmen looking down a well, seen from below." In this respect gestalt theorists discovered that some of the commonsense perceptual phenomena are not at all to be taken for granted as they would appear to the man in the street. Figure and Ground in Escher Figure 2. Such artists as M. Figure and Ground (?)
this is (not) psychology Neural balls and strikes: Where categories live in the brain Public release date: 15-Jan-2012 [ Print | E-mail Share ] [ Close Window ] Contact: Robert Mitchumrobert.firstname.lastname@example.org 773-484-9890University of Chicago Medical Center Hundreds of times during a baseball game, the home plate umpire must instantaneously categorize a fast-moving pitch as a ball or a strike. While monkeys played a computer game in which they had to quickly determine the category of a moving visual stimulus, neural recordings revealed brain activity that encoded those categories. "This is as close as we've come to the source of these abstract signals" said David Freedman, PhD, assistant professor of neurobiology at the University of Chicago. Organizing the chaos of the surrounding world into categories is one of the brain's key functions. "The number of decisions we make per minute is remarkable," Freedman said. During the task, scientists recorded neural activity in PFC and LIP.
Psychological Studies | Links to hundreds of Psychology studies running on the internet | Online Psychology Research Ltd 'Mind reading' brain scans reveal secrets of human vision Courtesy of Fei-Fei Li Researchers were able to determine that study participants were looking at this street scene even when the participants were only looking at the outline. Researchers call it mind reading. One at a time, they show a volunteer – who's resting in an MRI scanner – a series of photos of beaches, city streets, forests, highways, mountains and offices. The subject looks at the photos, but says nothing. The researchers, however, can usually tell which photo the volunteer is watching at any given moment, aided by sophisticated software that interprets the signals coming from the scan. Now, psychologists and computer scientists at Stanford, Ohio State University and the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign have taken mind reading a step further, with potential impact on how both computers and the visually impaired make sense of the world they see. The results demonstrate that outlines play a crucial role in how the human eye and mind interpret what is seen. Media Contact
FUTURE PSYCHOLOGICAL EVOLUTION DynaPsych Table of Contents Future Psychological Evolution John Stewart email@example.com ABSTRACT: Humans are able to construct mental representations and models of possible interactions with their environment. Is the psychological evolution of humanity at an endpoint? One way we can begin to answer this question is to ask whether there are blind spots in our current psychological capacities. If we discover that there are limitations in our current psychological capacities, we can then ask whether these can be overcome by changes to our psychological software. If we find that there are limitations, and if these can only be overcome by changes to our psychological software, we can then ask whether humans are likely to make these changes. We begin in section 2 by identifying significant limitations in our current psychological capacities. What are the strengths and weaknesses of our current psychological adaptive capacities? However we do not use our mental modelling in this way.
List of emotions The contrasting and categorisation of emotions describes how emotions are thought to relate to each other. Various recent proposals of such groupings are described in the following sections. Contrasting basic emotions The following table, based on a wide review of current theories, identifies and contrasts the fundamental emotions according to a set of definite criteria. The three key criteria used include mental experiences that: have a strongly motivating subjective quality like pleasure or pain;are in response to some event or object that is either real or imagined;motivate particular kinds of behaviour. The combination of these attributes distinguish the emotions from sensations, feelings and moods. HUMAINE's proposal for EARL (Emotion Annotation and Representation Language) The emotion annotation and representation language (EARL) proposed by the Human-Machine Interaction Network on Emotion (HUMAINE) classifies 48 emotions. Parrott's emotions by groups
6 Insane Things Science Can Predict About You at Infancy #3. Smaller Babies Do Worse on Exams Getty Want to know whether it's worth it to put money aside for your baby's college education? Just put that baby on a bathroom scale.* A study conducted in England found that the smaller the baby at birth, the poorer he or she performs on exams later in life. *This is a joke. GettySo the earlier you start your prenatal steroid regimen, the better. The researchers picked out 334 kids from schools that had a pretty homogenous socioeconomic enrollment set (so they could prevent winding up with a bunch of kids who were both small and stupid for some extraneous reason, like, say, they were malnourished due to their parents' crippling meth addiction). Half of the kids selected were of lower-than-normal birth weight, and the others were normal or larger. GettyMost go right to the "beer and balls" section, which has never been failed by a single participant. What we're trying to say is that for accuracy's sake, Bruce Banner should be bigger than the Hulk. #2.
Why genius and madness are connected Many of history's most celebrated creative geniuses were mentally ill, from renowned artists Vincent van Gogh and Frida Kahlo to literary giants Virginia Woolf and Edgar Allan Poe. Today, the fabled connection between genius and madness is no longer merely anecdotal. Mounting research shows these two extremes of the human mind really are linked — and scientists are beginning to understand why. A panel of experts discussed recent and ongoing research on the subject at an event held on May 31 in New York as part of the 5th annual World Science Festival. Kay Redfield Jamison, a clinical psychologist and professor at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, said the findings of some 20 or 30 scientific studies endorse the notion of the "tortured genius." Bipolar disorder entails dramatic mood swings between extreme happiness (known as "mania") and severe depression. "People with bipolar tend to be creative when they're coming out of deep depression," Fallon said.
Scientists discover previously unknown cleaning system in brain A previously unrecognized system that drains waste from the brain at a rapid clip has been discovered by neuroscientists at the University of Rochester Medical Center. The findings were published online August 15 in Science Translational Medicine. The highly organized system acts like a series of pipes that piggyback on the brain's blood vessels, sort of a shadow plumbing system that seems to serve much the same function in the brain as the lymph system does in the rest of the body – to drain away waste products. "Waste clearance is of central importance to every organ, and there have been long-standing questions about how the brain gets rid of its waste," said Maiken Nedergaard, M.D., D.M.Sc., senior author of the paper and co-director of the University's Center for Translational Neuromedicine. "This work shows that the brain is cleansing itself in a more organized way and on a much larger scale than has been realized previously. "It's a hydraulic system," said Nedergaard.