The Bloch sphere is a representation of a qubit, the fundamental building block of quantum computers. As of 2014[update] quantum computing is still in its infancy but experiments have been carried out in which quantum computational operations were executed on a very small number of qubits. Both practical and theoretical research continues, and many national governments and military funding agencies support quantum computing research to develop quantum computers for both civilian and national security purposes, such as cryptanalysis. Large-scale quantum computers will be able to solve certain problems much more quickly than any classical computer using the best currently known algorithms, like integer factorization using Shor's algorithm or the simulation of quantum many-body systems. Basis A classical computer has a memory made up of bits, where each bit represents either a one or a zero. qubits can be in an arbitrary superposition of up to states at any one time). and , or ).
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Quantum theoryFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Quantum theory may mean: In science: In popular culture:Moore's lawMoore's law is the observation that, over the history of computing hardware, the number of transistors on integrated circuits doubles approximately every two years. The law is named after Intel co-founder Gordon E. Moore, who described the trend in his 1965 paper. His prediction has proven to be accurate, in part because the law is now used in the semiconductor industry to guide long-term planning and to set targets for research and development. The capabilities of many digital electronic devices are strongly linked to Moore's law: processing speed, memory capacity, sensors and even the number and size of pixels in digital cameras. All of these are improving at roughly exponential rates as well. This exponential improvement has dramatically enhanced the impact of digital electronics in nearly every segment of the world economy. Moore's law describes a driving force of technological and social change in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. History
A bridge to the quantum world: Dirac electrons found in unique materialIn a discovery that helps clear a new path toward quantum computers, University of Michigan physicists have found elusive Dirac electrons in a superconducting material. Quantum computers use atoms themselves to perform processing and memory tasks. They promise dramatic increases in computing power because of their ability to carry out scores of calculations at once. The combination of properties the researchers identified in a shiny, black material called copper-doped bismuth selenide adds the material to an elite class that could serve as the silicon of the quantum era. Superconductors can—at cold enough temperatures—conduct electricity indefinitely from one kickstart of energy. "They're a bridge between the worlds," said Lu Li, assistant professor of physics in the College of Literature, Science, and the Arts and leader of a study published in the current edition of Physical Review Letters. Explore further: Physicists design quantum switches which can be activated by single photons
QuantumA photon is a single quantum of light, and is referred to as a "light quantum". The energy of an electron bound to an atom is quantized, which results in the stability of atoms, and hence of matter in general. As incorporated into the theory of quantum mechanics, this is regarded by physicists as part of the fundamental framework for understanding and describing nature at the smallest length-scales. Etymology and discovery The word "quantum" comes from the Latin "quantus", for "how much". Beyond electromagnetic radiation While quantization was first discovered in electromagnetic radiation, it describes a fundamental aspect of energy not just restricted to photons. In the attempt to bring experiment into agreement with theory, Max Planck postulated that electromagnetic energy is absorbed or emitted in discrete packets, or quanta. See also References Further reading B.
Game theoryGame theory is the study of strategic decision making. Specifically, it is "the study of mathematical models of conflict and cooperation between intelligent rational decision-makers." An alternative term suggested "as a more descriptive name for the discipline" is interactive decision theory. Game theory is mainly used in economics, political science, and psychology, as well as logic, computer science, and biology. The subject first addressed zero-sum games, such that one person's gains exactly equal net losses of the other participant or participants. Modern game theory began with the idea regarding the existence of mixed-strategy equilibria in two-person zero-sum games and its proof by John von Neumann. This theory was developed extensively in the 1950s by many scholars. Representation of games Most cooperative games are presented in the characteristic function form, while the extensive and the normal forms are used to define noncooperative games. Extensive form 
Divine graceDivine grace is a theological term present in many religions. It has been defined as the divine influence which operates in humans to regenerate and sanctify, to inspire virtuous impulses, and to impart strength to endure trial and resist temptation; and as an individual virtue or excellence of divine origin. Christianity Grace in Christianity is the free and unmerited favour of God as manifested in the salvation of sinners and the bestowing of blessings. It is God's gift of salvation granted to sinners for their salvation. Common Christian teaching is that grace is unmerited mercy (favor) that God gave to humanity by sending his son to die on a cross, thus delivering eternal salvation. Hinduism Islam Dr. See also References Jump up ^ OED, 2nd ed.: grace(n), 11bJump up ^ OED, 2nd ed.: grace(n), 11eJump up ^ OED, 2nd ed.: grace(n), 11aJump up ^ Gothard, Bill. Sources
The Need For A Radical New Type Of Computer ArchitecturePosted by Tom Foremski - February 11, 2010 Irving Wladawsky-Berger is a former chief strategist at IBM and he has also worked as GM of IBM's supercomputer group. In this post: Extreme Scale Computing he explains the challenges that supercomputers face in reaching the next stage: 1,000 times more powerful than current petaflop (1 followed by 15 zeros) supercomputers. The challenge in getting to this next stage of 'exascale computing,' is power consumption and heat generation. And that means we will need a new type of architecture. Massively parallel architectures, using tens to hundreds of thousands of processors from the PC and Unix markets have dominated supercomputing over the past twenty years. Mr Wladawsky-Berger says: "Another massive technology and architectural transition now looms for supercomputing and the IT industry in general." The reason that this is not just a supercomputer problem, but also one for the IT industry, is because of the rise in importance of cloud computing.
Information teleportation goes large-scaleQuantum teleportation of information between quantum objects, like photons, is so well-understood that it’s almost routine. Now, an international physicists is claiming to have carried out the same trick in the macro universe. If the experiment can be replicated, it will be an impressive trick. The scientists, led by Jian-Wei Pen of the University of Science and Technology in Hefei in China, say they’ve teleported quantum state information between ensembles of 100 million rubidium atoms. There’s a good reason for wanting to teleport state between macro objects: they stay where they’re put. The information teleported in the experiment was the spin state of the two rubidium atom ensembles, separated by a 150-meter optical cable (although only half a meter apart in the laboratory). “Once the two photons were projected into an (entangled) Bell state, the quantum information was teleported to the second atomic ensemble.”
Elementary particleIn particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle whose substructure is unknown, thus it is unknown whether it is composed of other particles. Known elementary particles include the fundamental fermions (quarks, leptons, antiquarks, and antileptons), which generally are "matter particles" and "antimatter particles", as well as the fundamental bosons (gauge bosons and Higgs boson), which generally are "force particles" that mediate interactions among fermions. A particle containing two or more elementary particles is a composite particle. Everyday matter is composed of atoms, once presumed to be matter's elementary particles—atom meaning "indivisible" in Greek—although the atom's existence remained controversial until about 1910, as some leading physicists regarded molecules as mathematical illusions, and matter as ultimately composed of energy. Soon, subatomic constituents of the atom were identified. Overview Main article: Standard Model