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History of trains in India

History of trains in India
The British Raj (rāj, lit. "rule" in Hindi)[2] was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.[3] The term can also refer to the period of dominion.[3][4] The region under British control—commonly called "India" in contemporary usage—included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom[5] (contemporaneously, "British India") as well as the princely states ruled by individual rulers under the paramountcy of the British Crown. The region was less commonly also called the Indian Empire.[6] As India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, and 1936, and a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945.[7] Geographical extent[edit] The British Raj extended over almost all present-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, with exceptions such as Goa and Pondicherry. British India and the Native States[edit] (4.) Major provinces[edit] Minor provinces[edit] Organization[edit]

How to travel by train from London to Syria | Train travel in Syria Syria is a wonderful country to visit and Syrians are amongst the most hospitable people you will meet anywhere. Until recent events, it's always been a very safe country for travellers, too, safer than most western countries in fact. It's easy to reach Aleppo and Damascus overland from London or any other city in Europe, using a daily sleeper train from Istanbul to Adana in southern Turkey, then by daily bus or weekly sleeper train to Aleppo. On this page... London to Syria overland by train Istanbul to Aleppo & Damascus by train, or by train & bus - schedules, fares & how to buy tickets Hotel in Aleppo - the famous Baron's Hotel Aleppo-Homs-Hama-Damascus by train - times, fares & how to book Aleppo-Latakia by train - times, fares & how to book Things to see in Syria - Aleppo, Hama, Damascus, Krak des Chevaliers & Palmyra Damascus to Beirut (Lebanon) by bus Damascus to Amman (Jordan) by bus or Hedjaz Railway train Damascus to Tehran (Iran) by train Step 1: Travel to Istanbul...

Buddhism Religion or philosophy based on Buddha's teachings Buddhism, (, ) also known as Dharmavinaya — "doctrines and disciplines" — and Buddha Dharma, is an Indian religion or philosophical tradition based on a series of original teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha.[3] It originated in ancient India as a Sramana tradition sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, spreading through much of Asia. It is the world's fourth-largest religion[4] with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.[7] Buddhism encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on the Buddha's teachings (born Siddhārtha Gautama in the 5th or 4th century BCE) and resulting interpreted philosophies. Two major extant branches of Buddhism are generally recognized by scholars: Theravāda (Pali: "The School of the Elders") and Mahāyāna (Sanskrit: "The Great Vehicle"). Life of the Buddha Worldview Four Noble Truths – dukkha and its ending Saṃsāra Rebirth

Gupta Empire The high points of this cultural creativity are magnificent architecture, sculptures and paintings.[7] The Gupta period produced scholars such as Kalidasa, Aryabhata, Varahamihira, Vishnu Sharma and Vatsyayana who made great advancements in many academic fields.[8][9] Science and political administration reached new heights during the Gupta era.[10] Strong trade ties also made the region an important cultural center and set the region up as a base that would influence nearby kingdoms and regions in Burma, Sri Lanka, and Southeast Asia.[11] The earliest available Indian epics are also thought to have been written around this period. The empire gradually declined because of many factors such as substantial loss of territory and imperial authority caused by their own erstwhile feudatories and the invasion by the Huna peoples from Central Asia.[12] After the collapse of the Gupta Empire in the 6th century, India was again ruled by numerous regional kingdoms. Origin of the Guptas[edit]

Istanbul Haydarpaşa Terminal The Haydarpaşa Terminal or Haydarpaşa Terminus (Turkish: Haydarpaşa Garı) is a major intercity terminal and transportation hub in Kadıköy, İstanbul. It is the busiest rail terminal in Turkey and one of the busiest in Eastern Europe. The terminal also has connections to bus and ferry services. Haydarpaşa Terminal is the western terminus of the Istanbul-Ankara Main Line and was the western terminus of the former Baghdad Railway (İstanbul-Konya-Adana-Aleppo-Baghdad) and the Hejaz Railway (İstanbul-Konya-Adana-Aleppo-Damascus-Amman-Medina).[1] The tracks do not cross the Bosphorus, but there is a train ferry which carries rail cars from the Haydarpaşa Terminal on the Asian side to the Sirkeci Terminal on the European side.[1] It is now proposed<<citation-needed>> that the station will be used as a terminal for high speed intercity trains to Ankara, while suburban trains will instead run through the Marmaray tunnel to the European side of the city. History[edit] Ottoman Era (1872–1922)[edit]

Culture of India The culture of India refers to the way of life of the people of India. India's languages, religions, dance, music, architecture, food, and customs differ from place to place within the country. The Indian culture, often labelled as an amalgamation of several cultures, spans across the Indian subcontinent and has been influenced by a history that is several millennia old.[1][2] Many elements of India's diverse cultures, such as Indian religions, yoga, and Indian cuisine, have had a profound impact across the world. Religions[edit] India is the birthplace of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism, collectively known as Indian religions.[4] Indian religions, also known as Dharmic religions are a major form of world religions along with Abrahamic one. India is one of the most religiously diverse nations in the world, with some of the most deeply religious societies and cultures. According to a 2001 census of India, the religion of 80% of the people is Hinduism. Arranged marriage[edit]

Gurjara-Pratihara The Gurjar Pratihara (गुर्जर-प्रतिहार), often simply called Pratihara Empire, was an imperial Indian dynasty that ruled much of Northern India from the 8th to the 11th centuries. At its peak of prosperity and power (c. 836–910), the Gurajara-Pratihara Empire rivaled or even exceeded the Gupta Empire in the extent of its territory. The Pratihara Empire started to decline in the early 10th century after it had to face several invasions by the south Indian Rashtrakuta dynasty.[1] Kannauj was the capital of imperial Gurjara Pratiharas.[2][3][4] The Gurjara Pratihara rulers in the tenth century was entitled as Maharajadhiraja of Āryāvarta ("Great King over Kings of the abode of the Aryans". i.e. Lords of Northern India).[5][6] Etymology[edit] The word "Pratihara" means protector or "who takes over the enemy/opponent" and was used by the Gurjara-Pratihara rulers as self-designation. Origin[edit] Several scholars including D. Rulers[edit] Early rulers[edit] Expansion[edit] Decline[edit]

Baghdad Railway The Baghdad Railway (Turkish: Bağdat Demiryolu, German: Bagdadbahn, French: Chemin de Fer Impérial Ottoman de Bagdad), was built from 1903 to 1940 to connect Berlin with the (then) Ottoman Empire city of Baghdad, where the Germans wanted to establish a port in the Persian Gulf,[1] with a 1,600 kilometres (1,000 mi) line through modern-day Turkey, Syria, and Iraq. Completion of the project took several decades and by the outbreak of World War I, the railway was still 960 km (600 miles) away from its intended objective. The last stretch to Baghdad was built in the late 1930s and the first train to travel from Istanbul to Baghdad departed in 1940. Funding and engineering was mainly provided by German Empire banks and companies, which in the 1890s had built the Anatolian Railway (Anatolische Eisenbahn) connecting Constantinople, Ankara and Konya. The railway became a source of international disputes during the years immediately preceding World War I. Overview[edit] Route[edit]

Etiquette of Indian dining As in many cultures, proper habits of eating and drinking are very important and widely respected parts of Indian culture, local customs, traditions, and religions. Proper table manners vary from culture to culture, although there are always a few basic rules that are important to follow. Etiquette should be observed when dining in any Indian household or restaurant, though the acceptable standards depend upon the situation.[1][2] Cutlery[edit] Though Indian cooking uses an extensive array of specialized utensils for various purposes, Indians traditionally do not use cutlery for eating, as many foods - such as Indian breads and curry - are best enjoyed when eaten with the hand.[3][4] Eating with one's hands is a technique that may require plenty of practice. Using the fingers, the food should be scooped onto the flatbread (naan, roti, etc.) and quickly brought to the mouth. Not all Indian foods should be eaten with the hands, however. Contamination with saliva[edit] Beef[edit]

History of India The history of India begins with evidence of human activity of Homo sapiens, as long as 75,000 years ago, or with earlier hominids including Homo erectus from about 500,000 years ago.[1] The Indus Valley Civilization, which spread and flourished in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent from c. 3300 to 1300 BCE in present-day Pakistan and northwest India, was the first major civilization in South Asia.[2] A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture developed in the Mature Harappan period, from 2600 to 1900 BCE.[3] This civilization collapsed at the start of the second millennium BCE and was later followed by the Iron Age Vedic Civilization, which extended over much of the Indo-Gangetic plain and which witness the rise of major polities known as the Mahajanapadas. In one of these kingdoms, Magadha, Mahavira and Gautama Buddha were born in the 6th or 5th century BCE and propagated their Shramanic philosophies. Prehistoric era[edit] Stone Age[edit] Bronze Age[edit]

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) - World Heritage Site - Pictures, info and travel reports Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) is a 19th century railway station in Mumbai, that is known for its architectural mix of Victorian Gothic Revival and traditional Indian features. It is a symbol of the blossom period of Mumbai as a commercial city in the late 19th century. The station was opened in 1887, on the Silver Jubilee of Empress Victoria. The station was originally named "Victoria Terminus". The station is among a series of Gothic public buildings that give South Mumbai its grandeur. Visit December 2009 Mumbai is an enormous city that suffers from heavy traffic most of the day. Hinduism Hinduism is the dominant religion, or way of life,[note 1] in South Asia, most notably India. It includes Shaivism, Vaishnavism and Shaktism among numerous other traditions, and a wide spectrum of laws and prescriptions of "daily morality" based on karma, dharma, and societal norms. Hinduism is a categorisation of distinct intellectual or philosophical points of view, rather than a rigid, common set of beliefs. Hinduism, with about one billion followers[web 1] is the world's third largest religion, after Christianity and Islam. Hinduism has been called the "oldest religion" in the world,[note 2] and some practitioners refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal law" or the "eternal way"[3] beyond human origins. Western scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion[note 3] or synthesis[note 4] of various Indian cultures and traditions,[6][note 5] with diverse roots[note 6] and no single founder. Etymology Definitions Colonial influences Indigenous understanding Sanātana Dharma Growing Hindu identity

Indus Valley Civilization The major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization imposed over modern borders The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India (see map). Along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, it was one of three early civilizations of the Old World, and the most widespread among them, covering an area of 1.25 million km2.[3] It flourished in the basins of the Indus River, one of the major rivers of Asia, and the now dried up Sarasvati River,[4][5] which once coursed through northwest India and eastern Pakistan together with its tributaries flowed along a channel, presently identified as that of the Ghaggar-Hakra River on the basis of various scientific studies.[7][8][9] The Harappan language is not directly attested and its affiliation is uncertain since the Indus script is still undeciphered. Discovery and history of excavation Chronology Geography Cities

Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (CST), formerly Victoria Terminus (VT), is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and an historic railway station in Mumbai, India which serves as the headquarters of the Central Railways. Designed by Frederick William Stevens with influences from Victorian Italianate Gothic Revival architecture and traditional Mughal buildings, the station was built in 1887 in the Bori Bunder area of Bombay to commemorate the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria. The new railway station was built on the location of the Bori Bunder Station[3] and is the busiest railway station in India,[4] serving as a terminal for both long-distance trains and commuter trains of the Mumbai Suburban Railway. The station's name was changed to its present one in March 1996 and it is now known simply as CST (or VT/CSTM). History[edit] Construction[edit] The station was designed by the consulting British architect Frederick William Stevens (1848-1900). Opening and growth as Victoria Terminus[edit] Renaming[edit]

History of Ancient India Early Historic Period Vedic Period: The Aryans were the first to invade the country. They came out of the North in about 1500 BC and brought with them strong cultural traditions. Sanskrit, one of the most ancient languages spoken by them, was used in the first documentation of the Vedas, which date back to the 12th century BC and are believed to be oldest scriptures still in use. The Vedas are some of the oldest extant texts, next to those in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Mahajanapadas: This period saw the second major rise in urbanisation in India after the Indus valley Civilisation. Persian and Greek Conquests: Much of the Northwest subcontinent (currently Afghanistan and Pakistan) came under the rule of the Persian Achaemenid Empire in C. 520 BCE under the rule of Darius the Great and remained so for two centuries.

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