Camouflage A soldier applying a disruptive pattern to his face; his helmet and jacket are both disruptively patterned Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis). Examples include the leopard's spotted coat, the battledress of a modern soldier, and the leaf-mimic katydid's wings. A third approach, motion dazzle, confuses the observer with a conspicuous pattern, making the object visible but momentarily harder to locate. The majority of camouflage methods aim for crypsis, often through a general resemblance to the background, high contrast disruptive coloration, eliminating shadow, and countershading. Military camouflage was spurred by the increasing range and accuracy of firearms in the 19th century. Non-military use of camouflage includes making cell telephone towers less obtrusive and helping hunters to approach wary game animals.
Swarm robotics Swarm of open-source Jasmine micro-robots recharging themselves Swarm robotics is a new approach to the coordination of multirobot systems which consist of large numbers of mostly simple physical robots. It is supposed that a desired collective behavior emerges from the interactions between the robots and interactions of robots with the environment. This approach emerged on the field of artificial swarm intelligence, as well as the biological studies of insects, ants and other fields in nature, where swarm behaviour occurs. Definition The research of swarm robotics is to study the design of robots, their physical body and their controlling behaviors. Unlike distributed robotic systems in general, swarm robotics emphasizes a large number of robots, and promotes scalability, for instance by using only local communication. Video tracking is an essential tool for systematically studying swarm-behavior, even though other tracking methods are available. Goals and applications
Arthur Koestler, Some general properties of self-regulating open hierarchic order (1969) 1. The holon 1.1 The organism in its structural aspect is not an aggregation of elementary parts, and in its functional aspects not a chain of elementary units of behaviour. 1.2 The organism is to be regarded as a multi-levelled hierarchy of semi-autonomous sub-wholes, branching into sub-wholes of a lower order, and so on. Sub-wholes on any level of the hierarchy are referred to as holons. 1.3 Parts and wholes in an absolute sense do not exist in the domains of life. 1.4 Biological holons are self-regulating open systems which display both the autonomous properties of wholes and the dependent properties of parts. 1.5 More generally, the term "holon" may be applied to any stable biological or social sub-whole which displays rule-governed behaviour and/or structural Gestalt-constancy. 2. 2.1 Hierarchies are "dissectible" into their constituent branches, on which the holons form the nodes; the branching lines represent the channels of communication and control. 3. 4. 5. 6. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
Flat universe may be the new flat Earth - physics-math - 18 May 2009 FOR centuries the ancients believed the Earth was flat. Evidence to the contrary was either ignored or effortlessly integrated into the dominant world view. Today we dismiss flat-Earthers as ignorant, yet we may be making an almost identical mistake – not about our planet, but about the entire universe. When it comes to the universe, "flatness" refers to the fate of light beams travelling large distances parallel to each other. Thanks in part to the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) satellite, which revealed the density of matter and dark energy in the early universe, most astronomers are confident that ... Ant robotics Ant robotics is a special case of swarm robotics. Swarm robots are simple (and hopefully, therefore cheap) robots with limited sensing and computational capabilities. This makes it feasible to deploy teams of swarm robots and take advantage of the resulting fault tolerance and parallelism. Invention In 1991, American electrical engineer James McLurkin was the first to conceptualize the idea of "robot ants" while working at the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Background Researchers have developed ant robot hardware and software and demonstrated, both in simulation and on physical robots, that single ant robots or teams of ant robots solve robot-navigation tasks (such as path following and terrain coverage) robustly and efficiently. See also References ^ Jump up to: a b J. External links Ant robot by Sven KoenigAnt algorithm by Israel Wagner
holon English Etymology particle: hole + -onsociology term: holo- + -on, from Ancient Greek ὅλος (hólos, “whole”) with the suffix -on suggesting a particle or part. Noun holon (plural holons) (physics) One of three kinds of quasiparticle (the others being the spinon and orbiton) that electrons in solids are able to split into during the process of spin–charge separation, when extremely tightly confined at temperatures close to absolute zero. Usage notes The sociological sense is used primarily in family therapy and in manufacturing. Synonyms particle chargon Related terms holonic Translations
Spying roboflies to get minicam eyes - tech - 22 May 2009 A MICROCHIP-sized digital camera patented by the California Institute of Technology could provide vision for the US military's insect-sized aircraft. It is light enough to be carried by these tiny surveillance drones and also uses very little power. In today's minicams, the image sensors and support circuitry are on separate microchips, and most of the power goes on communication between the chips. Now with Pentagon and NASA funding, Caltech's Jet Propulsion Lab in Pasadena has squeezed all the components of a camera onto one low-power chip, revealed in a US patent filed last week (www.tinyurl.com/ojwmdq). The gadget can be radio-controlled via a secure frequency-hopping link from up to a kilometre away, say its inventors.
Ant colony optimization algorithms Ant behavior was the inspiration for the metaheuristic optimization technique This algorithm is a member of the ant colony algorithms family, in swarm intelligence methods, and it constitutes some metaheuristic optimizations. Initially proposed by Marco Dorigo in 1992 in his PhD thesis, the first algorithm was aiming to search for an optimal path in a graph, based on the behavior of ants seeking a path between their colony and a source of food. The original idea has since diversified to solve a wider class of numerical problems, and as a result, several problems have emerged, drawing on various aspects of the behavior of ants. Overview Summary In the natural world, ants (initially) wander randomly, and upon finding food return to their colony while laying down pheromone trails. Over time, however, the pheromone trail starts to evaporate, thus reducing its attractive strength. Common extensions Here are some of most popular variations of ACO Algorithms. to state where to
The end of capitalism has begun The red flags and marching songs of Syriza during the Greek crisis, plus the expectation that the banks would be nationalised, revived briefly a 20th-century dream: the forced destruction of the market from above. For much of the 20th century this was how the left conceived the first stage of an economy beyond capitalism. The force would be applied by the working class, either at the ballot box or on the barricades. Instead over the past 25 years it has been the left’s project that has collapsed. If you lived through all this, and disliked capitalism, it was traumatic. As with the end of feudalism 500 years ago, capitalism’s replacement by postcapitalism will be accelerated by external shocks and shaped by the emergence of a new kind of human being. Postcapitalism is possible because of three major changes information technology has brought about in the past 25 years. Second, information is corroding the market’s ability to form prices correctly. Yet information is abundant.
The Probability of Evolution Introduction to the Mathematics of Evolution Chapter 15 The Probability of Evolution "A statistician is a person who stands in a bucket of ice water, sticks their head in an over and says: 'on average, I feel fine!'" K. Gene Complexes In prior chapters we talked about genes and DNA, among other things. A gene would be useless without the rest of the gene complex. No one really knows what the average number of nucleotide pairs (generally just referred to as "nucleotides") are in the average "gene complex." "While only a small fraction of the [DNA] directly encodes for proteins, every protein-encoding sequence is embedded within other functional sequences that regulate the expression of such proteins. Genetic Entropy & The Mystery of the Genome, page 38 The numbers he quotes are for humans. Before getting into human evolution, let us apply the concept of "gene complex" to the "first living cell." The Probability of the "First Living Cell" What if we randomly modified pure gibberish? And so on.
Aco branches.svg - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia From Wikimedia Commons, the free media repository Français :Choix du plus court chemin par une colonie de fourmi Auteur : Johann Dréo (User:Nojhan) Date : 27 mai 2006 Notes : 1) la première fourmi trouve la source de nourriture (F), via un chemin quelconque (a), puis revient au nid (N) en laissant derrière elle une piste de phéromone (b). 2) les fourmis empruntent indifféremment les 4 chemins possibles, mais le renforcement de la piste rend plus attractif le chemin le plus court. 3) les fourmis empruntent le chemin le plus court, les portions longues des autres chemins voient la piste de phéromones s'évaporer. English:Shortest path find by an ant colony Author: Johann Dréo (User:Nojhan) Date: 27 may 2006 Русский:Поиск кратчайшего пути муравьиной колонией Автор: Johann Dréo (User:Nojhan) Дата: 27 мая 2006 Licensing File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. You cannot overwrite this file. There are no pages that link to this file. File usage on other wikis
See Ya Later, Capitalism — the Collaborative Economy Is Taking Over — Backchannel The old model of unwieldy behemoths is giving way to a new one of collaboration. Welcome to the world of Peers. Compare the phone you had as a kid to the one in your pocket now. The first was a telephone owned by a monopoly that you used at most only minutes a day. The latter is a smart networked device you refer to hundreds of times. The difference? This cycle of opening up excess capacity, INCs building platforms for participation, and connecting billions of diverse Peers to create and collaborate together, is the path to abundance. Peers Inc partnerships are everywhere. The French startup BlaBlaCar shares long distance car trips, connecting drivers with extra seats and travelers going in the same direction. Throughout the last century companies have made money by hoarding stuff: assets, intellectual property, people. In the new collaborative economy, sharing and networking assets, like platforms, car seats and bedrooms, will always deliver more value faster.
Why the Theory of Evolution Exists Introduction to the Mathematics of Evolution Chapter 1 Why the Theory of Evolution Exists "In the preface to the proceedings of the [Wistar] symposium, Dr. 's Enigma, Luther D. Introduction Many times students hear that the theory of evolution is a "proven fact of science." The reality is that the theory of evolution is NOT a proven fact of science. For example, the theory of evolution requires that life be created from simple chemicals. Such a conversion has never been demonstrated and such a conversion has never been proven to be possible. Even the simplest life on earth, which does not require a host, is far too complex to form by a series of accidents. The theory of evolution also requires massive amounts of new genetic information form by totally random mutations of DNA. New genetic information, including at least one new gene, has never been observed in nature, nor has new genetic information, created by random mutations of DNA, ever been accomplished in a science lab. Science Mr.