In a larger sense, the theory suggests that the entire universe can be seen as a two-dimensional information structure "painted" on the cosmological horizon[clarification needed], such that the three dimensions we observe are an effective description only at macroscopic scales and at low energies. Cosmological holography has not been made mathematically precise, partly because the particle horizon has a finite area and grows with time. The holographic principle was inspired by black hole thermodynamics, which conjectures that the maximal entropy in any region scales with the radius squared, and not cubed as might be expected. Black hole entropy An object with entropy is microscopically random, like a hot gas. But Jacob Bekenstein noted that this leads to a violation of the second law of thermodynamics. Bekenstein assumed that black holes are maximum entropy objects—that they have more entropy than anything else in the same volume. Black hole information paradox General
Related: Brian Greens nine types
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The Holographic multiverseKhan Academyquantum hologramIs the Universe a 2D Hologram? Experiment Aims to Find OutAn ongoing experiment could reveal whether or not our full and fleshed-out 3D universe is an illusion, a 2D projection onto a cosmic screen beyond our perception or understanding. The Holometer project, which is based at the U.S. Department of Energy's Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Illinois, is now operating at full power, probing the very nature of space-time itself. "We want to find out whether space-time is a quantum system just like matter is," Craig Hogan, director of Fermilab's Center for Particle Astrophysics, said in a statement. The Holometer — short for "holographic interferometer" — splits two laser beams, sending them down perpendicular 131-foot-long (40 meters) arms. Motion causes brightness fluctuations in this recombined light. The Holometer experiment at Fermilab in Illinois sends laser light through a beam splitter, then down two perpendicular 131-foot arms.
Simulated realitySimulated reality is the hypothesis that reality could be simulated—for example by computer simulation—to a degree indistinguishable from "true" reality. It could contain conscious minds which may or may not be fully aware that they are living inside a simulation. This is quite different from the current, technologically achievable concept of virtual reality. Virtual reality is easily distinguished from the experience of actuality; participants are never in doubt about the nature of what they experience. There has been much debate over this topic, ranging from philosophical discourse to practical applications in computing. Types of simulation Brain-computer interface Virtual people In a virtual-people simulation, every inhabitant is a native of the simulated world. Arguments Simulation argument 1. 2. 3. In greater detail, Bostrom is attempting to prove a tripartite disjunction, that at least one of these propositions must be true. Relativity of reality
Solution of the Poincaré conjectureBy contrast, neither of the two colored loops on this torus can be continuously tightened to a point. A torus is not homeomorphic to a sphere. Every simply connected, closed 3-manifold is homeomorphic to the 3-sphere. An equivalent form of the conjecture involves a coarser form of equivalence than homeomorphism called homotopy equivalence: if a 3-manifold is homotopy equivalent to the 3-sphere, then it is necessarily homeomorphic to it. The Poincaré conjecture, before being proven, was one of the most important open questions in topology. History Poincaré's question At the beginning of the 20th century, Henri Poincaré was working on the foundations of topology—what would later be called combinatorial topology and then algebraic topology. In the same paper, Poincaré wondered whether a 3-manifold with the homology of a 3-sphere and also trivial fundamental group had to be a 3-sphere. The original phrasing was as follows: Attempted solutions Dimensions Solution
Modulation of P-glycoprotein activity by cannabinoid molecules in HK-2 renal cellsThe Quantum multiverseSieve of EratosthenesSieve of Eratosthenes: algorithm steps for primes below 121 (including optimization of starting from prime's square). In mathematics, the sieve of Eratosthenes (Greek: κόσκινον Ἐρατοσθένους), one of a number of prime number sieves, is a simple, ancient algorithm for finding all prime numbers up to any given limit. It does so by iteratively marking as composite (i.e. not prime) the multiples of each prime, starting with the multiples of 2. The multiples of a given prime are generated as a sequence of numbers starting from that prime, with constant difference between them which is equal to that prime. This is the sieve's key distinction from using trial division to sequentially test each candidate number for divisibility by each prime. The sieve may be used to find primes in arithmetic progressions. Algorithm description Sift the Two's and Sift the Three's,The Sieve of Eratosthenes.When the multiples sublime,The numbers that remain are Prime. Incremental sieve .
Internet of Things - Privacy and Security in a Connected WorldThe Federal Trade Commission held a public workshop to explore consumer privacy and security issues posed by the growing connectivity of devices. The ability of everyday devices to communicate with each other and with people is becoming more prevalent and often is referred to as “The Internet of Things.” Connected devices can communicate with consumers, transmit data back to companies, and compile data for third parties such as researchers, health care providers, or even other consumers, who can measure how their product usage compares with that of their neighbors. The workshop brought together academics, business and industry representatives, and consumer advocacy groups to explore the security and privacy issues in this changing world. The workshop served to inform the Commission about the developments in this area. The workshop was held at the FTC’s satellite building conference center, located at 601 New Jersey Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC, and was free and open to the public.
The Simulated multiverseKepler conjectureThe Kepler conjecture, named after the 17th-century German mathematician and astronomer Johannes Kepler, is a mathematical conjecture about sphere packing in three-dimensional Euclidean space. It says that no arrangement of equally sized spheres filling space has a greater average density than that of the cubic close packing (face-centered cubic) and hexagonal close packing arrangements. The density of these arrangements is slightly greater than 74%. In 1998 Thomas Hales, following an approach suggested by Fejes Tóth (1953), announced that he had a proof of the Kepler conjecture. Hales' proof is a proof by exhaustion involving the checking of many individual cases using complex computer calculations. Background Diagrams of cubic close packing (left) and hexagonal close packing (right). Imagine filling a large container with small equal-sized spheres. Experiment shows that dropping the spheres in randomly will achieve a density of around 65%. Origins Nineteenth century
Surveillance, crowd control and privacy in the age of the Internet of Things | Sci-Tech | DW.DE | 09.04.2014Modern society simply wouldn't work without places where large crowds of people gather. Crowds are a common part of everyday life - at airports and train stations for instance - but also at sporting, music or political events. But wherever large crowds of people congregate, there's always the potential for disaster. A mass panics can quickly turn a train station, airport and other public space into a death trap. In 2010, overcrowding led to catastrophe during the Love Parade music festival in the western German city of Duisburg. Twenty-one people died and hundreds more were injured when mass panic broke out. The event set a precedent for what not to do when organizing large events. Equally, it was a tragic reminder what can happen when any kind of crowd comes together - whether organized or spontaneous. Infrared image: a computer counts the number of people within an area based on their body heat signatures Monitoring crowds Body heat analysis The system relies on heat-sensitive cameras.