background preloader

British Raj

British Raj
The British Raj (rāj, lit. "rule" in Hindi)[2] was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.[3] The term can also refer to the period of dominion.[3][4] The region under British control—commonly called "India" in contemporary usage—included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom[5] (contemporaneously, "British India") as well as the princely states ruled by individual rulers under the paramountcy of the British Crown. The region was less commonly also called the Indian Empire.[6] As India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, and 1936, and a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945.[7] Geographical extent[edit] The British Raj extended over almost all present-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, with exceptions such as Goa and Pondicherry. British India and the Native States[edit] (4.) Major provinces[edit] Minor provinces[edit] Organization[edit] Related:  Ancient History

Partition of India The British Indian Empire in the end of the British period 1947, except Nepal and Bhutan which were independent kingdoms Maps of India and Pakistan shown in October 1947, after the partition The secession of Bangladesh from Pakistan in 1971 is not covered by the term Partition of India, nor is the earlier separation of Burma (now Myanmar) from the administration of British India, or the even earlier separation of Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). Ceylon was part of the Madras Presidency of British India from 1795 until 1798 when it became a separate Crown Colony of the Empire. Nepal, Bhutan, and the Maldives, the remaining countries of present-day South Asia, were unaffected by the partition. Background[edit] Partition of Bengal (1905)[edit] World War I, Lucknow Pact: 1914–1918[edit] Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms: 1919[edit] Muslim homeland, provincial elections, World War II, Lahore resolution: 1930–1945[edit]

How to travel by train from London to Syria | Train travel in Syria Syria is a wonderful country to visit and Syrians are amongst the most hospitable people you will meet anywhere. Until recent events, it's always been a very safe country for travellers, too, safer than most western countries in fact. It's easy to reach Aleppo and Damascus overland from London or any other city in Europe, using a daily sleeper train from Istanbul to Adana in southern Turkey, then by daily bus or weekly sleeper train to Aleppo. This page tells you how. On this page... London to Syria overland by train Istanbul to Aleppo & Damascus by train, or by train & bus - schedules, fares & how to buy tickets Hotel in Aleppo - the famous Baron's Hotel Aleppo-Homs-Hama-Damascus by train - times, fares & how to book Aleppo-Latakia by train - times, fares & how to book Things to see in Syria - Aleppo, Hama, Damascus, Krak des Chevaliers & Palmyra Damascus to Beirut (Lebanon) by bus Damascus to Amman (Jordan) by bus or Hedjaz Railway train Damascus to Tehran (Iran) by train How much does it cost?

Dogra The Dogras (Dogri: डोगरा / ڈوگرا) are an Indo-Aryan ethno-linguistic group in South Asia. Being a diversified group, the Dogras include both savarnas such as Brahmins, Rajputs, Vaishyas and non-savarnas. Dogra Rajputs are believed to be Suryavanshi along with Chandravanshi Rajputs of Chattari origin. They ruled Kashmir for hundreds of years till independence. The Jammu region[edit] The Jammu region, which is one of the three regions of Jammu and Kashmir state (the other two being the Kashmir Valley and Ladakh), is bounded on the north by the Pir Panjal Range of the middle Himalayas, in the south by Punjab, to the east by Ladakh and close to the west in Pakistan. The Jammu Dogras traditionally more inhabited the area between the slopes of Shivalik range of mountains, the sacred lakes of Saroien sar and Mannsar but they spread over whole of Jammu region. Cultural profile of Dogras[edit] Kud – It is basically a ritual dance performed in honour of Lok Devatas. Dogra culture[edit]

Buddhism World religion, founded by the Buddha Buddhism (/ˈbʊdɪzəm/, US also /ˈbuː-/) is the world's fourth-largest religion[3] with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.[web 1][5] Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Theravada Buddhism has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian adepts, may be viewed as a separate branch or as an aspect of Mahayana Buddhism.[11] Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth-century India, is practiced in the countries of the Himalayan region, Mongolia,[12] and Kalmykia.[13] Life of the Buddha Buddha in Sarnath Museum (Dhammajak Mutra) Saṃsāra Rebirth Zen

Rashtrakuta dynasty A stanza from the 9th century Kannada classic Kavirajamarga, praising the people for their literary skills Rashtrakuta (Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ, Sanskrit: राष्ट्रकूट rāṣṭrakūṭa), was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian Subcontinent between the sixth and the 10th centuries. The earliest known Rashtrakuta inscription is a 7th-century copper plate grant that mentions their rule from Manpur in the Malwa region of modern Madhya Pradesh. Other ruling Rashtrakuta clans from the same period mentioned in inscriptions were the kings of Achalapur (modern Elichpur in Maharashtra) and the rulers of Kannauj. Several controversies exist regarding the origin of these early Rashtrakutas, their native home and their language. The clan that ruled from Elichpur was a feudatory of the Badami Chalukyas and during the rule of Dantidurga, it overthrew Chalukya Kirtivarman II and went on to build an empire with the Gulbarga region in modern Karnataka as its base. History[edit] Administration[edit]

Pakistan Movement History of the movement[edit] Background[edit] In all over the subcontinent, the British government took over the state machinery, bureaucracy, universities, schools, and institutions as well establishing its own.[22] During this time, Lord Macaulay radical and influential educational reforms led to the numerous changes to the introduction and teaching of Western languages (e.g. Traditional Hindu and Islamic studies were no longer supported by the British Crown, and nearly all of the madrasahs lost their waqf (lit. financial endowment).[23][24] Discontent by these reforms, the Muslim and Hindus initiated the first rebellion in 1857 which was inverted by the British forces, followed by final abdication of last Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah II, also the same year. In justifying these actions, Macaulay's notably argument that Sanskrit and Arabic were wholly inadequate for students studying history, science and technology. Renaissance vision[edit]

Istanbul Haydarpaşa Terminal The Haydarpaşa Terminal or Haydarpaşa Terminus (Turkish: Haydarpaşa Garı) is a major intercity terminal and transportation hub in Kadıköy, İstanbul. It is the busiest rail terminal in Turkey and one of the busiest in Eastern Europe. The terminal also has connections to bus and ferry services. The Moda Tramway is a few blocks south of the terminal. The terminal has a main building (opened in 1908) that houses the headquarters of District 1. Haydarpaşa Terminal is the western terminus of the Istanbul-Ankara Main Line and was the western terminus of the former Baghdad Railway (İstanbul-Konya-Adana-Aleppo-Baghdad) and the Hejaz Railway (İstanbul-Konya-Adana-Aleppo-Damascus-Amman-Medina).[1] The tracks do not cross the Bosphorus, but there is a train ferry which carries rail cars from the Haydarpaşa Terminal on the Asian side to the Sirkeci Terminal on the European side.[1] History[edit] Ottoman Era (1872–1922)[edit] Interior hall in Haydarpaşa Terminal Republican Era (1923–Present)[edit]

File:Traditional Dresses of Kashmir.jpg Culture of India The culture of India refers to the way of life of the people of India. India's languages, religions, dance, music, architecture, food, and customs differ from place to place within the country. The Indian culture, often labelled as an amalgamation of several cultures, spans across the Indian subcontinent and has been influenced by a history that is several millennia old.[1][2] Many elements of India's diverse cultures, such as Indian religions, yoga, and Indian cuisine, have had a profound impact across the world. Religions[edit] India is the birthplace of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism, collectively known as Indian religions.[4] Indian religions, also known as Dharmic religions are a major form of world religions along with Abrahamic one. Today, Hinduism and Buddhism are the world's third and fourth-largest religions respectively, with over 2 billion followers altogether,[5][6][7] and possibly as many as 2.5 or 2.6 billion followers.[5][8] Perceptions of Indian culture[edit]

Pala Empire The Pala Empire was a Buddhist imperial power in Classical India during the 8th to 12th century CE. The empire is named after its ruling dynasty, all of whose rulers bore names ending with the suffix -Pala ("protector"). The Palas were often described by opponents as the Lords of Gauda. Their empire was centered around the present-day Bengal-Bihar region, and at times, included what are now Assam, Orissa and parts of North India. The Palas ushered in a period of stability and prosperity in the Bengal region, which had been suffering from anarchy since the death of Shashanka. They were the followers of the Mahayana and Tantric schools of Buddhism. History[edit] The main sources of information about the Pala empire include:[3]:2–3 Pala accounts Other accounts Origins[edit] According to the Khalimpur copper plate inscription, the first Pala king Gopala was the son of a warrior named Vapyata. Establishment[edit] Expansion[edit] Weakening[edit] First revival under Mahipala I[edit] Final decline[edit]

History of Pakistan: Colonial period Baghdad Railway The Baghdad Railway (Turkish: Bağdat Demiryolu, German: Bagdadbahn, French: Chemin de Fer Impérial Ottoman de Bagdad), was built from 1903 to 1940 to connect Berlin with the (then) Ottoman Empire city of Baghdad, where the Germans wanted to establish a port in the Persian Gulf,[1] with a 1,600 kilometres (1,000 mi) line through modern-day Turkey, Syria, and Iraq. Completion of the project took several decades and by the outbreak of World War I, the railway was still 960 km (600 miles) away from its intended objective. The last stretch to Baghdad was built in the late 1930s and the first train to travel from Istanbul to Baghdad departed in 1940. Funding and engineering was mainly provided by German Empire banks and companies, which in the 1890s had built the Anatolian Railway (Anatolische Eisenbahn) connecting Constantinople, Ankara and Konya. The railway became a source of international disputes during the years immediately preceding World War I. Overview[edit] Route[edit]

The Great Game Persia at the beginning of the Great Game in 1814 British-Russian rivalry in Afghanistan[edit] From the British perspective, the Russian Empire's expansion into Central Asia threatened to destroy the "jewel in the crown" of the British Empire, India. The British feared that the Tsar's troops would subdue the Central Asian khanates (Khiva, Bokhara, Khokand) one after another. It was with these thoughts in mind that in 1838 the British launched the First Anglo-Afghan War and attempted to impose a puppet regime on Afghanistan under Shuja Shah. The retreating British army consisted of approximately 4,500 troops (of which only 690 were European) and 12,000 camp followers. After the Indian rebellion of 1857, successive British governments saw Afghanistan as a buffer state. Samarkand became part of the Russian Empire in 1868, and the independence of Bukhara was virtually stripped away in a peace treaty the same year. Great Game moves eastward[edit] Anglo-Russian Alliance[edit] Cold War[edit]

Etiquette of Indian dining As in many cultures, proper habits of eating and drinking are very important and widely respected parts of Indian culture, local customs, traditions, and religions. Proper table manners vary from culture to culture, although there are always a few basic rules that are important to follow. Etiquette should be observed when dining in any Indian household or restaurant, though the acceptable standards depend upon the situation.[1][2] Cutlery[edit] Though Indian cooking uses an extensive array of specialized utensils for various purposes, Indians traditionally do not use cutlery for eating, as many foods - such as Indian breads and curry - are best enjoyed when eaten with the hand.[3][4] Eating with one's hands is a technique that may require plenty of practice. Using the fingers, the food should be scooped onto the flatbread (naan, roti, etc.) and quickly brought to the mouth. Not all Indian foods should be eaten with the hands, however. Contamination with saliva[edit] Beef[edit]

Related:  British IndiaHistory Of India