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Representing gender in children's reading materials

Representing gender in children's reading materials
would a boy have been shown with flowers in the 1970s? Are girls and boys portrayed differently in children’s reading materials today than in the past? During the 1970s and 80s, studies of children’s reading materials found that males not only featured more than females but also they tended to take the lead roles and were more active than their female counterparts, who were often restricted to traditional stereotyped roles. Many of these earlier studies of gender in children’s reading material analysed the texts based on their content, which meant that researchers made their own judgements about what was sexist and what was not. Macalister based his study on New Zealand’s School Journal, a multi-authored journal of prose, drama and poetry, published and distributed to New Zealand school children every year. In the first three issues of the Journal, Macalister found that ‘boy/s’ outnumbered ‘girl/s’. Related:  AQA English Language B - ASdavebrown66

Men and women: are we really worlds apart? - Features Do women and men talk differently? And, if they do, why? Kitty Sadler explores the theories Kitty Sadler, 13 March 2011 Everybody knows men are from Mars and women are from Venus. There's no denying it: no education or social conditioning has succeeded in erasing the differences between the language of men and women. For Otto Jespersen and other linguists from the early 20th century, a woman is not a man's counterpart; she is his wife. Despite an investigation into memory in which women came out on top, it was still asserted that it was men who had the higher intellectual capacity - it was easier to succeed in the test when the subject was enough of an airhead that they could make use of "the vacant chambers of the mind". It's not just old men born in the 19th century who have supported deficiency theory. Lakoff stated that women use phatic (empty) language; apologise too much and can't tell jokes, for example. A stance many readers may find more palatable is the theory of dominance.

Marjorie Rhodes, Ph.D.: How Generic Language Leads Children to Develop Social Stereotypes Consider the following statements: "Girls have long hair"; "Jews celebrate Passover"; "Italians love pasta." These statements make claims that we view as generally true of groups, even though we can easily call to mind exceptions (e.g., girls with short hair, Italians who dislike pasta, etc.). In linguistics these statements are called "generics." Nevertheless, recent research that Dr. Children were shown Zarpies one at a time. Hearing generic sentences had striking effects on children's beliefs. What does this mean? Second, the children who previously heard generics were more likely to view Zarpie traits as inborn and inevitable. Children who had previously heard generics were more likely to assume that the baby would still grow up to have Zarpie traits (e.g., being scared of, instead of liking, ladybugs). In a third study, we examined the circumstances under which parents produce generics when talking to their children. What do all these findings mean?

#Tweet #Tweet Founded in 2006, Twitter is the online social networking service that allows its users to communicate via text-based messages of up to 140 characters, known as ‘tweets’. Communication in Twitter is fast-paced and it can be difficult to keep track of the talk that emerges, so a convention has arisen among Twitter users whereby a hashtag (#) can be used as a prefix to make the term searchable and then others can search for tweets that have that same topic. So, for instance, a search of #LFW this week in Twitter should produce a list of tweets relating to London Fashion Week. Page’s study investigates the way that Twitter members use hashtags as a way of gaining increased attention in order to self-promote, relating this to the notion of ‘self-branding and micro-celebrity’ (the idea of promoting one’s self in order to gain status or fame in the offline world). Overall, Page found that corporations and celebrities most frequently use hashtags.

Language and Gender ENGB1 Introduction This guide is written for students who are following GCE Advanced level (AS and A2) syllabuses in English Language. This resource may also be of general interest to language students on university degree courses, trainee teachers and anyone with a general interest in language science. On this page I use red type for emphasis. Brown type is used where italics would appear in print (in this screen font, italic looks like this, and is unkind on most readers). Headings have their own hierarchical logic, too: Back to top Language and gender - what is it all about? When you start to study language and gender, you may find it hard to discover what this subject, as a distinct area in the study of language, is about. To get you started, here is an outline of part of one exam board's Advanced level module on Language and Social Contexts - there are three subjects, one of which is Language and Gender. How language reveals, embodies and sustains attitudes to gender. Is it easy or hard?

Susan Sarandon: 'Feminism is a bit of an old-fashioned word' | From the Observer | The Observer Susan Sarandon photographed in Los Angeles for the Observer by Steve Schofield 2013. Photograph: Contour by Getty In Arbitrage, you play the wife of a multi-millionaire hedge fund manager who is stronger than she first appears. It's not the usual character arc for a female support role – was that part of the appeal? Arbitrage Production year: 2012 Country: USA Cert (UK): 15 Runtime: 107 mins Directors: Nicholas Jarecki Cast: Brit Marling, Laetitia Casta, Richard Gere, Susan Sarandon, Tim Roth More on this film Absolutely and I was also taken by Nicholas Jarecki's enthusiasm and passion, and Richard Gere, I've known forever and I got to work with him. I think that what happens in a long relationship [like the one in the film] – and the longest I've ever had was 23 years – is that people have assumptions and firm habits in the way they relate to each other. You're known for playing strong women… Except I don't particularly think of them as strong. Would you call yourself a feminist?

Hoodies strike fear in British cinema | Film Who's afraid of the big bad hoodie? Enough of us, certainly, that the smart money in British cinema is going on those films that prey on our fear of urban youths and show that fear back to us. These days, the scariest Britflick villain isn't a flesh-eating zombie, or an East End Mr Big with a sawn-off shooter and a tattooed sidekick. It is a teenage boy with a penchant for flammable casualwear. What separates hoodies from the youth cults of previous moral panics – the teddy boys, the mods and rockers, the punks, the ravers have all had their day at the cinema – is that they don't have the pop-cultural weight of the other subcultures, whose members bonded through music, art and customised fashion. Greg Philo, research director of Glasgow University Media Group and professor of sociology at the university, traces our attitudes to hoodies back to the middle classes' long-held fear of those who might undermine their security. "If you go to these places, it's very grim," says Philo.

Ideas Illustrated » Blog Archive » Visualizing English Word Origins I have been reading a book on the development of the English language recently and I’ve become fascinated with the idea of word etymology — the study of words and their origins. It’s no secret that English is a great borrower of foreign words but I’m not enough of an expert to really understand what that means for my day-to-day use of the language. Simply reading about word history didn’t help me, so I decided that I really needed to see some examples. Using Douglas Harper’s online dictionary of etymology, I paired up words from various passages I found online with entries in the dictionary. The results look like this: The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog. This simple sentence is constructed of eight distinct words and one word suffix. A second example shows more variety: Supreme executive power derives from a mandate from the masses, not from some farcical aquatic ceremony. What follows are five excerpts taken from a spectrum of written sources. Passage #1: American Literature

The genius of Jodie Foster's speech | Film Reading this on mobile? Click here to view the video It's a considerable thing to deliver a speech that is at once artfully put together and emotionally affecting. At the Golden Globes – where in accepting the Cecil B DeMille award for lifetime achievement, she made the first public acknowledgement of her sexuality – Jodie Foster managed both. What's striking is not what the speech gave away, but the control and delicacy with which it delivered its payload. The art of rhetoric is, at root, about the relationship between a speaker and an audience. But Foster didn't just take their attention for granted. She teased their expectations. By using anaphora (1) ("we've giggled ... we've punched") and polysyndeton (2) (all those ands), she made the sentence sound loose, spontaneous, a little out of control. Writ large, that's the same technique she used when she approached the meat of her speech. She teased it out. Big, nervous laugh from the audience. Finally her peroration (6).

A very concise dictionary of student slang Student slang is a rapidly changing lingo, and you don't want to get caught out during freshers week confusing "hench" with "dench". In the interests of preserving your cool, here's our glossary of well-worn faves. Feel free to add local variants and new witticisms in the comments. Bare Not actually anything to do with nudity, bare is an adjective meaning "a lot of", or "obviously". "I can't come to your party, I've got bare work to do."" Used by: Hipsters, at first; slowly but surely filtering down through the student ranks. Bnoc An acronym standing for "big name on campus". "Sam thinks he's such a Bnoc, but really he's just deputy treasurer of the cheese appreciation society." Used by: The weary friends of CV-obsessives who live in the student's union. Chunder Verb meaning to vomit, usually due to over-consumption of alcohol. "I thought that drinking whisky neat would make me look suave like that guy from Mad Men, but now I think I might chunder." Chundergrad Dench Desmond Hench Used by: Lads. Jel

Skivers v strivers: the argument that pollutes people's minds | Politics Link to video: Skivers v strivers: the benefits debate explained | Animation "Skiver" v "striver". It suits Cameron's tabloid-slick delivery and Steve Hilton's blue-sky viciousness, but how did it go viral? Why does Ed Miliband now use "striver" as though it were an acceptable way to describe someone, by a stranger's groundless estimation of how hard they are hypothetically trying? Don't tell me it is because it rhymes. Sarah Teather, who on Tuesday was one of the pitifully few (four) Lib Dems voting against the welfare bill, described the so-called "skivers" she encounters in her constituency office: "People who come to my constituency office these days for help with some kind of error in their benefits often spend the first few minutes trying to justify their worth. How did this come about? On its own, this wouldn't be enough, since even to a government that often seems scarcely able to count, it would have been obvious that almost all of us were on some benefit or other. - Free Online Readability Calculator - Flesch Kincaid, Gunning Fog and more ...