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Liquid breathing

Liquid breathing
Perfluorochemical (perfluorocarbon) molecules have very different structures that impart different physical properties such as respiratory gas solubility, density, viscosity, vapor pressure, and lipid solubility.[1] Thus, it is critical to select the appropriate PFC for a specific biomedical application, such as liquid ventilation, drug delivery or blood substitutes. The physical properties of PFC liquids vary substantially; however, the one common property is their high solubility for respiratory gases. In fact, these liquids carry more oxygen and carbon dioxide than blood.[2] In theory, liquid breathing could assist in the treatment of patients with severe pulmonary or cardiac trauma, especially in pediatric cases. Liquid breathing has also been proposed for use in deep diving[3][4] and space travel.[5] Despite some recent advances in liquid ventilation, a standard mode of application has not been established yet. Approaches[edit] Total liquid ventilation[edit] PFC vapor[edit]

Related:  Clinical significance and diseases of the Lungsbreathing

Lung volumes Lung volumes and lung capacities refer to the volume of air associated with different phases of the respiratory cycle. Lung volumes are directly measured; Lung capacities are inferred from lung volumes. The average total lung capacity of an DIGGDS adult human male is about 6 litres of air,[1] but only a small amount of this capacity is used during normal breathing.

Respiratory examination Respiratory examination In medicine, the respiratory examination is performed as part of a physical examination,[1] or when a patient presents with a respiratory problem (dyspnea (shortness of breath), cough, chest pain) or a history that suggests a pathology of the lungs. It is very rarely performed in its entirety or in isolation, most commonly it's merged with the cardiac examination. Positioning and Environment[edit] In the respiratory examination, the patient is asked to sit upright on an examination table, with arms at the side. Adequate lighting is ensured, and the patient is asked to expose the chest.

Mechanical ventilation Medical uses[edit] Respiratory therapist examining a mechanically ventilated patient on an Intensive Care Unit. Mechanical ventilation is indicated when the patient's spontaneous ventilation is inadequate to maintain life. It is also indicated as prophylaxis for imminent collapse of other physiologic functions, or ineffective gas exchange in the lungs. Bronchoscopy Bronchoscopy is an endoscopic technique of visualizing the inside of the airways for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. An instrument (bronchoscope) is inserted into the airways, usually through the nose or mouth, or occasionally through a tracheostomy. This allows the practitioner to examine the patient's airways for abnormalities such as foreign bodies, bleeding, tumors, or inflammation. Pulmonology Pulmonology is a medical specialty that deals with diseases involving the respiratory tract.[1] The term is derived from the Latin word pulmō, pulmonis ("lung") and the Greek -λογία, -logia. Pulmonology is synonymous with pneumology (from the Greek πνεύμων ("lung") and -λογία, -logia), respirology and respiratory medicine. Pulmonology is known as chest medicine and respiratory medicine in some countries and areas. Pulmonology is considered a branch of internal medicine, and is related to intensive care medicine.

Carbon dioxide scrubber A carbon dioxide scrubber is a device which absorbs carbon dioxide (CO2). It is used to treat exhaust gases from industrial plants or from exhaled air in life support systems such as rebreathers or in spacecraft, submersible craft or airtight chambers. Carbon dioxide scrubbers are also used in controlled atmosphere (CA) storage. Technologies[edit] Amine scrubbing[edit] The dominant application for CO2 scrubbing is for removal of CO2 from the exhaust of coal- and gas-fired power plants. Drowning Drowning is defined as respiratory impairment from being in or under a liquid.[1] It is further classified as by outcome into: death, ongoing health problems and no ongoing health problems.[1] Using the term near drowning to refer to those who survive is no longer recommended.[1] It occurs more frequently in males and the young.[2] Drowning itself is quick and silent, although it may be preceded by distress which is more visible.[3] A person drowning is unable to shout or call for help, or seek attention, as they cannot obtain enough air. The instinctive drowning response is the final set of autonomic reactions in the 20 – 60 seconds before sinking underwater, and to the untrained eye can look similar to calm safe behavior.[3][4] Lifeguards and other persons trained in rescue learn to recognize drowning people by watching for these instinctive movements.[3] Classification[edit] Experts differentiate between distress and drowning. They also divide drowning into passive and active:

Respiratory Care Week Respiratory Care Week is a week set to honor and recognize respiratory therapists. Respiratory Care Week is celebrated internationally but most notably in Canada and the United States. Respiratory Care Week is usually the last full week of October.[1] United States President Ronald Reagan proclaimed the first week dedicated to honoring respiratory therapists in 1982. Valsalva maneuver The Valsalva maneuver or Valsalva manoeuvre is performed by moderately forceful attempted exhalation against a closed airway, usually done by closing one's mouth, pinching one's nose shut while pressing out as if blowing up a balloon. Variations of the maneuver can be used either in medical examination as a test of cardiac function and autonomic nervous control of the heart, or to "clear" the ears and sinuses (that is, to equalize pressure between them) when ambient pressure changes, as in diving, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, or air travel. The technique is named after Antonio Maria Valsalva,[1] a 17th-century physician and anatomist from Bologna whose principal scientific interest was the human ear. He described the Eustachian tube and the maneuver to test its patency (openness). He also described the use of this maneuver to expel pus from the middle ear.