Mereology Mereology has been axiomatized in various ways as applications of predicate logic to formal ontology, of which mereology is an important part. A common element of such axiomatizations is the assumption, shared with inclusion, that the part-whole relation orders its universe, meaning that everything is a part of itself (reflexivity), that a part of a part of a whole is itself a part of that whole (transitivity), and that two distinct entities cannot each be a part of the other (antisymmetry). A variant of this axiomatization denies that anything is ever part of itself (irreflexive) while accepting transitivity, from which antisymmetry follows automatically. Standard university texts on logic and mathematics are silent about mereology, which has undoubtedly contributed to its obscurity. History A.N. In 1930, Henry Leonard completed a Harvard Ph.D. dissertation in philosophy, setting out a formal theory of the part-whole relation. Axioms and primitive notions The axioms are:
The Story of Stuff Project Matter wave The de Broglie relations redirect here. In quantum mechanics, the concept of matter waves or de Broglie waves /dəˈbrɔɪ/ reflects the wave–particle duality of matter. The theory was proposed by Louis de Broglie in 1924 in his PhD thesis. The de Broglie relations show that the wavelength is inversely proportional to the momentum of a particle and is also called de Broglie wavelength. Also the frequency of matter waves, as deduced by de Broglie, is directly proportional to the total energy E (sum of its rest energy and the kinetic energy) of a particle. Historical context At the end of the 19th century, light was thought to consist of waves of electromagnetic fields which propagated according to Maxwell’s equations, while matter was thought to consist of localized particles (See history of wave and particle viewpoints). where is the frequency of the light and h is Planck’s constant. de Broglie relations Quantum mechanics where h is Planck's constant. Group velocity
Fractals - Chaos & Fractals Simply put, a fractal is a geometric object that is similar to itself on all scales. If you zoom in on a fractal object it will look similar or exactly like the original shape. This property is called self-similarity. An example of a self-similar object is the Sierpenski triangle show below. As one looks closer we observe that the large triangle is composed of three smaller triangles half the size (side length) of the original, which in turn are composed of three smaller triangles, and so on, and so on. The property of self-similarity or scaling is closely related to the notion of dimension. A one dimensional line segment has a scaling property similar to that of fractals. The concept of self-similarity naturally leads to the generalization to fractional dimension. r = 1 / N(1/D) Now, given a self-similar object of N parts scaled down by the factor r, we can compute its fractal dimension (also called similarity dimension) from the above equation as D = log (N) / log (1/r)
Direct and indirect realism Naïve realism argues we perceive the world directly Naïve realism, also known as direct realism or common sense realism, is a philosophy of mind rooted in a theory of perception that claims that the senses provide us with direct awareness of the external world. In contrast, some forms of idealism assert that no world exists apart from mind-dependent ideas and some forms of skepticism say we cannot trust our senses. Naïve realism is known as direct as against indirect or representative realism when its arguments are developed to counter the latter position, also known as epistemological dualism; that our conscious experience is not of the real world but of an internal representation of the world. Theory The naïve realist theory may be characterized as the acceptance of the following five beliefs: In the area of visual perception in psychology, the leading direct realist theorist was J. Naïve and scientific realism Realism and quantum physics References See also
The Physics of the Schwarzschild Proton There's a lot of stuff here. You won't need all of it to get the gist – have a browse. I'm exploring this material not with belief or opinion or conjecture, but using well-established laws of physics only – in fact I'm going out of my way to really try to make his model fit with reality. There are six main conclusions in his paper. I'll look at each of these in turn in the light of his model. Before I look at any of the conclusions, though, let's look first at the premise and see if we can make it work. 'The Schwarzschild Condition' The main idea of this paper is that a proton may be considered as a black hole, and that two of these orbiting each other at the speed of light under gravitation alone provides a model for a nucleus. His ultimate aim is to dispense with the need for the strong force altogether, and replace it with an interaction based on gravity, thereby unifying quantum theory with general relativity. So Haramein introduces us to the Schwarzschild proton. Mass Radiation 1. 1. 2.
Pauli exclusion principle A more rigorous statement is that the total wave function for two identical fermions is anti-symmetric with respect to exchange of the particles. This means that the wave function changes its sign if the space and spin co-ordinates of any two particles are interchanged. Integer spin particles, bosons, are not subject to the Pauli exclusion principle: any number of identical bosons can occupy the same quantum state, as with, for instance, photons produced by a laser and Bose–Einstein condensate. Overview "Half-integer spin" means that the intrinsic angular momentum value of fermions is (reduced Planck's constant) times a half-integer (1/2, 3/2, 5/2, etc.). History In the early 20th century it became evident that atoms and molecules with even numbers of electrons are more chemically stable than those with odd numbers of electrons. Pauli looked for an explanation for these numbers, which were at first only empirical. Connection to quantum state symmetry and the other in state
Kaluza–Klein theory This article is about gravitation and electromagnetism. For the mathematical generalization of K theory, see KK-theory. In 1926, Oskar Klein gave Kaluza's classical 5-dimensional theory a quantum interpretation, to accord with the then-recent discoveries of Heisenberg and Schroedinger. Klein introduced the hypothesis that the fifth dimension was curled up and microscopic, to explain the cylinder condition. It wasn't until the 1940s that the classical theory was completed, and the full field equations including the scalar field were obtained by three independent research groups: Thiry, working in France on his dissertation under Lichnerowicz; Jordan, Ludwig, and Müller in Germany, with critical input from Pauli and Fierz; and Scherrer  working alone in Switzerland. The Kaluza Hypothesis , where roman indices span 5 dimensions. , where Greek indices span the usual 4 dimensions of space and time; a 4-vector . More precisely, we can write
Geometrical frustration In condensed matter physics, the term geometrical frustration (or in short: frustration ) refers to a phenomenon, where atoms tend to stick to non-trivial positions or where, on a regular crystal lattice, conflicting inter-atomic forces (each one favoring rather simple, but different structures) lead to quite complex structures. As a consequence of the frustration in the geometry or in the forces, a plenitude of distinct ground states may result, at zero temperature, and usual thermal ordering may be suppressed, at higher temperatures. Much studied examples are amorphous materials, glasses, or dilute magnets. Magnetic ordering Similarly in three dimensions, four spins arranged in a tetrahedron (Figure 2) may experience geometric frustration. Figure 1: Antiferromagnetically interacting spins in a triangular arrangement Figure 2: Antiferromagnetically interacting spins in a tetrahedral arrangement Figure 3: Spins along the easy axes of a tetrahedron Mathematical definition resp.
MetalicaRap MetalicaRap Release status: Experimental MetalicaRap is an open 3D metal & home solar cell printer, based on the principles of electron beam welding and vapor deposition. MetalicaRap is currently in the design stage. The goal is to have affordable home-manufacturing of solar cells, key electrical parts and milled-quality metal parts. An electron beam based printer was chosen due to the ability to print itself, the power efficiency of an electron gun versus a powerful laser at fusing metal, and the fact that an electron gun and vacuum chamber are the primary requirements for thin film solar cell printers. One of the goals is a solar cell production plant design that MetalicaRap will be able to print, that will utilize MetalicaRap's vacuum chamber and beam for the solar cell manufacturing processes. Congratulations Aleksander he has made the first home build electron beam welder!! Introduction Why an Open Design? What are the benefits? Metal Fabricated Home Japan SANAA 2005
Planck scale In particle physics and physical cosmology, the Planck scale (named after Max Planck) is an energy scale around 1.22 × 1019 GeV (which corresponds by the mass–energy equivalence to the Planck mass 2.17645 × 10−8 kg) at which quantum effects of gravity become strong. At this scale, present descriptions and theories of sub-atomic particle interactions in terms of quantum field theory break down and become inadequate, due to the impact of the apparent non-renormalizability of gravity within current theories. At the Planck scale, the strength of gravity is expected to become comparable with the other forces, and it is theorized that all the fundamental forces are unified at that scale, but the exact mechanism of this unification remains unknown. The term Planck scale can also refer to a length scale or time scale. The Planck length is related to Planck energy by the uncertainty principle. Theoretical ideas Experiments probing the Planck scale See also References
Michio Kaku - Explorations in Science Neutral monism Neutral monism, in philosophy, is the metaphysical view that the mental and the physical are two ways of organizing or describing the same elements, which are themselves "neutral", that is, neither physical nor mental. This view denies that the mental and the physical are two fundamentally different things. Rather, neutral monism claims the universe consists of only one kind of stuff, in the form of neutral elements that are in themselves neither mental nor physical; these neutral elements might have the properties of color and shape, just as we experience those properties, but these shaped and colored elements do not exist in a mind (considered as a substantial entity, whether dualistically or physicalistically); they exist on their own. History A diagram with neutral monism compared to Cartesian dualism, physicalism and idealism. Some of the first views of the neutral monism position about the mind–body relationship in philosophy can be attributed to C. William James