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Prehistory of the Balkans

Prehistory of the Balkans
For the history of Earth before the occupation by the genus homo, including the period of early hominins, see Geology of Europe and Human evolution. Southeastern European cultures during the Neolithic The prehistory of Southeastern Europe , defined roughly as the territory of the wider Balkans peninsula (including the territories of the modern countries of Albania, Kosovo, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia, Greece, Bosnia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova and Turkey) covers the period from the Upper Paleolithic, beginning with the presence of Homo sapiens in the area some 44,000 years ago, until the appearance of the first written records in Classical Antiquity, in Greece as early as the 8th century BC. Human prehistory in Southeastern Europe is conventionally divided into smaller periods, such as Upper Paleolithic, Holocene Mesolithic/Epipaleolithic, Neolithic Revolution, expansion of Proto-Indo-Europeans, and Protohistory. Paleolithic[edit] Balkan Transition to the Upper Paleolithic[edit] Related:  Prehistory of Turkey

Paleolithic Europe Paleolithic Europe refers to the Paleolithic period of Europe, a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of the first stone tools and which covers roughly 99% of human technological history.[1] It extends from the introduction of stone tools by hominids 1.8 million years ago, to the introduction of agriculture and the end of the Pleistocene around 12,000 BP.[1][2][3] It is believed that Homo erectus evolved into Homo heidelbergensis and subsequently Homo neanderthalensis in Paleolithic Europe, before being replaced by modern humans migrating out of Africa approximately 50,000 years ago. The bones of the earliest Europeans are found in Dmanisi, Georgia, and are 1.8 million years old. The oldest evidence of human occupation in Eastern Europe comes from the Kozarnika cave in Bulgaria where a single human tooth and flint artifacts have been dated to at least 1.4 million years ago. Paleolithic[edit] Lower Paleolithic : 1.8 mya - 300,000 BP[edit] Ancient Upper Paleolithic[edit]

Thracians Thracian peltast, 5th–4th century BC. The Thracians (Ancient Greek: Θρᾷκες Thrāikes, Latin: Thraci) were a group of Indo-European tribes inhabiting a large area in Central and Southeastern Europe.[1] They were bordered by the Scythians to the north, the Celts and the Illyrians to the west, the Ancient Greeks to the south and the Black Sea to the east. They spoke the Thracian language – a scarcely attested branch of the Indo-European language family. The study of Thracians and Thracian culture is known as Thracology. Etymology[edit] The first historical record about the Thracians is found in the Iliad, where they are described as allies of the Trojans in the Trojan War against the Greeks.[2] The ethnonym Thracian comes from Ancient Greek Θρᾷξ (plural Θρᾷκες; Thrāix, Thrāikes) or Θρᾴκιος/Ionic: Θρηίκιος (Thrāikios/Thrēikios), and the toponym Thrace comes from Θρᾴκη/Ion.: Θρῄκη (Thrāikē/Thrēikē).[3] These forms are all exonyms as applied by the Greeks.[4] Mythological foundation[edit]

Baltic Sea Etymology[edit] In the Middle Ages the sea was known by variety of names. The name Baltic Sea became dominant only after 1600. Usage of Baltic and similar terms to denote the region east from the sea started only in 19th century. Name in other languages[edit] The Baltic Sea was known in ancient sources as Mare Suebicum or Mare Germanicum.[7] It is also known by the equivalents of "East Sea", "West Sea", or "Baltic Sea" in different languages: History[edit] At the time of the Roman Empire, the Baltic Sea was known as the Mare Suebicum or Mare Sarmaticum. Since the Viking age, the Scandinavians have called it Austmarr ("Eastern Lake"). In addition to fish the sea also provides amber, especially from its southern shores. In the early Middle Ages, Norse (Scandinavian) merchants built a trade empire all around the Baltic. The lands on the Baltic's eastern shore were among the last in Europe to be converted to Christianity.

Illyria Approximate area settled by Illyrians in antiquity. The prehistory of Illyria and the Illyrians is known from archaeological evidence. The Romans conquered the region in 168 BC in the aftermath of the Illyrian Wars. "Illyria" is thus a designation of a roughly defined region of the western Balkans as seen from a Roman perspective, just as Magna Germania is a rough geographic term not delineated by any linguistic or ethnic unity. The term Illyris is sometimes used to define an area (now in modern Albania) north of the Aous valley such as Illyris Graeca.[3] Mythology[edit] Kingdoms[edit] The Illyrian kingdoms were composed of small areas within the region of Illyria. Roman and Byzantine rule[edit] The Romans defeated Gentius, the last king of Illyria, at Scodra (in present-day Albania) in 168 BC and captured him, bringing him to Rome in 165 BC. The Prefecture of Illyria in the 4th century (light green). Legacy[edit] In popular culture[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] Citations[edit]

Neolithic Europe A map showing the Neolithic expansions from the 7th to the 5th millennium BC, including the Cardium Culture in blue. Europe in ca. 4500-4000 BC. Neolithic Europe refers to a prehistoric period in which Neolithic technology was present in Europe. This corresponds roughly to a time between 7000 BC (the approximate time of the first farming societies in Greece) and c. 1700 BC (the beginning of the Bronze Age in northwest Europe). The Neolithic overlaps the Mesolithic and Bronze Age periods in Europe as cultural changes moved from the southeast to northwest at about 1 km/year. The duration of the Neolithic varies from place to place, its end marked by the introduction of bronze implements: in southeast Europe it is approximately 4,000 years (i.e. 7000 BC–3000 BC) while in Northwest Europe it is just under 3,000 years (c. 4500 BC–1700 BC). Basic cultural characteristics[edit] Archaeology[edit] Europe in ca. 4000-3500 BC. Genetics[edit] Genetic studies[edit] Y-DNA based studies[edit] Language[edit]

Prehistory of eastern Thrace Thracians Baltic states The Baltic states (also known as the Baltics, Baltic nations or Baltic countries; Estonian: Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Latvian: Baltijas valstis, Lithuanian: Baltijos valstybės) are three northern European countries east of the Baltic Sea – Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, which gained independence from the Russian Empire in the wake of World War I. In the period between the World Wars, the Baltic states also included Finland.[2] While the indigenous populations of Latvia and Lithuania are known as Baltic peoples, those of Estonia (and Finland) are Finnic peoples. Another Baltic identity, Baltic German, began to develop during the Middle Ages after the Livonian Crusade. Linguistic and historical considerations intersect defining the concept of "Baltic states"; for example, while Latvian is phylogenetically related to Lithuanian (both belonging to the Baltic group of the Indo-european language family,) Estonian belongs to a completely different family – the Uralic languages.

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The Celts Maeonia and the Lydian kingdom Tylis Tylis (Greek: Τύλις) or Tyle was a capital of a short-lived Balkan state mentioned by Polybius[1] that was founded by Celts led by Comontorios in the 3rd century BC, after their invasion of Thrace and Greece in 279 BC the Gauls were defeated by Antigonus II Gonatas in the Battle of Lysimachia in 277 BC after which they turned inland to Thrace and founded their kingdom at Tylis.[2] It was located near the eastern edge of the Haemus (Balkan) Mountains in what is now eastern Bulgaria. The bands of Celts that did not settle in Thrace, crossed into Asia Minor to become known as the Galatians. The city of Tylis was eventually destroyed by the Thracians in 212 BC.[3] The modern Bulgarian village of Tulovo in Stara Zagora Province now occupies the site.[4] Tribes in Thrace and the Gauls of Tylis Tile Ridge on Greenwich Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica is named for Tylis. References[edit] Coordinates:

Balkans The Balkan Peninsula, popularly referred to as the Balkans, is a geographical and cultural region of Southeast Europe. The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains that stretch from the east of Bulgaria to the very east of Serbia. The total area of the Balkans is 257,400 square miles (666,700 square km) and the population is 59,297,000 (est. 2002).[1] The Balkans meet the Adriatic Sea on the northwest, Ionian Sea on the southwest, the Mediterranean and Aegean Sea on the south and southeast, and the Black Sea on the east and northeast. The highest point of the Balkans is mount Musala 2,925 metres (9,596 ft) on the Rila mountain range in Bulgaria. The Balkans have been inhabited since the Paleolithic and are the route by which farming from the Middle East spread to Europe during the Neolithic (7th millennium BC).[3][4] The Balkans are also the location of Europe's first advanced civilizations, beginning with the Bronze Age in Greece around 3200 BC.[5] Name[edit] Etymology[edit]

The Illyria