In Search of Shakespeare . The "Punny" Language of Shakespeare Introduction One of the most difficult challenges of studying Shakespeare is breaking the language barrier. There are several factors that often confuse the reader about the language of Shakespeare: the use of obsolete words, the order of sentence wording, and puns that depended on the meaning, usage, and pronunciation of words. For the first time reader of Shakespeare, the text may seem confusing and hard to translate, but it is important to understand that Shakespeare did indeed write in English, just a slightly different version of what we consider to be modern English. By learning about some of the Early Modern English word meanings, sentence structure, and puns students will be able to understand and enjoy the genius and humor in Shakespeare's work. Objectives Estimated Time Three 45-minute class periods Materials Procedure The English that Shakespeare and the Elizabethans used is quite readable, however sometimes modern audiences miss the author's intended meanings. Extension Activity
A Quick Guide to Reading Shakespeare Probably the number one complaint about reading Shakespeare is that it doesn't always read like "normal" English. It's a natural and legitimate accusation. Shakespeare wrote for an audience over 400 years ago. The Elizabethan era was a particularly volatile growth spurt in the English language. So how can a reader today bridge that gap between then and now? Word Usage First and foremost, there have been numerous vocabulary changes in English since Shakespeare was writing. Grammar This is where the flexibility of Shakespeare's English is often most apparent. Wordplay Some of the most difficult passages of Shakespeare occur when the Bard is purposely playing with language. Versification One issue often overlooked is that Shakespeare's plays were written as dramatic literature-meant to be performed and heard aloud, not silently read. Other Web Resources The Internet provides a wealth of opportunities for learning more about Shakespeare and his language.
Creative Writing Help & Inspiration Absolute Shakespeare - plays, quotes, summaries, essays... Shakespeare's Grammar May Be The Real Source Of His Genius Read a line from a William Shakespeare play and notice the cadence with which you speak. All of those breaths and pauses from the commas and semicolons spread seemingly sporadically within the flowery language are not just for theatrical drama; they may be the source of Shakespeare's genius. Dr. Jonathan Hope, a reader in English in the Faculty of Humanities & Social Sciences at the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow, Scotland, dedicates a majority of his research to figuring out what makes Shakespeare's prose so, well, poetic. In an article titled "English in the World: History, Diversity, Change," Hope writes about his findings. Through computer-based linguistic analysis, Hope dissects the language of Early Modern literature, with a focus on the works of Shakespeare. Though there is no doubt the writer had a knack for language (according to the Oxford English Dictionary, he coined more than 500 words), it was his liberal use of grammar that set him apart. Dr.
Life and times Very little is known for certain about William Shakespeare. What we do know about his life comes from registrar records, court records, wills, marriage certificates and his tombstone in Holy Trinity Church, Stratford-upon-Avon. William Shakespeare was baptised on 26 April 1564 at Holy Trinity in Stratford-Upon-Avon. Traditionally his birthday is celebrated three days earlier, on 23 April, St George's Day. William's father, John Shakespeare, was an affluent glove maker, tanner and wool dealer who owned property in Stratford. William's mother, Mary Arden, was the daughter of a prosperous farmer, Robert Arden, who had left her some land in Wilmcote, near Stratford. William almost certainly went to one of Stratford's 'petty' or junior schools where he would have learnt his letters with the help of a hornbook. In 1582, when he was 18, Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway. From 1585 until 1592, very little is known about Shakespeare. Sometime after 1611, Shakespeare retired to Stratford.
Topic Sentence Transition Formula Topic Sentence Transition Formula What is the Topic Sentence Transition Formula? In order to ease from one paragraph to another with greater coherence, use the topic sentence transition formula. This formula consists of linking one paragraph to another by referring back to the idea from the previous paragraph before introducing the idea that will be developed in the next paragraph. Keep repeating this formula throughout your essay. Applying the Formula: To use the formula, you must know the main idea in each paragraph. First Topic Sentence: The topic sentence of the first paragraph for the above thesis simply introduces the main idea: Second Topic Sentence: In the second topic sentence, however, the transition formula is put into action. Note: The above sentence easily flows from the previous to forthcoming main idea. Third Topic Sentence: In the third topic sentence, the same process is repeated with ideas (B) and (C). Remember:
Shakespeare's Sonnets Words and Phrases Coined by Shakespeare Words and Phrases Coined by Shakespeare NOTE: This list (including some of the errors I originally made) is found in several other places online. That's fine, but I've asked that folks who want this on their own sites mention that I am the original compiler. For many English-speakers, the following phrases are familiar enough to be considered common expressions, proverbs, and/or clichés. All of them originated with or were popularized by Shakespeare. I compiled these from multiple sources online in 2003. How many of these are true coinages by "the Bard", and how many are simply the earliest written attestations of a word or words already in use, I can't tell you. A few words are first attested in Shakespeare and seem to have caused extra problems for the typesetters. The popular book Coined by Shakespeare acknowledges that it is presenting first attestations rather than certain inventions. Words like "anchovy", "bandit", and "zany" are just first attestations of loan-words. Back to Ed's
Using Transitions Using Transitions (printable version here) Transitions are words and phrases that help explain relationships between sentences; they help make a paragraph coherent. There are different ways of making an effective transition: 1) Place a strong sentence at the end of the preceding paragraph. The last sentence of some paragraphs in a critical essay or paper may act as a mini-conclusion to the paragraph. Many Westerners don't like rivers in the East. Note how the writer begins the transition at the end of the first paragraph and then continues the transition with a strong topic sentence in the next paragraph. 2) Make an allusion to the topic of the preceding paragraph. You might refer to the main topic of your last paragraph. Note, in the preceding example, how the second paragraph's topic sentence sets the reader up for the new topic (Western rivers) and also refers back to Eastern rivers. Many Westerners don't like rivers in the East.
Shakespeare Bookshelf Comedies Histories Poetry Tragedies The titles in the listing above link to the editions from the 1914 edition of The Oxford Shakespeare at Bartleby. For further online Shakespeare texts in other locations and formats and Shakespeare commentary, go to the Shakespeare Section of the ipl2 Resources by Subject collection (Arts & Humanities > Literature > Authors > Shakespeare) or search on Shakespeare in the ipl2. For criticism and other information on Shakespeare and his works, go to the Shakepeare Section of the ipl2 Literary Criticism Collection. For an annotated guide to scholarly Shakespeare resources on the Internet, we recommend the excellent Mr. To search the full text of Shakespeare's works, use The Works of the Bard. For a handy guide to monologues found in Shakespeare's works, use the Shakespeare's Monologues site. Shakespeare's complete body of work in plain text (ASCII) format is available for downloading as one huge gzipped tar file [2039K].
Jay Z | The Hip Hop Shakespeare Company Both hip-hop music and Shakespeare’s theatre represent energetic and inventive forms of expression. Both are full of poetry, word play and lyricism. Both deal with what it is to be human, and issues from people’s lives, and of course just like Shakespeare’s work, hip-hop is all about the rhythmic tension of words. The similarities between hip-hop music and Shakespeare’s theatre are striking. Both hip-hop music and Shakespeare’s works as a form of cultural expression are often misrepresented in that hip-hop is not given the intellectual credit it deserves in an academic, literary or poetic sense.
Writing Objectives Using Bloom's Taxonomy | Center for Teaching & Learning | UNC Charlotte Various researchers have summarized how to use Bloom’s Taxonomy. Following are four interpretations that you can use as guides in helping to write objectives using Bloom’s Taxonomy. From: KC Metro [old link, no longer functioning?] Bloom’s Taxonomy divides the way people learn into three domains. One of these is the cognitive domain, which emphasizes intellectual outcomes. This domain is further divided into categories or levels. From: UMUC From: Stewards Task Oriented Question Construction Wheel Based on Bloom’s Taxonomy Task Oriented Question Construction Wheel Based on Bloom’s Taxonomy. ©2001 St. From: GA Tech According to Benjamin Bloom, and his colleagues, there are six levels of cognition: Ideally, each of these levels should be covered in each course and, thus, at least one objective should be written for each level. Below are examples of objectives written for each level of Bloom’s Taxonomy and activities and assessment tools based on those objectives.
William Shakespeare Biography Who Was William Shakespeare? William Shakespeare (baptized on April 26, 1564 to April 23, 1616) was an English playwright, actor and poet and is often called England’s national poet. Born in Stratford-upon-Avon, England, he was an important member of the Lord Chamberlain’s Men company of theatrical players from roughly 1594 onward. Written records give little indication of the way in which Shakespeare’s professional life molded his artistry. All that can be deduced is that, in his 20 years as a playwright, Shakespeare wrote plays that capture the complete range of human emotion and conflict. Known throughout the world, the works of William Shakespeare have been performed in countless hamlets, villages, cities and metropolises for more than 400 years. William Shakespeare: Plays Early Works: Histories and Comedies With the exception of the tragic love story Romeo and Juliet, William Shakespeare's first plays were mostly histories. Works after 1600: Tragedies and Tragicomedies Family