Simulated reality Simulated reality is the hypothesis that reality could be simulated—for example by computer simulation—to a degree indistinguishable from "true" reality. It could contain conscious minds which may or may not be fully aware that they are living inside a simulation. This is quite different from the current, technologically achievable concept of virtual reality. Virtual reality is easily distinguished from the experience of actuality; participants are never in doubt about the nature of what they experience. Simulated reality, by contrast, would be hard or impossible to separate from "true" reality. Solution of the Poincaré conjecture By contrast, neither of the two colored loops on this torus can be continuously tightened to a point. A torus is not homeomorphic to a sphere. Every simply connected, closed 3-manifold is homeomorphic to the 3-sphere. An equivalent form of the conjecture involves a coarser form of equivalence than homeomorphism called homotopy equivalence: if a 3-manifold is homotopy equivalent to the 3-sphere, then it is necessarily homeomorphic to it. The Poincaré conjecture, before being proven, was one of the most important open questions in topology. It is one of the seven Millennium Prize Problems, for which the Clay Mathematics Institute offered a $1,000,000 prize for the first correct solution.
Internet of Things - Privacy and Security in a Connected World The Federal Trade Commission held a public workshop to explore consumer privacy and security issues posed by the growing connectivity of devices. The ability of everyday devices to communicate with each other and with people is becoming more prevalent and often is referred to as “The Internet of Things.” Connected devices can communicate with consumers, transmit data back to companies, and compile data for third parties such as researchers, health care providers, or even other consumers, who can measure how their product usage compares with that of their neighbors. The workshop brought together academics, business and industry representatives, and consumer advocacy groups to explore the security and privacy issues in this changing world. The workshop served to inform the Commission about the developments in this area. The workshop was held at the FTC’s satellite building conference center, located at 601 New Jersey Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC, and was free and open to the public.
Mathematical universe hypothesis In physics and cosmology, the mathematical universe hypothesis (MUH), also known as the Ultimate Ensemble, is a speculative "theory of everything" (TOE) proposed by the cosmologist Max Tegmark. Description Tegmark's mathematical universe hypothesis (MUH) is: Our external physical reality is a mathematical structure. That is, the physical universe is mathematics in a well-defined sense, and "in those [worlds] complex enough to contain self-aware substructures [they] will subjectively perceive themselves as existing in a physically 'real' world". The hypothesis suggests that worlds corresponding to different sets of initial conditions, physical constants, or altogether different equations may be considered equally real.
Mereology Mereology has been axiomatized in various ways as applications of predicate logic to formal ontology, of which mereology is an important part. A common element of such axiomatizations is the assumption, shared with inclusion, that the part-whole relation orders its universe, meaning that everything is a part of itself (reflexivity), that a part of a part of a whole is itself a part of that whole (transitivity), and that two distinct entities cannot each be a part of the other (antisymmetry). A variant of this axiomatization denies that anything is ever part of itself (irreflexive) while accepting transitivity, from which antisymmetry follows automatically. Standard university texts on logic and mathematics are silent about mereology, which has undoubtedly contributed to its obscurity. History A.N.
Many-worlds interpretation The quantum-mechanical "Schrödinger's cat" paradox according to the many-worlds interpretation. In this interpretation, every event is a branch point; the cat is both alive and dead, even before the box is opened, but the "alive" and "dead" cats are in different branches of the universe, both of which are equally real, but which do not interact with each other. The many-worlds interpretation is an interpretation of quantum mechanics that asserts the objective reality of the universal wavefunction and denies the actuality of wavefunction collapse. Many-worlds implies that all possible alternate histories and futures are real, each representing an actual "world" (or "universe").
Sieve of Eratosthenes Sieve of Eratosthenes: algorithm steps for primes below 121 (including optimization of starting from prime's square). In mathematics, the sieve of Eratosthenes (Greek: κόσκινον Ἐρατοσθένους), one of a number of prime number sieves, is a simple, ancient algorithm for finding all prime numbers up to any given limit. It does so by iteratively marking as composite (i.e. not prime) the multiples of each prime, starting with the multiples of 2. Surveillance, crowd control and privacy in the age of the Internet of Things Modern society simply wouldn't work without places where large crowds of people gather. Crowds are a common part of everyday life - at airports and train stations for instance - but also at sporting, music or political events. But wherever large crowds of people congregate, there's always the potential for disaster.
Digital physics Digital physics is grounded in one or more of the following hypotheses; listed in order of decreasing strength. The universe, or reality: History The hypothesis that the universe is a digital computer was pioneered by Konrad Zuse in his book Rechnender Raum (translated into English as Calculating Space).
Direct and indirect realism Naïve realism argues we perceive the world directly Naïve realism, also known as direct realism or common sense realism, is a philosophy of mind rooted in a theory of perception that claims that the senses provide us with direct awareness of the external world. In contrast, some forms of idealism assert that no world exists apart from mind-dependent ideas and some forms of skepticism say we cannot trust our senses. Naïve realism is known as direct as against indirect or representative realism when its arguments are developed to counter the latter position, also known as epistemological dualism; that our conscious experience is not of the real world but of an internal representation of the world. Theory The naïve realist theory may be characterized as the acceptance of the following five beliefs:
String theory landscape The string theory landscape refers to the huge number of possible false vacua in string theory. The large number of theoretically allowed configurations has prompted suggestions that certain physical mysteries, particularly relating to the fine-tuning of constants like the cosmological constant or the Higgs boson mass, may be explained not by a physical mechanism but by assuming that many different vacua are physically realized. The anthropic landscape thus refers to the collection of those portions of the landscape that are suitable for supporting intelligent life, an application of the anthropic principle that selects a subset of the otherwise possible configurations. Anthropic principle Bayesian probability
Kepler conjecture The Kepler conjecture, named after the 17th-century German mathematician and astronomer Johannes Kepler, is a mathematical conjecture about sphere packing in three-dimensional Euclidean space. It says that no arrangement of equally sized spheres filling space has a greater average density than that of the cubic close packing (face-centered cubic) and hexagonal close packing arrangements. The density of these arrangements is slightly greater than 74%. In 1998 Thomas Hales, following an approach suggested by Fejes Tóth (1953), announced that he had a proof of the Kepler conjecture. Hales' proof is a proof by exhaustion involving the checking of many individual cases using complex computer calculations. Referees have said that they are "99% certain" of the correctness of Hales' proof, so the Kepler conjecture is now very close to being accepted as a theorem.
Why online tracking is getting creepier The marketers that follow you around the Web are getting nosier. Currently, many companies track where users go on the Web—often through cookies—in order to display customized ads. That's why if you look at a pair of shoes on one site, ads for those shoes may follow you around the Web. But online marketers are increasingly seeking to track users offline as well, by collecting data about people's offline habits—such as recent purchases, where you live, how many kids you have, and what kind of car you drive.