Maslow's hierarchy of needs Maslow's hierarchy of needs, represented as a pyramid with the more basic needs at the bottom Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" in Psychological Review. Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology, some of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans. Maslow used the terms "physiological", "safety", "belongingness" and "love", "esteem", "self-actualization", and "self-transcendence" to describe the pattern that human motivations generally move through. Maslow's theory was fully expressed in his 1954 book Motivation and Personality. The hierarchy remains a very popular framework in sociology research, management training and secondary and higher psychology instruction. Hierarchy Physiological needs Safety needs Safety and Security needs include:
Without Cause: Yale Fires An Acclaimed Anarchist Scholar David Graeber, PhD, is an Assistant Professor of Anthropology at Yale University, and the author of Toward an Anthropological Theory of Value: The False Coin of Our Own Dreams and Fragments of an Anarchist Anthropology, among many other scholarly publications. Last week Prof. Graeber was informed that his teaching contract at Yale would not be extended. However, it was not Graeber’s scholarship that was ever in question; rather it was his political philosophies that may have played a heavy hand in the administration’s unwarranted decision. Graeber, a renowned anarchist scholar, recently spoke with CounterPuncher JOSHUA FRANK about the fiasco. JOSHUA FRANK: Prof. David Graeber: Well, it’s impossible to say anything for certain because no official reasons were given for the decision and I’m not allowed to know what was said in the senior faculty meeting where my case was discussed. JF: If I am not mistaken, you have been up for review at Yale before, correct? You can support Prof. Prof.
Anarchism and Marxism Anarchism and Marxism are similar political philosophies which emerged in the nineteenth century. While Anarchism and Marxism are both complex movements driven by internal conflict, as ideological movements their primary attention has been on human liberation achieved through political action. Similarly, both have been intensely interested in abolishing social inequalities present in societies as a result of wage labour and the Industrial Revolution. In their most socially significant forms, both movements have been revolutionary, and have focused on the working class as the agent of revolution. As working class movements Marxism and anarchism have been sometimes allied and sometimes opposed groups. Conflicts between anarchist and Marxist movements have emerged in terms of theory, strategy, practice and immediate political goals. Anthropologist David Graeber has distinguished the two philosophies as follows: Historical relationships between anarchists and Marxists
Energy hierarchy The Energy Hierarchy with the most favoured options at the top The Energy Hierarchy is a classification of energy options, prioritised to assist progress towards a more sustainable energy system. It is a similar approach to the waste hierarchy for minimising resource depletion, and adopts a parallel sequence. The highest priorities cover the prevention of unnecessary energy usage both through eliminating waste and improving energy efficiency. The sustainable production of energy resources is the next priority. Depletive and waste-producing energy generation options are the lowest priority. For an energy system to be sustainable: the resources applied to producing the energy must be capable of lasting indefinitely; energy conversion should produce no harmful by-products, including net emissions, nor wastes which cannot be fully recycled; and it must be capable of meeting reasonable energy demands. Energy saving Many countries have agencies to encourage energy saving.
David Graeber Zoom Met twee linkse intellectuelen uit de arbeidersklasse als ouders, groeide David Graeber in een coöperatief appartement in New York. Hij staat bekend als anarchist, activist en radicaal. Tegelijkertijd wordt hij door academici als een van de beste antropologen ter wereld beschouwd. Graeber (1961), studeerde aan Purchase College of the State University of New York en behaalde zijn mastersgraad en PhD aan de University of Chicago. Aan Yale University werkte hij vervolgens zeven jaar als assistent-docent, maar net voordat hij in aanmerking zou komen voor een vaste positie werd zijn contract niet verlengd. De universiteit bood uiteindelijk een betaalde sabbatical van een jaar aan als Graeber zijn beroep zou laten varen. Schuld Naast talloze andere bijdragen aan zijn vakgebied, schreef hij onlangs een boek over de geschiedenis en de gevolgen van schuld en krediet voor de menselijke samenleving. ‘Debt is the quantification of promise’ David Graeber, in een interview met Labyrint Occupy
Rudolf Rocker Johann Rudolf Rocker (March 25, 1873 – September 19, 1958) was an anarcho-syndicalist writer and activist. A self-professed anarchist without adjectives, Rocker believed that anarchist schools of thought represented "only different methods of economy" and that the first objective for anarchists was "to secure the personal and social freedom of men". Mainz Early life Rudolf Rocker was born to the lithographer Georg Philipp Rocker and his wife Anna Margaretha née Naumann as the second of three sons in Mainz, Hesse (now Rhineland-Palatinate), Germany, on March 25, 1873. Rocker's father died in 1877. Disgusted by the unconditional obedience demanded by the Catholic orphanage and drawn by the prospect of adventure, Rocker ran away from the orphanage twice. Political activism Political rights do not originate in parliaments; they are, rather, forced upon parliaments from without. Carl also had a substantial library consisting of socialist literature of all colors. Paris London
Need theory Need for achievement People who are achievement-motivated typically prefer to master a task or situation. They prefer working on tasks of moderate difficulty, prefer work in which the results are based on their effort rather than on anything else, and prefer to receive feedback on their work. Need for affiliation People who have a need for affiliation prefer to spend time creating and maintaining social relationships, enjoy being a part of groups, and have a desire to feel loved and accepted. Need for power Main article: Need for power This motivational need stems from a person's desire to influence, teach, or encourage others. Effect on management McClelland's research showed that 80% of the population are dominant in one, two, or all three of these three types of motivation. References ^ Jump up to: a b c d McClelland's Human Motivation Theory.
David Graeber Fired From Yale Because of Politics By Yvonne After a decision at a meeting convened by tenured faculty at the department of anthropology, Yale University, David Graeberâ€™s contract was not renewed. This is not a situation of David being denied tenure, but rather that the extension of his contract has been denied, and this is an extremely rare situation. In light of his exemplary scholarship and mentoring, many of Davidâ€™s students and colleagues strongly support his continuing at Yale. To this end we have created an open petition. As the review process of the decision is going to take place very soon, we request you to support this endeavor by signing this petition as soon as possible. Keywords: Anarchism, Political Repression, News, local, Education & Schools, After a decision at a meeting convened by tenured faculty at the department of anthropology, Yale University, David Graeberâ€™s contract was not renewed.
Notes on Anarchism A French writer, sympathetic to anarchism, wrote in the 1890s that "anarchism has a broad back, like paper it endures anything" -- including, he noted those whose acts are such that "a mortal enemy of anarchism could not have done better."1 There have been many styles of thought and action that have been referred to as "anarchist." It would be hopeless to try to encompass all of these conflicting tendencies in some general theory or ideology. And even if we proceed to extract from the history of libertarian thought a living, evolving tradition, as Daniel Guérin does in Anarchism, it remains difficult to formulate its doctrines as a specific and determinate theory of society and social change. The anarchist historian Rudolph Rocker, who presents a systematic conception of the development of anarchist thought towards anarchosyndicalism, along lines that bear comparison to Guérins work, puts the matter well when he writes that anarchism is not The anarchists put the thing upside down.