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British Raj

British Raj
The British Raj (rāj, lit. "rule" in Hindi)[2] was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.[3] The term can also refer to the period of dominion.[3][4] The region under British control—commonly called "India" in contemporary usage—included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom[5] (contemporaneously, "British India") as well as the princely states ruled by individual rulers under the paramountcy of the British Crown. The region was less commonly also called the Indian Empire.[6] As India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, and 1936, and a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945.[7] Geographical extent[edit] The British Raj extended over almost all present-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, with exceptions such as Goa and Pondicherry. British India and the Native States[edit] (4.) Major provinces[edit] Minor provinces[edit] Organization[edit]

Buddhism World religion founded by the Buddha Buddhism (, ) is the world's fourth-largest religion[3] with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.[6] Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha (born Siddhārtha Gautama in the 5th or 4th century BCE) and resulting interpreted philosophies. It originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are generally recognized by scholars: Theravāda (Pali: "The School of the Elders") and Mahāyāna (Sanskrit: "The Great Vehicle"). Theravada Buddhism has a widespread following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia such as Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Thailand. Life of the Buddha Ancient kingdoms and cities of India during the time of the Buddha (circa 500 BCE) Worldview Four Noble Truths – dukkha and its ending Karma

Rashtrakuta dynasty A stanza from the 9th century Kannada classic Kavirajamarga, praising the people for their literary skills Rashtrakuta (Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ, Sanskrit: राष्ट्रकूट rāṣṭrakūṭa), was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian Subcontinent between the sixth and the 10th centuries. The earliest known Rashtrakuta inscription is a 7th-century copper plate grant that mentions their rule from Manpur in the Malwa region of modern Madhya Pradesh. Other ruling Rashtrakuta clans from the same period mentioned in inscriptions were the kings of Achalapur (modern Elichpur in Maharashtra) and the rulers of Kannauj. Several controversies exist regarding the origin of these early Rashtrakutas, their native home and their language. The clan that ruled from Elichpur was a feudatory of the Badami Chalukyas and during the rule of Dantidurga, it overthrew Chalukya Kirtivarman II and went on to build an empire with the Gulbarga region in modern Karnataka as its base. History[edit] Administration[edit]

Anglo-Indians: Is their culture dying out? 4 January 2013Last updated at 01:46 GMT A product of the British Empire, with a mixture of Western and Indian names, customs and complexions, 2,000 Anglo-Indians are to attend a reunion in Calcutta. But their communities in both the UK and the subcontinent are disappearing, writes Anglo-Indian Kris Griffiths. Southall in west London is home to Britain's first pub accepting rupees, railway station signs in English and Punjabi, and main thoroughfares alive all year with street food stalls, colourful saris and Bhangra music. It's my hometown, where I spent my first 20 years among the country's most concentrated population of Indians, but as one of the minority 10% white British inhabitants. My mother is Anglo-Indian, raised in Jamshedpur, near Calcutta, before moving eventually to London's own "Little India". Continue reading the main story About the author Journalist Kris Griffiths was born to a Welsh father and Anglo-Indian mother. Most of the Anglo-Indians were more "Anglo" than "Indian".

Gupta Empire The high points of this cultural creativity are magnificent architecture, sculptures and paintings.[7] The Gupta period produced scholars such as Kalidasa, Aryabhata, Varahamihira, Vishnu Sharma and Vatsyayana who made great advancements in many academic fields.[8][9] Science and political administration reached new heights during the Gupta era.[10] Strong trade ties also made the region an important cultural center and set the region up as a base that would influence nearby kingdoms and regions in Burma, Sri Lanka, and Southeast Asia.[11] The earliest available Indian epics are also thought to have been written around this period. The empire gradually declined because of many factors such as substantial loss of territory and imperial authority caused by their own erstwhile feudatories and the invasion by the Huna peoples from Central Asia.[12] After the collapse of the Gupta Empire in the 6th century, India was again ruled by numerous regional kingdoms. Origin of the Guptas[edit]

Culture of India The culture of India refers to the way of life of the people of India. India's languages, religions, dance, music, architecture, food, and customs differ from place to place within the country. The Indian culture, often labelled as an amalgamation of several cultures, spans across the Indian subcontinent and has been influenced by a history that is several millennia old.[1][2] Many elements of India's diverse cultures, such as Indian religions, yoga, and Indian cuisine, have had a profound impact across the world. Religions[edit] India is the birthplace of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism, collectively known as Indian religions.[4] Indian religions, also known as Dharmic religions are a major form of world religions along with Abrahamic one. Today, Hinduism and Buddhism are the world's third and fourth-largest religions respectively, with over 2 billion followers altogether,[5][6][7] and possibly as many as 2.5 or 2.6 billion followers.[5][8] Perceptions of Indian culture[edit]

Pala Empire The Pala Empire was a Buddhist imperial power in Classical India during the 8th to 12th century CE. The empire is named after its ruling dynasty, all of whose rulers bore names ending with the suffix -Pala ("protector"). The Palas were often described by opponents as the Lords of Gauda. Their empire was centered around the present-day Bengal-Bihar region, and at times, included what are now Assam, Orissa and parts of North India. The Palas ushered in a period of stability and prosperity in the Bengal region, which had been suffering from anarchy since the death of Shashanka. They were the followers of the Mahayana and Tantric schools of Buddhism. History[edit] The main sources of information about the Pala empire include:[3]:2–3 Pala accounts Other accounts Origins[edit] According to the Khalimpur copper plate inscription, the first Pala king Gopala was the son of a warrior named Vapyata. Establishment[edit] Expansion[edit] Weakening[edit] First revival under Mahipala I[edit] Final decline[edit]

South Asia | Eton, the Raj and modern India "While we hold onto India, we are a first rate power. If we lose India, we will decline to a third rate power. This is the value of India." So spoke Lord Curzon, one of 11 viceroys of British India (from 1898 to 1905) who was educated at Eton College, one of England's top private schools. The school also prides itself on providing five governor-generals who served in India, and three high commissioners after independence. Now the strong links between the famous "playing fields of Eton" - attributed as a key reason by the Duke of Wellington for Britain's victory in the Battle of Waterloo - and the Raj will be celebrated at an exhibition at the school, due to be staged in April. The aim of the display is to reveal the benefits of the Raj - while exposing its warts as well. Benefits of colonialism "Eton has had a link with India since the early days of British colonialism to the present," says the event organiser, Andrew Robinson, who teaches history at the school. About turn Good, bad and ugly

Gurjara-Pratihara The Gurjar Pratihara (गुर्जर-प्रतिहार), often simply called Pratihara Empire, was an imperial Indian dynasty that ruled much of Northern India from the 8th to the 11th centuries. At its peak of prosperity and power (c. 836–910), the Gurajara-Pratihara Empire rivaled or even exceeded the Gupta Empire in the extent of its territory. The Pratihara Empire started to decline in the early 10th century after it had to face several invasions by the south Indian Rashtrakuta dynasty.[1] Kannauj was the capital of imperial Gurjara Pratiharas.[2][3][4] The Gurjara Pratihara rulers in the tenth century was entitled as Maharajadhiraja of Āryāvarta ("Great King over Kings of the abode of the Aryans". i.e. Etymology[edit] The word "Pratihara" means protector or "who takes over the enemy/opponent" and was used by the Gurjara-Pratihara rulers as self-designation. Origin[edit] Several scholars including D. Rulers[edit] Early rulers[edit] Expansion[edit] Conquest of Kannauj and further expansion[edit]

Etiquette of Indian dining As in many cultures, proper habits of eating and drinking are very important and widely respected parts of Indian culture, local customs, traditions, and religions. Proper table manners vary from culture to culture, although there are always a few basic rules that are important to follow. Etiquette should be observed when dining in any Indian household or restaurant, though the acceptable standards depend upon the situation.[1][2] Cutlery[edit] Though Indian cooking uses an extensive array of specialized utensils for various purposes, Indians traditionally do not use cutlery for eating, as many foods - such as Indian breads and curry - are best enjoyed when eaten with the hand.[3][4] Eating with one's hands is a technique that may require plenty of practice. Using the fingers, the food should be scooped onto the flatbread (naan, roti, etc.) and quickly brought to the mouth. Not all Indian foods should be eaten with the hands, however. Contamination with saliva[edit] Beef[edit]

Middle kingdoms of India Middle kingdoms of India (or Classical India) refers to the political entities in India from the 3rd century BCE and the 13th century CE. This period begins after the decline of the Maurya Empire, and the corresponding rise of the Satavahana dynasty, beginning with Simuka, from 230 BC. The "Middle" period lasts for some 1,500 years, and ends in the 13th century, with the rise of the Delhi Sultanate and the end of the Chalukya Cholas (Rajendra Chola III died 1279). The period is known as the classical period of India, during which India is estimated to have had the largest economy of the world controlling between one third and one fourth of the world's wealth. The Northwest[edit] The Mauryan Empire, during the 2nd century BC, became a collage of regional powers with overlapping boundaries. The Indo-Scythian Sakas[edit] The Indo-Greeks[edit] The Yavanas[edit] The Yavanas or Yonas were described as living beyond Gandhara. The Indo-Parthians[edit] The Pahlavas[edit] The Western Satraps[edit]

The British Presence in India in the 18th Century History of India The history of India begins with evidence of human activity of Homo sapiens, as long as 75,000 years ago, or with earlier hominids including Homo erectus from about 500,000 years ago.[1] The Indus Valley Civilization, which spread and flourished in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent from c. 3300 to 1300 BCE in present-day Pakistan and northwest India, was the first major civilization in South Asia.[2] A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture developed in the Mature Harappan period, from 2600 to 1900 BCE.[3] This civilization collapsed at the start of the second millennium BCE and was later followed by the Iron Age Vedic Civilization, which extended over much of the Indo-Gangetic plain and which witness the rise of major polities known as the Mahajanapadas. In one of these kingdoms, Magadha, Mahavira and Gautama Buddha were born in the 6th or 5th century BCE and propagated their Shramanic philosophies. Prehistoric era[edit] Stone Age[edit] Bronze Age[edit]

Hinduism Hinduism is the dominant religion, or way of life,[note 1] in South Asia, most notably India. It includes Shaivism, Vaishnavism and Shaktism among numerous other traditions, and a wide spectrum of laws and prescriptions of "daily morality" based on karma, dharma, and societal norms. Hinduism is a categorisation of distinct intellectual or philosophical points of view, rather than a rigid, common set of beliefs. Hinduism, with about one billion followers[web 1] is the world's third largest religion, after Christianity and Islam. Hinduism has been called the "oldest religion" in the world,[note 2] and some practitioners refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal law" or the "eternal way"[3] beyond human origins. Etymology The word Hindu is derived (through Persian) from the Indo-Aryan/Sanskrit word Sindhu, the Indo-Aryan name for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent (modern day Pakistan and Northern India). Definitions Colonial influences Sanātana Dharma Moksha

Dans les pas de Childéric à Tournai Tournai n’a pas usurpé son titre de berceau de la France. C’est en effet dans la ville aux cinq clochers que naquit la première dynastie à avoir régné sur ce qui allait devenir l’Hexagone pendant près de trois siècles. Une dynastie communément appelée les Mérovingiens. Infos : Tournai n’a pas usurpé son titre de berceau de la France. Infos :