# Freeware Hex Editor XVI32

Hollerith punched card An 80-column punched card of the type most widely used in the 20th century. The size of the card was 7 3⁄8 in × 3 1⁄4 in (187.325 mm × 82.55 mm). This example displays the 1964 EBCDIC character set, which added more special characters to earlier encodings. A punched card, punch card, IBM card, or Hollerith card is a piece of stiff paper that contained either commands for controlling automated machinery or data for data processing applications. As of 2012, some voting machines still utilize punched cards to record data.[2] History Punched cards were first used around 1725 by Basile Bouchon and Jean-Baptiste Falcon (fr) as a more robust form of the perforated paper rolls then in use for controlling textile looms in France. Semen Korsakov was reputedly the first to use the punched cards in informatics for information store and search. Herman Hollerith invented the recording of data on a medium that could then be read by a machine. Nomenclature Card formats

Sudoko Solver in Excel Solve Sudoku with Excel We are a little slow here in the midwest. The Akron Beacon Journal just recently started publishing a daily Sudoku puzzle in our comic strip pages. Wow! Talk about a time waster! I nearly became addicted to solving these puzzles. Sudoku is a 9x9 grid. When you consider the puzzle above, the top left square can not contain 1, 5, 6 or 8 because these numbers already appear in the first column. Update! If you still want to do some of the work of solving Sudoku, download this zipped sudoku2.zip. Update Again! The upper right grid will light up in one of two shades of yellow to tell you the squares that can be solved. Here is how it knows the lower right square has to be a 6: All of the other numbers from 1 through 9 are already used: 2, 3, 4, and 5 are in the same row. 4, 7, and 9 are in the same column. 1, 2, 5, and 8 are in the same subgroup. Click the Solve!!! Thanks to Jerry for contributing this workbook. Update Again! Update For 2010!

Numbers in various languages Details of how to count in a variety of languages, with recordings for some of them. Alphabetical index | Index by language family Alphbetical index of numbers pages If you would like to make any corrections or additions to this page, or if you can provide recordings, please contact me. Links Numbers from 1 to 10 in over 5000 Languages List of numbers (1-10) in various languages Language and numbers - details of counting systems for over 90 languages Number translator (German, Russian, Finnish, Spanish, English) Multilingual pages Phrases | Numbers | Numerals | Colours | Time expressions | Kinship terms | Language names | Country names | Idioms | Proverbs | Tongue twisters | Signs | UDHR | Tower of Babel | Songs | Omniglot | Seven dwarfs | Zodiac signs | Computer parts

Baudot Paper Tape Code This table presents a programmer's quick reference to the "Baudot" character set. IMPORTANT NOTE: The code presented here is with reference to usage in the computer industry. The original, true, baudot code differs from that presented below. The following table presents CCITT Alphabet No 2 which was developed from Murray's code which was in turn developed from Baudot's code. Baudot's code was replaced by Murray's code in 1901. And ITA2 replaced both by the early 1930's, so virtually all "teletype" equipment made in the U.S. uses ITA2 or the U.S. national version of the code. The 'baudot' code has been used extensively in telegraph systems. Two 'Baudot codes' are in common useage. The five-bit words are bracketed by a start bit (space) and a stop bit (mark).

Syllabic alphabets / Alphasyllabaries / Abugidas Syllabic alphabets, alphasyllabaries or abugidas consist of symbols for consonants and vowels. The consonants each have an inherent vowel which can be changed to another vowel or muted by means of diacritics. Vowels can also be written with separate letters when they occur at the beginning of a word or on their own. When two or more consonants occur together, special conjunct symbols are often used which add the essential parts of first letter or letters in the sequence to the final letter. The illustration on the right shows how some of the vowel diacritics (in red) are used in the Devanagari alphabet, and also shows a number of conjunct consonants. Syllabic alphabets currently in use Syllabic alphabets used to a limited extent Syllabic alphabets that are no longer used Please note transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) are used extensively throughout this website. Other writing systems Search this site

Download Enigma Simulator This software is an exact simulation of the 3-rotor Wehrmacht (Heer and Luftwaffe) Enigma, the 3-rotor Kriegsmarine M3, also called Funkschlussel M, and the famous 4-rotor Kriegmarine M4 Enigma cipher machine, used during World War II from 1939 until 1945. The sim has a very authentic feeling with its hands-on approach: you can select between the three models, actually lift out and insert different rotors, adjust their ring setting and set up the plugboard. The internal wiring of all rotors is identical to those that were used by the Wehrmacht and Kriegsmarine. This simulator is therefore fully compatible with the various real Enigma models and you can decrypt authentic wartime messages or encrypt and decrypt your own messages. The program comes with a very complete 22 page helpfile, containing the manual, some original messages, the history of Enigma and all technical details of the machine. Check out the Enigma Sim Manual to discover all the nuts and bolts of the software. Screenshots