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History of trains in India

History of trains in India
The British Raj (rāj, lit. "rule" in Hindi)[2] was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.[3] The term can also refer to the period of dominion.[3][4] The region under British control—commonly called "India" in contemporary usage—included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom[5] (contemporaneously, "British India") as well as the princely states ruled by individual rulers under the paramountcy of the British Crown. The region was less commonly also called the Indian Empire.[6] As India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, and 1936, and a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945.[7] Geographical extent[edit] The British Raj extended over almost all present-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, with exceptions such as Goa and Pondicherry. British India and the Native States[edit] (4.) Major provinces[edit] Minor provinces[edit] Organization[edit]

How to travel by train from London to Syria | Train travel in Syria Syria is a wonderful country to visit and Syrians are amongst the most hospitable people you will meet anywhere. Until recent events, it's always been a very safe country for travellers, too, safer than most western countries in fact. It's easy to reach Aleppo and Damascus overland from London or any other city in Europe, using a daily sleeper train from Istanbul to Adana in southern Turkey, then by daily bus or weekly sleeper train to Aleppo. On this page... London to Syria overland by train Istanbul to Aleppo & Damascus by train, or by train & bus - schedules, fares & how to buy tickets Hotel in Aleppo - the famous Baron's Hotel Aleppo-Homs-Hama-Damascus by train - times, fares & how to book Aleppo-Latakia by train - times, fares & how to book Things to see in Syria - Aleppo, Hama, Damascus, Krak des Chevaliers & Palmyra Damascus to Beirut (Lebanon) by bus Damascus to Amman (Jordan) by bus or Hedjaz Railway train Damascus to Tehran (Iran) by train Step 1: Travel to Istanbul...

Istanbul Haydarpaşa Terminal The Haydarpaşa Terminal or Haydarpaşa Terminus (Turkish: Haydarpaşa Garı) is a major intercity terminal and transportation hub in Kadıköy, İstanbul. It is the busiest rail terminal in Turkey and one of the busiest in Eastern Europe. The terminal also has connections to bus and ferry services. Haydarpaşa Terminal is the western terminus of the Istanbul-Ankara Main Line and was the western terminus of the former Baghdad Railway (İstanbul-Konya-Adana-Aleppo-Baghdad) and the Hejaz Railway (İstanbul-Konya-Adana-Aleppo-Damascus-Amman-Medina).[1] The tracks do not cross the Bosphorus, but there is a train ferry which carries rail cars from the Haydarpaşa Terminal on the Asian side to the Sirkeci Terminal on the European side.[1] It is now proposed<<citation-needed>> that the station will be used as a terminal for high speed intercity trains to Ankara, while suburban trains will instead run through the Marmaray tunnel to the European side of the city. History[edit] Ottoman Era (1872–1922)[edit]

Baghdad Railway The Baghdad Railway (Turkish: Bağdat Demiryolu, German: Bagdadbahn, French: Chemin de Fer Impérial Ottoman de Bagdad), was built from 1903 to 1940 to connect Berlin with the (then) Ottoman Empire city of Baghdad, where the Germans wanted to establish a port in the Persian Gulf,[1] with a 1,600 kilometres (1,000 mi) line through modern-day Turkey, Syria, and Iraq. Completion of the project took several decades and by the outbreak of World War I, the railway was still 960 km (600 miles) away from its intended objective. The last stretch to Baghdad was built in the late 1930s and the first train to travel from Istanbul to Baghdad departed in 1940. Funding and engineering was mainly provided by German Empire banks and companies, which in the 1890s had built the Anatolian Railway (Anatolische Eisenbahn) connecting Constantinople, Ankara and Konya. The railway became a source of international disputes during the years immediately preceding World War I. Overview[edit] Route[edit]

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) - World Heritage Site - Pictures, info and travel reports Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) is a 19th century railway station in Mumbai, that is known for its architectural mix of Victorian Gothic Revival and traditional Indian features. It is a symbol of the blossom period of Mumbai as a commercial city in the late 19th century. The station was opened in 1887, on the Silver Jubilee of Empress Victoria. The station was originally named "Victoria Terminus". The station is among a series of Gothic public buildings that give South Mumbai its grandeur. Visit December 2009 Mumbai is an enormous city that suffers from heavy traffic most of the day. Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST), formerly Victoria Terminus (VT), is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and an historic railway station in Mumbai, India which serves as the headquarters of the Central Railways. Designed by Frederick William Stevens with influences from Victorian Italianate Gothic Revival architecture and traditional Mughal buildings, the station was built in 1887 in the Bori Bunder area of Bombay to commemorate the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria. The new railway station was built on the location of the Bori Bunder Station[3] and is the busiest railway station in India,[4] serving as a terminal for both long-distance trains and commuter trains of the Mumbai Suburban Railway. The station's name was changed to its present one in March 1996 and it is now known simply as CST (or VT/CSTM). History[edit] Construction[edit] The station was designed by the consulting British architect Frederick William Stevens (1848-1900). Opening and growth as Victoria Terminus[edit] Renaming[edit]

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, formerly known as Victoria Terminus Station, in Mumbai, is an outstanding example of Victorian Gothic Revival architecture in India, blended with themes deriving from Indian traditional architecture. The building, designed by the British architect F. W. Stevens, became the symbol of Bombay as the ‘Gothic City’ and the major international mercantile port of India. Gare Chhatrapati Shivaji (anciennement gare Victoria) La gare Chhatrapati Shivaji, autrefois appelée gare Victoria, à Mumbai, est un remarquable exemple d’architecture néogothique victorienne en Inde, mêlée à des éléments issus de l’architecture traditionnelle indienne. محطة تشاتراباتي شيفاجي المعروفة آنفاً بمحطة فكتوريا إنّ محطة تشاتراباتي شيفاجي المعروفة آنفاً بمحطة فكتوريا في مومباي هي مثال مُلفت للهندسة القوطية الجديدة الفكتورية في الهند، ممزوجة بعناصر صادرة عن الهندسة الهندية التقليدية. source: UNESCO/ERI 贾特拉帕蒂•希瓦吉终点站(前维多利亚终点站)

Runthorne London Road Scale: 00 Size: 20' x 8'6" x 8' Operators: Eight Transport: Luton Van Click on the images below to enlarge - All Pix © Steve Guess & Chris Leach External link: Steve Guess's Runthorne Road website The period of the model is set in the 1950's. Based on London & North Western Railway practice, the layout features a double track mainline, locomotive depot, goods yard and huge station. Many say that the Nineteen Fifties and early Sixties were the heyday of Britain’s railways when traditional railway practices that had existed for over 100 years mixed with the first of the new technologies of the second Elizabethan era. This layout aims to reflect the best (and worst) of that period. Runthorne London Road represents a large town situated on a major cross country route somewhere north of Watford. Being on a cross country route, trains from all regions of British Railways can be seen, although those from the Scottish Region are rare. The layout is “driven” by a minimum of 5 people.

Model Train Track Grades and Your Maximum Grade Track grade is the slope of a railroad track. The track grade is expressed as the percentage of its rise for the length of its run. For example,if you have 100 inches of model railroad track, and the train climbs one inch, then the grade is 1%. So when 25 inches of track rise 1 inch the grade is 4%. Maximum grade is the steepest slope your trains can climb. What's My Maximum Grade? A common question on the online model railroad forums is, "What's the maximum grade I can use?" The largest manufacturer of model railroad landscape materials, Woodland Scenics, offers flexible incline foam for grading model railroad train layouts in grades of 2%, 3%, and 4%. Track Grades: Prototypical vs. Some builders of prototypical model railroads will ridicule any grade steeper than 2%. Maximum Track Grade and Train Issues So just what is the maximum grade you can use? Grades, Like Curves, Are All About Space With model train track curves our concern is the width of the space available to us. Ghost Cars

Aldwych Station Tour The visit very nearly didn't happen for me since I was waiting by the wrong doorway! Instructions had been sent with the tickets stating that we were to meet by the side entrance of the station but this was accidentally omitted from my envelope. I had no idea the side entrance existed and the first I knew that the tour had already started was seeing a group of people down in the station entrance hall through the Strand entrance's gate! The Ticket Hall and Lifts The visit started with the surface of Aldwych station, which has been remarkably restored and preserved since the station was closed in 1994. The original ticket office designed by Leslie Green was in immaculate condition, having been re-decorated for a period drama. Just to the right of the ticket office we came across the entrances to the two lifts, which served as a transit between surface and track level and were still in use until the closure in 1994. Then we entered one of the two lifts - they looked absolutely archaic!

Leslie Green Leslie William Green (6 February 1875—31 August 1908) was an English architect. He is best known for his design of iconic stations constructed on the London Underground railway system in central London during the first decade of the 20th century, with distinctive ox-blood red tiled façades including pillars and semi-circular first-floor windows, and patterned tiled interiors. Early and private life[edit] Green was born in Maida Vale, London in 1875, the second of four children of architect and Crown Surveyor Arthur Green and his wife Emily.[1] He spent periods studying at Dover College and South Kensington School of Art, and in Paris, between periods working as an assistant in his father's architectural practice.[2] Green married Mildred Ethel Wildy[1][3] in Clapham in April 1902. Career[edit] Russell Square station One of the variety of platform tiling patterns designed by Green The interior was tiled in green and white, with decorative details. Death[edit] References[edit]

Modelling Indian Railways The station at Kutcha Bazar on the Barfi Light Railway. ZB 2-6-2 is about to depart with a postal service for Chinnapettai. More about the BLR is on the "Models and Why" page. For many years, the notion of modelling Indian Railways was virtually non-existent. Yet, all of a sudden, during 1999 and 2000, the issue began to arouse intense interest. The importance of commercial production lies in the fact that no modeller can hope to produce a convincing model, even of a very small area, without considerable support from manufactured components. In general, railway modellers have responded to this problem in two ways. As there are no RTR components available for Indian models at all, the first group have only two choices: to "bodge", adapting existing models or parts to resemble Indian ones as closely as possible, or to wait and hope for commercial ones to emerge. The alternative to waiting for commercial production has the advantage of being immediately viable.

Royal Observatory, Greenwich Royal Observatory, Greenwich. A time ball sits atop the Octagon Room Flamsteed House in 1824 Royal Observatory, Greenwich c. 1902 as depicted on a postcard Laser at night The observatory was commissioned in 1675 by King Charles II, with the foundation stone being laid on 10 August.[1] At that time the king also created the position of Astronomer Royal, to serve as the director of the observatory and to "apply himself with the most exact care and diligence to the rectifying of the tables of the motions of the heavens, and the places of the fixed stars, so as to find out the so much desired longitude of places for the perfecting of the art of navigation." The scientific work of the observatory was relocated elsewhere in stages in the first half of the 20th century, and the Greenwich site is now maintained as a tourist attraction. History[edit] Moore donated two clocks, built by Thomas Tompion, which were installed in the 20 foot high Octagon Room, the principal room of the building.

Yard Design The Ten Commandments of Model Railroad Yard Design By Craig Bisgeier If you got here by a direct link, Welcome! I invite you to check out the rest of the website after you've finished with this article. Just click below on the Welcome Page link to go to the main page and the list of contents. Be sure to check out my Construction Journal, which shows the progress we're making on my 19th Century HO Scale model railroad. Welcome Page Links Page Send E-Mail Sample Yard Layout You may find it helpful to print out this diagram before reading the article. One of the most often modeled -- and misunderstood -- layout design elements is the yard. So the "secrets" of good yard design are difficult to for most to uncover, because the good nuggets of information appear in wildly different places like out of print magazines or books, special interest publications, or even word of mouth among advanced modelers. not many modelers have that kind of library or access. What kind of yard to model? Confused?

Small Layout Scrapbook PAGE 86 - June 2009, ©2009 Carl Arendt All SCRAPBOOK back issues are online. Click for Linked Index Building a model railroad layout is about creating a believable world in miniature. Paper can be a highly affordable material to help accomplish that mission! One of the biggest contributions to believability in a small layout can be a backdrop (backscene), which is especially effective on shelf layouts viewed from only one side. It can be printed as a continuous banner (if your printer has such capability—and many do) or as a series of vertical strips about 8in (20cm) wide, carefully trimmed and glued abutting each other. This same technique was used by Martin Hogg, from Mansfield, England, to transform his more rural photo (below) of the romantic northern Lake District into a backdrop for his layout, Ulthwaite (see Scrapbook #82a). With all that action going on, it would seem that scenery is pretty much of a side issue. The imposing central structure (remember, this is O scale!)