In Search of Shakespeare . The "Punny" Language of Shakespeare Introduction One of the most difficult challenges of studying Shakespeare is breaking the language barrier. There are several factors that often confuse the reader about the language of Shakespeare: the use of obsolete words, the order of sentence wording, and puns that depended on the meaning, usage, and pronunciation of words. For the first time reader of Shakespeare, the text may seem confusing and hard to translate, but it is important to understand that Shakespeare did indeed write in English, just a slightly different version of what we consider to be modern English. By learning about some of the Early Modern English word meanings, sentence structure, and puns students will be able to understand and enjoy the genius and humor in Shakespeare's work. Objectives Estimated Time Three 45-minute class periods Materials Procedure The English that Shakespeare and the Elizabethans used is quite readable, however sometimes modern audiences miss the author's intended meanings. Extension Activity
Creative Writing Help & Inspiration Shakespeare's Grammar May Be The Real Source Of His Genius Read a line from a William Shakespeare play and notice the cadence with which you speak. All of those breaths and pauses from the commas and semicolons spread seemingly sporadically within the flowery language are not just for theatrical drama; they may be the source of Shakespeare's genius. Dr. Jonathan Hope, a reader in English in the Faculty of Humanities & Social Sciences at the University of Strathclyde in Glasgow, Scotland, dedicates a majority of his research to figuring out what makes Shakespeare's prose so, well, poetic. In an article titled "English in the World: History, Diversity, Change," Hope writes about his findings. Through computer-based linguistic analysis, Hope dissects the language of Early Modern literature, with a focus on the works of Shakespeare. Though there is no doubt the writer had a knack for language (according to the Oxford English Dictionary, he coined more than 500 words), it was his liberal use of grammar that set him apart. Dr.
Topic Sentence Transition Formula Topic Sentence Transition Formula What is the Topic Sentence Transition Formula? In order to ease from one paragraph to another with greater coherence, use the topic sentence transition formula. This formula consists of linking one paragraph to another by referring back to the idea from the previous paragraph before introducing the idea that will be developed in the next paragraph. Keep repeating this formula throughout your essay. Applying the Formula: To use the formula, you must know the main idea in each paragraph. First Topic Sentence: The topic sentence of the first paragraph for the above thesis simply introduces the main idea: Second Topic Sentence: In the second topic sentence, however, the transition formula is put into action. Note: The above sentence easily flows from the previous to forthcoming main idea. Third Topic Sentence: In the third topic sentence, the same process is repeated with ideas (B) and (C). Remember:
A Quick Guide to Reading Shakespeare Probably the number one complaint about reading Shakespeare is that it doesn't always read like "normal" English. It's a natural and legitimate accusation. Shakespeare wrote for an audience over 400 years ago. The Elizabethan era was a particularly volatile growth spurt in the English language. So how can a reader today bridge that gap between then and now? Word Usage First and foremost, there have been numerous vocabulary changes in English since Shakespeare was writing. Grammar This is where the flexibility of Shakespeare's English is often most apparent. Wordplay Some of the most difficult passages of Shakespeare occur when the Bard is purposely playing with language. Versification One issue often overlooked is that Shakespeare's plays were written as dramatic literature-meant to be performed and heard aloud, not silently read. Other Web Resources The Internet provides a wealth of opportunities for learning more about Shakespeare and his language.
Using Transitions Using Transitions (printable version here) Transitions are words and phrases that help explain relationships between sentences; they help make a paragraph coherent. There are different ways of making an effective transition: 1) Place a strong sentence at the end of the preceding paragraph. The last sentence of some paragraphs in a critical essay or paper may act as a mini-conclusion to the paragraph. Many Westerners don't like rivers in the East. Note how the writer begins the transition at the end of the first paragraph and then continues the transition with a strong topic sentence in the next paragraph. 2) Make an allusion to the topic of the preceding paragraph. You might refer to the main topic of your last paragraph. Note, in the preceding example, how the second paragraph's topic sentence sets the reader up for the new topic (Western rivers) and also refers back to Eastern rivers. Many Westerners don't like rivers in the East.
Words and Phrases Coined by Shakespeare Words and Phrases Coined by Shakespeare NOTE: This list (including some of the errors I originally made) is found in several other places online. That's fine, but I've asked that folks who want this on their own sites mention that I am the original compiler. For many English-speakers, the following phrases are familiar enough to be considered common expressions, proverbs, and/or clichés. All of them originated with or were popularized by Shakespeare. I compiled these from multiple sources online in 2003. How many of these are true coinages by "the Bard", and how many are simply the earliest written attestations of a word or words already in use, I can't tell you. A few words are first attested in Shakespeare and seem to have caused extra problems for the typesetters. The popular book Coined by Shakespeare acknowledges that it is presenting first attestations rather than certain inventions. Words like "anchovy", "bandit", and "zany" are just first attestations of loan-words. Back to Ed's
Writing Objectives Using Bloom's Taxonomy | Center for Teaching & Learning | UNC Charlotte Various researchers have summarized how to use Bloom’s Taxonomy. Following are four interpretations that you can use as guides in helping to write objectives using Bloom’s Taxonomy. From: KC Metro [old link, no longer functioning?] Bloom’s Taxonomy divides the way people learn into three domains. One of these is the cognitive domain, which emphasizes intellectual outcomes. This domain is further divided into categories or levels. From: UMUC From: Stewards Task Oriented Question Construction Wheel Based on Bloom’s Taxonomy Task Oriented Question Construction Wheel Based on Bloom’s Taxonomy. ©2001 St. From: GA Tech According to Benjamin Bloom, and his colleagues, there are six levels of cognition: Ideally, each of these levels should be covered in each course and, thus, at least one objective should be written for each level. Below are examples of objectives written for each level of Bloom’s Taxonomy and activities and assessment tools based on those objectives.
Jay Z | The Hip Hop Shakespeare Company Both hip-hop music and Shakespeare’s theatre represent energetic and inventive forms of expression. Both are full of poetry, word play and lyricism. Both deal with what it is to be human, and issues from people’s lives, and of course just like Shakespeare’s work, hip-hop is all about the rhythmic tension of words. The similarities between hip-hop music and Shakespeare’s theatre are striking. Both hip-hop music and Shakespeare’s works as a form of cultural expression are often misrepresented in that hip-hop is not given the intellectual credit it deserves in an academic, literary or poetic sense.
Writing Classes Online | The First Creative Writing School on the Internet | Writers.Com Writers.com has been offering online writing classes in all genres since 1995 -- the first writing school on the Internet. Our web site has been visited by writers from over one hundred ninety-five countries. Our classes are taught by published, working writers who are also experienced teachers. We can help you improve your skills, explore new directions, ready your work for publication, or simply provide a community, inspiration and deadlines to start you writing and keep you writing. Online Writing Classes Writers.com classes run the gamut from basic skills to advanced-level work in a variety of areas. Follow Us On Facebook Discover deals, news and literary inspiration via our Facebook page. Whoa... Free Writing Groups, Writing Tips and More Access our free writers' groups. To receive our schedule of writing classes, please subscribe to our mailing list.
Why Shakespeare loved iambic pentameter - David T. Freeman and Gregory Taylor While interesting to explore in his plays, the idea of Shakespeare as a poet isn’t new. He wrote many poems. Most famously, he penned 154 sonnets that are often as studied and celebrated as his plays. His sonnets feature a specific format that uses iambic pentameter to reflect great meaning and emotion in a short burst of verse. If it’s the words themselves that grab you, take a plunge down the rabbit hole of Open Source Shakespeare: a beautiful marriage of the bard and technology that allows you to search every poem and play Shakespeare ever wrote for individual words and phrases. You’ve seen some of the similarities between Shakespeare’s meter and music. If all of this wordplay makes you want to get up on your feet and speak the words, you should research the English Speaking Union’s National Shakespeare Competition – an annual recitation competition featuring some of Shakespeare’s greatest speeches. Want even more Shakespeare?
Warren Buffett’s 10 Steps To Better Report Writing Buffett writes like he speaks. Direct, immediate and without pretension. “For more than forty years, I’ve studied the documents that public companies file. Too often, I’ve been unable to decipher just what is being said or, worse yet, had to conclude that nothing was being said. If corporate lawyers and their clients follow the advice in this handbook, my life is going to become much easier. “ Warren Buffet In 2002, I found the Plain Language writing technique almost by accident. Ever read an annual report from Warren Buffet. Audience Analysis worksheets. From the handbook: There are several possible explanations as to why I and others sometimes stumble over an accounting note or indenture description. It’s a great read and you can download it here www.sec.gov/pdf/handbook.pdf in PDF. Write Business Proposals in clear English So, with this in mind, I wrote this short guide to help you write Business Proposals in clear English. 1. 2. Identify your target audience i.e. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
Welcome to Shakespeare High: Your Shakespeare Classroom on the Internet! Reading Shakespeare's Plays Language Before you start to read Shakespeare's plays, you will want to take a look at some of the language uses that might stand in your way of understanding the script. In his book, Unlocking Shakespeare's Language, Randal Robinson breaks the language barriers into three main categories: Shakespeare's Unusual Arrangements of Words, Shakespeare's Troublesome Omissions & Words Not Quite Our Own. Unusual Word Arrangements Many of my students have asked me if people really spoke the way they do in Shakespeare's plays. I ate the sandwich. Robinson shows us that these four words can create six unique sentences which carry the same meaning. Poetry We speak in prose (language without metrical structure). Blank Verse: unrhymed iambic pentameter.
The Ultimate Guide to Writing Better Than You Normally Do. Writing is a muscle. Smaller than a hamstring and slightly bigger than a bicep, and it needs to be exercised to get stronger. Think of your words as reps, your paragraphs as sets, your pages as daily workouts. Procrastination is an alluring siren taunting you to google the country where Balki from Perfect Strangers was from, and to arrange sticky notes on your dog in the shape of hilarious dog shorts. The blank white page. Mark Twain once said, “Show, don’t tell.” Finding a really good muse these days isn’t easy, so plan on going through quite a few before landing on a winner. There are two things more difficult than writing. It’s so easy to hide in your little bubble, typing your little words with your little fingers on your little laptop from the comfort of your tiny chair in your miniature little house. It’s no secret that great writers are great readers, and that if you can’t read, your writing will often suffer. Available in print withThe Best of McSweeney’s Internet Tendency