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Western Classical Music (history)

Western Classical Music (history)
Montage of some great classical music composers. From left to right: Top row: Antonio Vivaldi, Johann Sebastian Bach, George Frideric Handel, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven; second row: Gioachino Rossini, Felix Mendelssohn, Frédéric Chopin, Richard Wagner, Giuseppe Verdi; third row: Johann Strauss II, Johannes Brahms, Georges Bizet, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Antonín Dvořák; bottom row: Edvard Grieg, Edward Elgar, Sergei Rachmaninoff, George Gershwin, Aram Khachaturian The term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to distinctly canonize the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Beethoven as a golden age.[7] The earliest reference to "classical music" recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1836.[1][8] Characteristics[edit] Literature[edit] The most outstanding characteristic of classical music is that the repertoire tends to be written down in musical notation, creating a musical part or score. Instrumentation[edit]

Music Text Composition Generator ( A free online music utility) The P22 Music Text Composition Generator allows any text to be converted into a musical composition. This composition is displayed in musical notation and simultaneously generated as a midi file. 1. Usage Type or copy any text into the Text Field. A short text may be best at a slow pace (IE 10 BPM) whereas a longer text may prove more engaging at 1200 BP. In some browsers (Safari 2 or greater), the ability to play real time multi-tracking can allow for complex compositions. The generated musical text does not claim copyright nor imply any rights from the text used. 2. The P22 Music Composition Font was proposed in 1997 to the John Cage Trust as an accompaniment to the John Cage text font based on the handwriting of the composer. 3. P22 Music Pro is a unique font system that expands on the concept used in the Music Text Composition Generator. The font used in the P22 MTCG is a basic version that closely follows the initial Cage inspired idea. 4.

Philosophy Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with reality, existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.[1][2] Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational argument.[3] In more casual speech, by extension, "philosophy" can refer to "the most basic beliefs, concepts, and attitudes of an individual or group".[4] The word "philosophy" comes from the Ancient Greek φιλοσοφία (philosophia), which literally means "love of wisdom".[5][6][7] The introduction of the terms "philosopher" and "philosophy" has been ascribed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras.[8] Areas of inquiry Philosophy is divided into many sub-fields. These include epistemology, logic, metaphysics, ethics, and aesthetics.[9][10] Some of the major areas of study are considered individually below. Epistemology Rationalism is the emphasis on reasoning as a source of knowledge. Logic

GCSE Bitesize: The concerto in the Baroque period (roughly 1600-1750) Religion Religious activities around the world Many religions may have organized behaviors, clergy, a definition of what constitutes adherence or membership, holy places, and scriptures. The practice of a religion may include rituals, sermons, commemoration or veneration (of a deity, gods or goddesses), sacrifices, festivals, feasts, trance, initiations, funerary services, matrimonial services, meditation, prayer, music, art, dance, public service or other aspects of human culture. Religions may also contain mythology.[2] Etymology Religion (from O.Fr. religion "religious community," from L. religionem (nom. religio) "respect for what is sacred, reverence for the gods,"[11] "obligation, the bond between man and the gods"[12]) is derived from the Latin religiō, the ultimate origins of which are obscure. Many languages have words that can be translated as "religion", but they may use them in a very different way, and some have no word for religion at all. Definitions Theories Origins and development

voice cycle Théorie des cordes Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Les niveaux de grossissements : monde macroscopique, monde moléculaire, monde atomique, monde subatomique, monde des cordes. La théorie des cordes est un domaine actif de recherche traitant de l'une des questions de la physique théorique : fournir une description de la gravité quantique c’est-à-dire l’unification de la mécanique quantique et de la théorie de la relativité générale. La principale particularité de la théorie des cordes est que son ambition ne s’arrête pas à cette réconciliation, mais qu’elle prétend réussir à unifier les quatre interactions élémentaires connues, on parle de théorie du tout. La théorie des cordes a obtenu des premiers résultats théoriques partiels. Dans le cadre de la thermodynamique des trous noirs elle permet de reproduire la formule de Bekenstein et Hawking pour l’entropie des trous noirs. Présentation élémentaire du problème[modifier | modifier le code] Hypothèses et prédictions[modifier | modifier le code]

different voices Chat de Schrödinger Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. La mécanique quantique est relativement difficile à concevoir car sa description du monde repose sur des amplitudes de probabilité (fonctions d'onde). Ces fonctions d'ondes peuvent se trouver en combinaison linéaire, donnant lieu à des « états superposés ». Cependant, lors d'une opération dite de « mesure » l'objet quantique sera trouvé dans un état déterminé ; la fonction d'onde donne les probabilités de trouver l'objet dans tel ou tel état. C'est la mesure qui perturbe le système – par effet Compton – et le fait bifurquer d'un état quantique superposé (atome à la fois intact et désintégré par exemple… mais avec une probabilité de désintégration dans un intervalle de temps donné qui, elle, est parfaitement déterminée) vers un état mesuré. Cet état ne préexiste pas à la mesure : c'est la mesure qui semble le faire advenir. « L'expérience »[modifier | modifier le code] Principe[modifier | modifier le code] Pourquoi le chat de Schrödinger ?

diagram of instrument ( voice)

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