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British Raj

British Raj
The British Raj (rāj, lit. "rule" in Hindi)[2] was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.[3] The term can also refer to the period of dominion.[3][4] The region under British control—commonly called "India" in contemporary usage—included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom[5] (contemporaneously, "British India") as well as the princely states ruled by individual rulers under the paramountcy of the British Crown. The region was less commonly also called the Indian Empire.[6] As India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, and 1936, and a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945.[7] Geographical extent[edit] The British Raj extended over almost all present-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, with exceptions such as Goa and Pondicherry. British India and the Native States[edit] (4.) Major provinces[edit] Minor provinces[edit] Organization[edit] Related:  Ancient History

Rashtrakuta dynasty A stanza from the 9th century Kannada classic Kavirajamarga, praising the people for their literary skills Rashtrakuta (Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ, Sanskrit: राष्ट्रकूट rāṣṭrakūṭa), was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian Subcontinent between the sixth and the 10th centuries. The earliest known Rashtrakuta inscription is a 7th-century copper plate grant that mentions their rule from Manpur in the Malwa region of modern Madhya Pradesh. Other ruling Rashtrakuta clans from the same period mentioned in inscriptions were the kings of Achalapur (modern Elichpur in Maharashtra) and the rulers of Kannauj. Several controversies exist regarding the origin of these early Rashtrakutas, their native home and their language. The clan that ruled from Elichpur was a feudatory of the Badami Chalukyas and during the rule of Dantidurga, it overthrew Chalukya Kirtivarman II and went on to build an empire with the Gulbarga region in modern Karnataka as its base. History[edit] Administration[edit]

Anglo-Indians: Is their culture dying out? 4 January 2013Last updated at 01:46 GMT A product of the British Empire, with a mixture of Western and Indian names, customs and complexions, 2,000 Anglo-Indians are to attend a reunion in Calcutta. But their communities in both the UK and the subcontinent are disappearing, writes Anglo-Indian Kris Griffiths. Southall in west London is home to Britain's first pub accepting rupees, railway station signs in English and Punjabi, and main thoroughfares alive all year with street food stalls, colourful saris and Bhangra music. It's my hometown, where I spent my first 20 years among the country's most concentrated population of Indians, but as one of the minority 10% white British inhabitants. My mother is Anglo-Indian, raised in Jamshedpur, near Calcutta, before moving eventually to London's own "Little India". Continue reading the main story About the author Journalist Kris Griffiths was born to a Welsh father and Anglo-Indian mother. Most of the Anglo-Indians were more "Anglo" than "Indian".

Pala Empire The Pala Empire was a Buddhist imperial power in Classical India during the 8th to 12th century CE. The empire is named after its ruling dynasty, all of whose rulers bore names ending with the suffix -Pala ("protector"). The Palas were often described by opponents as the Lords of Gauda. Their empire was centered around the present-day Bengal-Bihar region, and at times, included what are now Assam, Orissa and parts of North India. The Palas ushered in a period of stability and prosperity in the Bengal region, which had been suffering from anarchy since the death of Shashanka. They were the followers of the Mahayana and Tantric schools of Buddhism. History[edit] The main sources of information about the Pala empire include:[3]:2–3 Pala accounts Other accounts Origins[edit] According to the Khalimpur copper plate inscription, the first Pala king Gopala was the son of a warrior named Vapyata. Establishment[edit] Expansion[edit] Weakening[edit] First revival under Mahipala I[edit] Final decline[edit]

South Asia | Eton, the Raj and modern India "While we hold onto India, we are a first rate power. If we lose India, we will decline to a third rate power. This is the value of India." So spoke Lord Curzon, one of 11 viceroys of British India (from 1898 to 1905) who was educated at Eton College, one of England's top private schools. The school also prides itself on providing five governor-generals who served in India, and three high commissioners after independence. Now the strong links between the famous "playing fields of Eton" - attributed as a key reason by the Duke of Wellington for Britain's victory in the Battle of Waterloo - and the Raj will be celebrated at an exhibition at the school, due to be staged in April. The aim of the display is to reveal the benefits of the Raj - while exposing its warts as well. Benefits of colonialism "Eton has had a link with India since the early days of British colonialism to the present," says the event organiser, Andrew Robinson, who teaches history at the school. About turn Good, bad and ugly

Gurjara-Pratihara The Gurjar Pratihara (गुर्जर-प्रतिहार), often simply called Pratihara Empire, was an imperial Indian dynasty that ruled much of Northern India from the 8th to the 11th centuries. At its peak of prosperity and power (c. 836–910), the Gurajara-Pratihara Empire rivaled or even exceeded the Gupta Empire in the extent of its territory. The Pratihara Empire started to decline in the early 10th century after it had to face several invasions by the south Indian Rashtrakuta dynasty.[1] Kannauj was the capital of imperial Gurjara Pratiharas.[2][3][4] The Gurjara Pratihara rulers in the tenth century was entitled as Maharajadhiraja of Āryāvarta ("Great King over Kings of the abode of the Aryans". i.e. Etymology[edit] The word "Pratihara" means protector or "who takes over the enemy/opponent" and was used by the Gurjara-Pratihara rulers as self-designation. Origin[edit] Several scholars including D. Rulers[edit] Early rulers[edit] Expansion[edit] Conquest of Kannauj and further expansion[edit]

The British Presence in India in the 18th Century Middle kingdoms of India Middle kingdoms of India (or Classical India) refers to the political entities in India from the 3rd century BCE and the 13th century CE. This period begins after the decline of the Maurya Empire, and the corresponding rise of the Satavahana dynasty, beginning with Simuka, from 230 BC. The "Middle" period lasts for some 1,500 years, and ends in the 13th century, with the rise of the Delhi Sultanate and the end of the Chalukya Cholas (Rajendra Chola III died 1279). The period is known as the classical period of India, during which India is estimated to have had the largest economy of the world controlling between one third and one fourth of the world's wealth. The Northwest[edit] The Mauryan Empire, during the 2nd century BC, became a collage of regional powers with overlapping boundaries. The Indo-Scythian Sakas[edit] The Indo-Greeks[edit] The Yavanas[edit] The Yavanas or Yonas were described as living beyond Gandhara. The Indo-Parthians[edit] The Pahlavas[edit] The Western Satraps[edit]

Gupta Empire The high points of this cultural creativity are magnificent architecture, sculptures and paintings.[7] The Gupta period produced scholars such as Kalidasa, Aryabhata, Varahamihira, Vishnu Sharma and Vatsyayana who made great advancements in many academic fields.[8][9] Science and political administration reached new heights during the Gupta era.[10] Strong trade ties also made the region an important cultural center and set the region up as a base that would influence nearby kingdoms and regions in Burma, Sri Lanka, and Southeast Asia.[11] The earliest available Indian epics are also thought to have been written around this period. The empire gradually declined because of many factors such as substantial loss of territory and imperial authority caused by their own erstwhile feudatories and the invasion by the Huna peoples from Central Asia.[12] After the collapse of the Gupta Empire in the 6th century, India was again ruled by numerous regional kingdoms. Origin of the Guptas[edit]

Dans les pas de Childéric à Tournai Tournai n’a pas usurpé son titre de berceau de la France. C’est en effet dans la ville aux cinq clochers que naquit la première dynastie à avoir régné sur ce qui allait devenir l’Hexagone pendant près de trois siècles. Une dynastie communément appelée les Mérovingiens. Infos : Tournai n’a pas usurpé son titre de berceau de la France. Infos :

History of Cambodia People have been living within the area covered by the present-day country of Cambodia at least since the 5th millennium BC.[1] The ancient Kingdom of Funan occupied a wider area, and it was during that period that the culture became heavily influenced by Hinduism. The state of Chenla then arose. The Khmer Empire had its golden age in the 9th to the 13th centuries, when huge temple complexes were built, most notably Angkor Wat. Spanish and Portuguese missionaries visited from the 16th century, and Cambodia became a protectorate of France in the 19th century, being ruled as part of French Indochina. Cambodia became an independent kingdom in 1953 under Norodom Sihanouk. Prehistory and early history[edit] The Khmer people were among the first inhabitants of South East Asia. Funan Kingdom (1st century AD – 550)[edit] Map of Funan at around the 3rd century. Chenla Kingdom (6th century – 802)[edit] Main article: Chenla Kingdom Khmer Empire (802–1431)[edit] Main article: Khmer Empire The U.S.

Early history of Cambodia Prehistoric Cambodia is sparsely known. The earliest known site in Cambodia is Laang Spean cave which occupies the country's northwest region. Laang Spean cave was first occupied in around 7000 BC[1] Also of significance is the site Samrong Sen which was occupied c. 500 to 230 BC. From 2000 BC, Cambodians started to domesticate animals and grow rice. Mythology[edit] According to legend Cambodia was founded through the marriage of an Indian Brahman named Kaundinya to a Naga princess whose father ruled the sunken lands of Kambuja. Funan[edit] At about the time that Western Europe was absorbing the classical culture and institutions of the Mediterranean, the people of mainland and insular Southeast Asia were responding to the stimulus of a civilization that had arisen in India during the previous millennium. Funan, the earliest of the Indianized states, is generally considered to have been the first kingdom in the area. Chenla[edit] Main article: Chenla Kingdom Angkor[edit] See also[edit]

Ancient Japan - The Ancient Japanese Empire The Geisha, the traditional Japanese ideal of beauty Where did the Japanese come from? Why did they settle the islands? What did life look like before history was written down? Jomon Culture in Japan The Jomon people were some of the earliest people to establish villages in Japan Although the Japanese do not settle Japan until the third century B.C., humans had lived in Japan from about 30,000 B.C.. Then around 10,000 B.C., these original inhabitants developed a unique culture which lasted for several thousand years: the Jomon culture. We divide the Jomon into six separate eras—ten thousand years, after all, is a long time and even preliterate cultures change dramatically over time. The Kofun Cuirass, a well preserved example of early Japanese armor The Incipient Jomon, which is dated from about 10,500 B.C. to 8,000 B.C. has left us only pottery fragments. The Early Jomon, from 5000 to 2500 B.C., corresponds to the single most interesting couple thousand years in human history. The Ainu

History of Latvia The History of Latvia began when the area that is today Latvia was settled following the end of the last glacial period, around 9000 BC. Ancient Baltic peoples appeared during the second millennium BC, and four distinct tribal realms in Latvia's territories were identifiable towards the end of the first millennium AD. Latvia's principal river, the Daugava River, was at the head of an important mainland route from the Baltic region through Russia into southern Europe and the Middle East, used by the Vikings and later Nordic and German traders. In the early medieval period, the region's peoples resisted Christianisation and became subject to attack in the Northern Crusades. Due to Latvia's strategic location and prosperous city, its territories were a frequent focal point for conflict and conquest between at least four major powers, the State of the Teutonic Order (later Germany), the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Sweden and Russia. Prehistory[edit] Baltic Tribes, about 1200 CE.

Save Koalas from Deforestation Target: Greg Hunt, Australian Minister for the Environment Goal: Save koalas from deforestation The koala is considered a threatened species in three parts of Australia, but their habitat is being destroyed by removing irreplaceable foliage that they depend on. The destruction of native habitat creates major holes in the koalas’ landscape. A recent study from the University of Queensland revealed the importance of maintaining at least 30% of forest land to ensure the koala’s survival. Demand that action be taken before any more irreversible damage is done to these wonderful creatures’ habitat and future generations. Dear Minister Greg Hunt, I am writing this letter to express my somber concern for Australia’s current environmental offset system. Creating more holes in koalas’ habitat can further harm their rapidly declining population. Please take action before any more irreversible damage is done to these amazing creatures’ habitat and future generations. Sincerely, [Your Name Here]