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CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture) is a parallel computing platform and programming model created by NVIDIA and implemented by the graphics processing units (GPUs) that they produce.[1] CUDA gives program developers direct access to the virtual instruction set and memory of the parallel computational elements in CUDA GPUs. Using CUDA, the GPUs can be used for general purpose processing (i.e., not exclusively graphics); this approach is known as GPGPU. Unlike CPUs, however, GPUs have a parallel throughput architecture that emphasizes executing many concurrent threads slowly, rather than executing a single thread very quickly. CUDA provides both a low level API and a higher level API. Example of CUDA processing flow 1. Background[edit] The GPU, as a specialized processor, addresses the demands of real-time high-resolution 3D graphics compute-intensive tasks. Advantages[edit] CUDA has several advantages over traditional general-purpose computation on GPUs (GPGPU) using graphics APIs:

Staged event-driven architecture SEDA employs dynamic control to automatically tune runtime parameters (such as the scheduling parameters of each stage) as well as to manage load (like performing adaptive load shedding). Decomposing services into a set of stages also enables modularity and code reuse, as well as the development of debugging tools for complex event-driven applications. See also[edit] References[edit] Bibliography[edit] External links[edit] Apache ServiceMix provides a Java SEDA wrapper, combining it with related message architectures (JMS, JCA & straight-through flow).Criticism about how SEDA premises (threads are expensive) are no longer validJCyclone: Java open source implementation of SEDAMule ESB is another open-source Java implementationSEDA: An Architecture for Highly Concurrent Server Applications describing the PhD thesis by Matt Welsh from Harvard UniversityA Retrospective on SEDA by Matt Welsh, July 26, 2010

Shell (computing) A shell in computing provides a user interface for access to an operating system's services. "Shell" is also used loosely to describe applications, including software that is "built around" a particular component, such as web browsers and email clients that are, in themselves, "shells" for HTML rendering engines. The term "shell" in computing, being the outer layer between the user and the operating system kernel, is synonymous with the general word "shell". Generally, operating system shells use either a command-line interface (CLI) or graphical user interface (GUI). The optimum choice of user interface depends on a computer's role and particular operation. In expert systems, a shell is a piece of software that is an "empty" expert system without the knowledge base for any particular application.[4] A command-line interface (CLI) is an operating system shell that uses alphanumeric characters typed on a keyboard to provide instructions and data to the operating system, interactively.

Signal processing and the evolution of NAND flash memory Fueled by rapidly accelerating demand for performance-intensive computing devices, the NAND flash memory market is one of the largest and fastest-growing segments of the semiconductor industry, with annual sales of nearly $20 billion. During the past decade, the cost per bit of NAND flash has declined by a factor of 1,000, or a factor of 2 every 12 months, far exceeding Moore’s Law expectations. This rapid price decline has been driven by aggressive process geometry scale-down and by an increase in the number of bits stored in each memory cell from one to two and three bits per cell. As a consequence, the endurance of flash memory – defined as the number of Program and Erase (P/E) cycles that each memory cell can tolerate throughout its lifetime – is severely degraded due to process and array impairments, resulting in a nonlinear increase in the number of errors in flash memory. Getting past errors The most commonly used ECCs for flash memory are Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes.

Unix shell tcsh and sh shell windows on a Mac OS X desktop. The most influential Unix shells have been the Bourne shell and the C shell, These shells have both been used as the coding base and model for many derivative and work-alike shells with extended feature sets. The C shell, csh, was written by Bill Joy while a graduate student at University of California, Berkeley. The language, including the control structures and the expression grammar, was modeled on C. Concept[edit] On hosts with a windowing system, some users may never use the shell directly. Graphical user interfaces for Unix, such as GNOME, KDE, and Xfce are sometimes called visual or graphical shells. Bourne shell[edit] The Bourne shell was one of the major shells used in early versions of the Unix operating system and became a de facto standard. The POSIX standard specifies its standard shell as a strict subset of the Korn shell, an enhanced version of the Bourne shell. C shell[edit] Shell categories[edit] Bourne shell compatible[edit]

Apache Cassandra Apache Cassandra is an open source distributed database management system designed to handle large amounts of data across many commodity servers, providing high availability with no single point of failure. Cassandra offers robust support for clusters spanning multiple datacenters,[1] with asynchronous masterless replication allowing low latency operations for all clients. Cassandra also places a high value on performance. In 2012, University of Toronto researchers studying NoSQL systems concluded that "In terms of scalability, there is a clear winner throughout our experiments. Cassandra achieves the highest throughput for the maximum number of nodes in all experiments Tables may be created, dropped, and altered at runtime without blocking updates and queries.[6] History[edit] Releases after graduation include Licensing and support[edit] Apache Cassandra is an Apache Software Foundation project, so it has an Apache License (version 2.0). Main features[edit] Decentralized Scalability

BASH Programming - Introduction HOW-TO: Introduction Next Previous Contents 1. Introduction 1.1 Getting the latest version 1.2 Requisites Familiarity with GNU/Linux command lines, and familiarity with basic programming concepts is helpful. 1.3 Uses of this document This document tries to be useful in the following situations You have an idea about programming and you want to start coding some shell scripts. Amazon DynamoDB Overview[edit] DynamoDB differs from other Amazon services by allowing developers to purchase a service based on throughput, rather than storage. Although the database will not scale automatically, administrators can request more throughput and DynamoDB will spread the data and traffic over a number of servers using solid-state drives, allowing predictable performance.[1] It offers integration with Hadoop via Elastic MapReduce. In September 2013, Amazon made available a local development version of DynamoDB so developers can test DynamoDB-backed applications locally.[3] Language bindings[edit] References[edit] External links[edit]

Bash - GNU Project Bash is the GNU Project's shell. Bash is the Bourne Again SHell. Bash is an sh-compatible shell that incorporates useful features from the Korn shell (ksh) and C shell (csh). It is intended to conform to the IEEE POSIX P1003.2/ISO 9945.2 Shell and Tools standard. It offers functional improvements over sh for both programming and interactive use. The improvements offered by Bash include: Command line editingUnlimited size command historyJob ControlShell Functions and AliasesIndexed arrays of unlimited sizeInteger arithmetic in any base from two to sixty-four The maintainer also has a bash page which includes Frequently-Asked-Questions. Downloading Bash Bash can be found on the main GNU ftp server: (via HTTP) and (via FTP). Documentation Documentation for Bash is available online, as is documentation for most GNU software. Mailing lists Announcements about Bash and most other GNU software are made on <>. Getting involved

Comparison of MySQL database engines This is a comparison between the available database engines for the MySQL database management system (DBMS). A database engine (or "storage engine") is the underlying software component that a DBMS uses to create, read, update and delete (CRUD) data from a database. Comparison between InnoDB and MyISAM[edit] InnoDB recovers from a crash or other unexpected shutdown by replaying its logs. MyISAM must fully scan and repair or rebuild any indexes or possibly tables which had been updated but not fully flushed to disk. Notes[edit] External links[edit]

Bash (Unix shell) Brian Fox began coding Bash on January 10, 1988[11] after Richard Stallman became dissatisfied with the lack of progress being made by a prior developer.[3] Stallman and the Free Software Foundation (FSF) considered a free shell that could run existing sh scripts so strategic to a completely free system built from BSD and GNU code that this was one of the few projects they funded themselves, with Fox undertaking the work as an employee of FSF.[3][12] Fox released Bash as a beta, version .99, on June 7, 1989[5] and remained the primary maintainer until sometime between mid-1992[13] and mid-1994,[14] when he was laid off from FSF[15] and his responsibility was transitioned to another early contributor, Chet Ramey.[16][17][18] Bash supports here documents just as the Bourne shell always has. In addition, since version 2.05b Bash can redirect standard input (stdin) from a "here string" using the <<< operator. echo a{p,c,d,b}e # ape ace ade abeecho {a,b,c}{d,e,f} # ad ae af bd be bf cd ce cf

InnoDB InnoDB is a storage engine for MySQL. MySQL 5.5 and later use it by default. It provides the standard ACID-compliant transaction features, along with foreign key support (Declarative Referential Integrity). InnoDB became a product of Oracle Corporation after its acquisition of Innobase Oy in October 2005.[1] The software is dual licensed; it is distributed under the GNU General Public License, but can also be licensed to parties wishing to combine InnoDB in proprietary software.[2] Features[edit] InnoDB supports: See also[edit] Comparison of MySQL database engines References[edit] External links[edit]