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Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Related:  mental disorders in the 20th century

World War II World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. In a state of "total war", the major participants threw their entire economic, industrial and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world. Chronology The start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939,[9][10] beginning with the German invasion of Poland; Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later. Others follow the British historian A. Background

International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems The International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes".[1] The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization, the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.[2] The ICD is designed as a health care classification system, providing a system of diagnostic codes for classifying diseases, including nuanced classifications of a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or disease. This system is designed to map health conditions to corresponding generic categories together with specific variations, assigning for these a designated code, up to six characters long. Thus, major categories are designed to include a set of similar diseases. The ICD is revised periodically and is currently in its tenth revision. Historical synopsis[edit] Versions of ICD[edit] ICD-6[edit]

Psychiatrist A psychiatrist is a physician who specializes in psychiatry. A psychiatrist specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. Psychiatrists are medical doctors who must evaluate patients to determine whether or not their symptoms are the result of a physical illness, a combination of physical and mental, or a strictly psychiatric one. In order to do this, they may employ the psychiatric examination itself, a physical exam, brain imaging (computerized tomography or CT/CAT scan), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) scanning), and blood laboratories. Subspecialties[edit] The field of psychiatry has many subspecialties (also known as Fellowships) that require additional training which are certified by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) and require Maintenance of Certification Program (MOC) to continue. Further, other specialties that exist include: [1] Some psychiatrists specialize in helping certain age groups.

The Holocaust The Holocaust (from the Greek ὁλόκαυστος holókaustos: hólos, "whole" and kaustós, "burnt")[2] also known as Shoah (Hebrew: השואה, HaShoah, "the catastrophe"; Yiddish: חורבן, Churben or Hurban, from the Hebrew for "destruction"), was the mass murder or genocide of approximately six million Jews during World War II, a programme of systematic state-sponsored murder by Nazi Germany, led by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party, throughout the German Reich and German-occupied territories.[3] Of the nine million Jews who had resided in Europe before the Holocaust, approximately two-thirds were killed.[4] Over one million Jewish children were killed in the Holocaust, as were approximately two million Jewish women and three million Jewish men.[5] A network of over 40,000 facilities in Germany and German-occupied territory were used to concentrate, hold, and kill Jews and other victims.[6] The persecution and genocide were carried out in stages. Etymology and use of the term Distinctive features Origins

Endocrinology Endocrinology is concerned with study of the biosynthesis, storage, chemistry, biochemical and physiological function of hormones and with the cells of the endocrine glands and tissues that secrete them. Various specializations exist, including behavioral endocrinology[1][2][3] and comparative endocrinology. The endocrine system consists of several glands, all in different parts of the body, that secrete hormones directly into the blood rather than into a duct system. In the original 1902 definition by Bayliss and Starling (see below), they specified that, to be classified as a hormone, a chemical must be produced by an organ, be released (in small amounts) into the blood, and be transported by the blood to a distant organ to exert its specific function. a recognition site, to which the hormone binds; andan effector site, which precipitates the modification of cellular function.[5] Chemical classes of hormones[edit] Examples of amine hormones Examples of steroid hormones Amines[edit]

Stress (biology) Walter Cannon used it in 1926 to refer to external factors that disrupted what he called homeostasis.[2] But "...stress as an explanation of lived experience is absent from both lay and expert life narratives before the 1930s".[3] Physiological stress represents a wide range of physical responses that occur as a direct effect of a stressor causing an upset in the homeostasis of the body. Upon immediate disruption of either psychological or physical equilibrium the body responds by stimulating the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. The reaction of these systems causes a number of physical changes that have both short and long term effects on the body. Homeostasis is a concept central to the idea of stress. In biology, most biochemical processes strive to maintain equilibrium (homeostasis), a steady state that exists more as an ideal and less as an achievable condition. The ambiguity in defining this phenomenon was first recognized by Hans Selye (1907-1982) in 1926. The Spinal Cord

Outpatient commitment Outpatient commitment refers to mental health law that allows the involuntary treatment of individuals diagnosed with mental disorders who are resident in the community rather than detained in hospital. The individual may be subject to rapid recall to hospital, including for forced treatment, if the conditions of the plan/order are broken. This generally means taking psychiatric medication as directed and may also include attending appointments with a mental health professional, and sometimes even not to take non-prescribed illict drugs and not associate with certain people or in certain places deemed to have been linked to a deterioration in mental health in that individual. In the United States the term "assisted outpatient treatment" or "AOT" is often used and refers to a process whereby a judge orders a qualifying person with symptoms of severe untreated mental illness to adhere to a mental health treatment plan while living in the community. Implementation[edit] United States[edit]

Euthanasia Euthanasia (from Greek: εὐθανασία; "good death": εὖ, eu; "well" or "good" – θάνατος, thanatos; "death") refers to the practice of intentionally ending a life in order to relieve pain and suffering. Euthanasia is categorized in different ways, which include voluntary, non-voluntary, or involuntary. Voluntary euthanasia is legal in some countries and U.S. states. Non-voluntary euthanasia is illegal in all countries. Involuntary euthanasia is usually considered murder.[3] As of 2006, euthanasia is the most active area of research in contemporary bioethics.[4] Definition Like other terms borrowed from history, "euthanasia" has had different meanings depending on usage. Draper argued that any definition of euthanasia must incorporate four elements: an agent and a subject; an intention; a causal proximity, such that the actions of the agent lead to the outcome; and an outcome. Wreen, in part responding to Beauchamp & Davidson, offered a six-part definition: Classification of euthanasia History

Compulsory sterilization Alternatives to forced sterilization[edit] Human population control is the practice of artificially altering the rate of growth of a human population. Historically, human population control has been implemented by limiting the population's birth rate, usually by government mandate, and has been undertaken as a response to factors including high or increasing levels of poverty, environmental concerns, religious reasons, and overpopulation. While population control can involve measures that improve people's lives by giving them greater control of their reproduction, some programs have exposed them to exploitation.[5] By country[edit] South Africa[edit] In South Africa, there have been multiple reports of HIV-positive women sterilized without their informed consent and sometimes without their knowledge.[6] This is due to the fact that HIV-positive women are seen as "dirty Canada[edit] The Sexual Sterilization Act of Alberta was enacted in 1928 and repealed in 1972. Germany[edit] Japan[edit]

Lobotomy Lobotomy (Greek: λοβός – lobos: "lobe (of brain)"; τομή – tomē: "cut/slice") is a neurosurgical procedure, a form of psychosurgery, also known as a leukotomy or leucotomy (from the Greek λευκός – leukos: "clear/white" and tome). It consists of cutting or scraping away most of the connections to and from the prefrontal cortex, the anterior part of the frontal lobes of the brain. While the procedure, initially termed a leucotomy, has been controversial since its inception in 1935, it was a mainstream procedure for more than two decades, prescribed for psychiatric (and occasionally other) conditions – this despite general recognition of frequent and serious side-effects. Context[edit] In the early 20th century, the number of patients residing in mental hospitals increased significantly[n 2] while little in the way of effective medical treatment was available. Early psychosurgery[edit] Gottlieb Burckhardt (1836–1907). Ludvig Puusepp c. 1920 The development of leucotomy[edit] Egas Moniz

Eugenics While eugenic principles have been practiced as far back in world history as Ancient Greece, the modern history of eugenics began in the early 20th century when a popular eugenics movement emerged in Britain[8] and spread to many countries, including the United States and most European countries. In this period, eugenic ideas were espoused across the political spectrum. Consequently, many countries adopted eugenic policies meant to improve the genetic stock of their countries. A major critique of eugenics policies is that regardless of whether "negative" or "positive" policies are used, they are vulnerable to abuse because the criteria of selection are determined by whichever group is in political power. History[edit] However, the term "eugenics" to describe the modern concept of improving the quality of human beings born into the world was originally developed by Francis Galton. A Lebensborn birth house in Nazi Germany. Some, such as Nathaniel C. Meanings and types[edit] Arguments[edit]

Insulin shock therapy Insulin shock therapy or insulin coma therapy (ICT) was a form of psychiatric treatment in which patients were repeatedly injected with large doses of insulin in order to produce daily comas over several weeks.[1] It was introduced in 1927 by Austrian-American psychiatrist Manfred Sakel and used extensively in the 1940s and 1950s, mainly for schizophrenia, before falling out of favour and being replaced by neuroleptic drugs in the 1960s.[2] It was one of a number of physical treatments introduced into psychiatry in the first four decades of the twentieth century. These included the convulsive therapies (cardiazol/metrazol therapy and electroconvulsive therapy), deep sleep therapy and psychosurgery. Origins[edit] Joseph Wortis, after seeing Sakel practice it in 1935, introduced it to the USA. Technique[edit] An Insulin Treatment ward, circa 1951, Roundway Hospital, Devizes, England. Effects[edit] Decline[edit] Recent writing[edit] See also[edit] References[edit] External links[edit]

Electroconvulsive therapy Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), formerly known as electroshock, is a standard psychiatric treatment in which seizures are electrically induced in patients to provide relief from psychiatric illnesses.[1] ECT is usually used as a last line of intervention for major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, mania and catatonia.[2] A usual course of ECT involves multiple administrations, typically given two or three times per week until the patient is no longer depressed. It was first introduced in 1938 by Italian neuropsychiatrists Ugo Cerletti and Lucio Bini, and gained widespread popularity among psychiatrists as a form of treatment in the 1940s and 1950s.[3][4] In western fiction, it is usually depicted as a painful procedure, but in western countries ECT is administered under anesthetic with a muscle relaxant.[5] Electroconvulsive therapy can differ in its application in three ways: electrode placement, frequency of treatments, and the electrical waveform of the stimulus. History[edit]

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