International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems The International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes". The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization, the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System. The ICD is designed as a health care classification system, providing a system of diagnostic codes for classifying diseases, including nuanced classifications of a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or disease. This system is designed to map health conditions to corresponding generic categories together with specific variations, assigning for these a designated code, up to six characters long. Thus, major categories are designed to include a set of similar diseases.
SBIRT (Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment) What is SBIRT? SBIRT is an evidence-based approach to identifying patients who use alcohol and other drugs at risky levels with the goal of reducing and preventing related health consequences, disease, accidents and injuries. Risky substance use is a health issue and often goes undetected. SBIRT is a comprehensive, integrated, public health approach that provides opportunities for early intervention before more severe consequences occur. Affect theory In psychology, affect is an emotion or subjectively experienced feeling. Affect theory attempts to organize affects into discrete categories and connect each one with its typical response. So, for example, the affect of joy is observed through the display of smiling. These affects can be identified through immediate facial reactions that people have to a stimulus, typically well before they could process any real response to the stimulus. Affect theory is attributed to Silvan Tomkins and is introduced in the first two volumes of his book Affect Imagery Consciousness."
World War II World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. In a state of "total war", the major participants threw their entire economic, industrial and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world.
Electronic Tools for Use in the Continuum of Care for Patients With Addiction About The NIDA Notes Course This is a self-paced online course about the use of technology throughout the continuum of care for patients with addiction. The five sections will introduce you to five different electronic tools that can be used in prevention, treatment, and aftercare. Through this training, discover new ways to screen for drug and alcohol use, learn how technology can support cognitive behavioral therapy, and become familiar with other relevant substance use research. This course is jointly presented by NIDA and IRETA. Perception of Emotion Is Culture-Specific News Want to know how a Japanese person is feeling? Pay attention to the tone of his voice, not his face. That’s what other Japanese people would do, anyway. A new study examines how Dutch and Japanese people assess others’ emotions and finds that Dutch people pay attention to the facial expression more than Japanese people do. “As humans are social animals, it’s important for humans to understand the emotional state of other people to maintain good relationships,” says Akihiro Tanaka of Waseda Institute for Advanced Study in Japan.
Psychiatrist A psychiatrist is a physician who specializes in psychiatry. A psychiatrist specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. Psychiatrists are medical doctors who must evaluate patients to determine whether or not their symptoms are the result of a physical illness, a combination of physical and mental, or a strictly psychiatric one. In order to do this, they may employ the psychiatric examination itself, a physical exam, brain imaging (computerized tomography or CT/CAT scan), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) scanning), and blood laboratories. Psychiatrists prescribe medicine, and may also use psychotherapy, although the vast majority do medical management and refer to a psychologist or another specialized therapist for weekly to bi-monthly psychotherapy.
OASAS Online Training Portal Welcome to the NYS OASAS Online Training and Test Portal. Upon completion of any Addiction Medicine Educational Series Course or Learning Thursdays Webcast, you may access the NYS OASAS Test Portal to take an exam and obtain an NYS OASAS Standardized Certificate of Completion. Using this web-based training process, you can study/review course materials, complete corresponding test(s), submit your answers, and receive documentation of your results immediately. Emotion Perception - Science Updates It's well known that the effects of child abuse linger long after the child is separated from the abusers. For example, many abused children have trouble dealing with normal social situations, and develop behavior problems at school or on the playground. In this Science Update, you'll hear about a study that may help explain why this happens. Transcript How abused children face the world. I'm Bob Hirshon and this is Science Update.
The Holocaust The Holocaust (from the Greek ὁλόκαυστος holókaustos: hólos, "whole" and kaustós, "burnt") also known as Shoah (Hebrew: השואה, HaShoah, "the catastrophe"; Yiddish: חורבן, Churben or Hurban, from the Hebrew for "destruction"), was the mass murder or genocide of approximately six million Jews during World War II, a programme of systematic state-sponsored murder by Nazi Germany, led by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party, throughout the German Reich and German-occupied territories. Of the nine million Jews who had resided in Europe before the Holocaust, approximately two-thirds were killed. Over one million Jewish children were killed in the Holocaust, as were approximately two million Jewish women and three million Jewish men. A network of over 40,000 facilities in Germany and German-occupied territory were used to concentrate, hold, and kill Jews and other victims. The persecution and genocide were carried out in stages. Etymology and use of the term
Posttraumatic stress disorder Posttraumatic stress disorder[note 1] (PTSD) may develop after a person is exposed to one or more traumatic events, such as sexual assault, serious injury, or the threat of death. The diagnosis may be given when a group of symptoms, such as disturbing recurring flashbacks, avoidance or numbing of memories of the event, and hyperarousal (high levels of anxiety) continue for more than a month after the traumatic event. Most people having experienced a traumatizing event will not develop PTSD. Women are more likely to experience higher impact events, and are also more likely to develop PTSD than men. Children are less likely to experience PTSD after trauma than adults, especially if they are under ten years of age. War veterans are commonly at risk to PTSD. Classification Posttraumatic stress disorder is classified as an anxiety disorder in the DSM iV; the characteristic symptoms are not present before exposure to the violently traumatic event.
Endocrinology Endocrinology is concerned with study of the biosynthesis, storage, chemistry, biochemical and physiological function of hormones and with the cells of the endocrine glands and tissues that secrete them. Various specializations exist, including behavioral endocrinology and comparative endocrinology. The endocrine system consists of several glands, all in different parts of the body, that secrete hormones directly into the blood rather than into a duct system. Hormones have many different functions and modes of action; one hormone may have several effects on different target organs, and, conversely, one target organ may be affected by more than one hormone.
Perception of facial expressions differs across cultures Facial expressions have been called the "universal language of emotion," but people from different cultures perceive happy, sad or angry facial expressions in unique ways, according to new research published by the American Psychological Association. "By conducting this study, we hoped to show that people from different cultures think about facial expressions in different ways," said lead researcher Rachael E. Jack, PhD, of the University of Glasgow. "East Asians and Western Caucasians differ in terms of the features they think constitute an angry face or a happy face." The study, which was part of Jack's doctoral thesis, was published online in APA's Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. Jack is a post-doctoral research assistant, and the study was co-authored by Philippe Schyns, PhD, director of the Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology at the University of Glasgow, and Roberto Caldara, PhD, a psychology professor at the University of Fribourg in Switzerland.