Dunning–Kruger effect Cognitive bias in which people of low ability mistakenly assess their cognitive ability as greater than it is In the field of psychology, the Dunning–Kruger effect is a cognitive bias in which people mistakenly assess their cognitive ability as greater than it is. It is related to the cognitive bias of illusory superiority and comes from the inability of people to recognize their lack of ability. Without the self-awareness of metacognition, people cannot objectively evaluate their competence or incompetence. As described by social psychologists David Dunning and Justin Kruger, the cognitive bias of illusory superiority results from an internal illusion in people of low ability and from an external misperception in people of high ability; that is, "the miscalibration of the incompetent stems from an error about the self, whereas the miscalibration of the highly competent stems from an error about others Definition Original study Later studies Popular recognition
Can Playing the Computer Game “Tetris” Reduce the Build-Up of Flashbacks for Trauma? A Proposal from Cognitive Science A Toolbox for Building P2P-based Social Networks 10 Brilliant Social Psychology Studies Ten of the most influential social psychology experiments. “I have been primarily interested in how and why ordinary people do unusual things, things that seem alien to their natures.Why do good people sometimes act evil?Why do smart people sometimes do dumb or irrational things?” Like eminent social psychologist Professor Philip Zimbardo (author of The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil), I’m also obsessed with why we do dumb or irrational things. The answer quite often is because of other people – something social psychologists have comprehensively shown. Over the past few months I’ve been describing 10 of the most influential social psychology experiments. Each one tells a unique, insightful story relevant to all our lives, every day. 1. The ‘halo effect’ is a classic social psychology experiment. » Read on about the halo effect -» 2. » Read on about cognitive dissonance -» 3. » Read on about Sherif’s Robbers Cave experiment -» 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
Q&A: The Science Behind Psychic Phenomena In her new book The ESP Enigma: The Scientific Case for Psychic Phenomena, former Harvard professor Diane Hennacy Powell combines philosophy, physics, and empirical data to examine supernatural traits like telepathy (the ability to access someone else's consciousness), psychokinesis (the ability to use one's consciousness to affect external objects), clairvoyance (the ability to broaden one's consciousness to remote time and space) and precognition (the ability to see into the future). She spoke to TIME about Abraham Lincoln's eerie dreams, Einstein's theories of time-travel and the idea that anybody can be a psychic. In your book you write about the psychologist William James and his comparison of the brain to a prism. He believed consciousness is not just what's happening to the neurons in the brain. In your book you mention Abraham Lincoln as one of the more famous examples of precognitive dreaming. Tell me about the stigma associated with scientists who study psychic phenomena.
To Predict Dating Success, The Secret's In The Pronouns : Shots - Health Blog hide captionPeople who are interested in and paying close attention to each other begin to speak more alike, a psychologist says. iStockphoto.com People who are interested in and paying close attention to each other begin to speak more alike, a psychologist says. On a recent Friday night, 30 men and 30 women gathered at a hotel restaurant in Washington, D.C. Their goal was love, or maybe sex, or maybe some combination of the two. The women sat at separate numbered tables while the men moved down the line, and for two solid hours they did a rotation, making small talk with people they did not know, one after another, in three-minute increments. I had gone to record the night, which was put on by a company called Professionals in the City, and what struck me was the noise in the room. What were these people saying? And what can we learn from what they are saying? That is why I called James Pennebaker, a psychologist interested in the secret life of pronouns. The. Dear Dr.
Social Movements and Collective Action | Mario Diani to date (for a review, Crossley, 2007), withexamples ranging from local communities inRomania (Vasi, 2004) and Mexico (Holzner,2004) to university students’ networks in theUnited Kingdom (Crossley, 2008), from peace(Nepstad, 2004) and civil rights activism (Lowe,2007) to white power groups (Futrell and Simi,2004). Most important, however, is the fact thatover the years, questions such as “Whichnetworks do explain what?” and “Under whatconditions do specific networks become rele-vant?” have been constantly refined. information identity , and exchange mechanisms. socialization, structural-connection, and decision-shaping functions of networks. Population effects The analyses presented in the previous sectiontreat network location mainly as an individualattribute, the impact of which is to be evaluatedcontrolling for education, age, profession, orstatus. tochallenge Olson’s (1963) well-known claim thatonly small groups can actually generate collectiveaction. cliques had appar-ently no effects.
Why Intelligent People Use More Drugs The human consumption of psychoactive drugs , such as marijuana , cocaine , and heroin, is of even more recent historical origin than the human consumption of alcohol or tobacco, so the Hypothesis would predict that more intelligent people use more drugs more frequently than less intelligent individuals. The use of opium dates back to about 5,000 years ago, and the earliest reference to the pharmacological use of cannabis is in a book written in 2737 BC by the Chinese Emperor Shen Nung. Opium and cannabis are the only “natural” (agricultural) psychoactive drugs. Other psychoactive drugs are “chemical” (pharmacological); they require modern chemistry to manufacture, and are therefore of much more recent origin. Morphine was isolated from opium in 1806, cocaine was first manufactured in 1860, and heroin was discovered in 1874. The following graph shows a similar association between childhood intelligence and the latent factor for the consumption of psychoactive drugs among Americans.
High Self-Perception, Low Brain Activity By Rick Nauert PhD Senior News Editor Reviewed by John M. Grohol, Psy.D. on January 7, 2010 Researchers have discovered the less you use your brain’s frontal lobes, the more you see yourself through rose-colored glasses. “In healthy people, the more you activate a portion of your frontal lobes, the more accurate your view of yourself is,” says Jennifer Beer, a University of Texas assistant professor of psychology. “And the more you view yourself as desirable or better than your peers, the less you use those lobes.” Those findings are being published in the February edition of the journal NeuroImage. The natural human tendency to see oneself in a positive light can be helpful and motivating in some situations but detrimental in others, Beer says. Her research, conducted at the university’s Imaging Research Center, gives new insight into the relationship among brain functions and human emotion and perceptions. Source: University of Texas at Austin APA Reference Nauert, R. (2010).
Google Begins Testing Its Augmented-Reality Glasses Photos via GoogleGoogle showed off its first venture into wearable computing, called Project Glass. If you venture into a coffee shop in the coming months and see someone with a pair of futuristic glasses that look like a prop from “Star Trek,” don’t worry. It’s probably just a Google employee testing the company’s new augmented-reality glasses. On Wednesday, Google gave people a clearer picture of its secret initiative called Project Glass. The glasses are not yet for sale. In a post shared on Google Plus, employees in the company laboratory known as Google X, including Babak Parviz, Steve Lee and Sebastian Thrun, asked people for input about the prototype of Project Glass. “We’re sharing this information now because we want to start a conversation and learn from your valuable input,” the three employees wrote. The prototype version Google showed off on Wednesday looked like a very polished and well-designed pair of wrap-around glasses with a clear display that sits above the eye.