World War II World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. In a state of "total war", the major participants threw their entire economic, industrial and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world. Chronology The start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland; Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later. Others follow the British historian A. Background
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Das Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM; englisch für „diagnostischer und statistischer Leitfaden psychischer Störungen“) ist ein Klassifikationssystem in der Psychiatrie. Es wird seit 1952 von der American Psychiatric Association (APA, deutsch: amerikanische psychiatrische Gesellschaft) in den USA herausgegeben. Später erschienen auch Ausgaben in anderen Sprachen, seit 1996 auch auf Deutsch (DSM-IV). Die DSM-Klassifikation wird von Experten erarbeitet, um psychiatrische Diagnosen reproduzierbar und statistisch verwertbar zu gestalten. Heute ist sie in vielen Kliniken und Instituten gebräuchlich. Im Mai 2013 wurde die fünfte Auflage DSM-5 im englischen Original veröffentlicht; seit Dezember 2014 ist auch die deutsche Übersetzung verfügbar. Sie löst die vierte Auflage (DSM-IV) von 1994 ab. Bezug zum System ICD-10[Bearbeiten] Das DSM steht in Konkurrenz zur ICD-10, dem internationalen Klassifikationssystem der Weltgesundheitsorganisation. Geschichte[Bearbeiten]
Charles Silverstein Dr. Charles Silverstein, Ph.D. (born 1935) is an American writer, therapist and gay activist. He is a frequent lecturer at conventions on both the state and national levels, author of eight books and many professional papers, and has received many awards from the American Psychological Association and the American Psychological Foundation. Dr. His essays and professional papers have been published widely in journals and anthologies . Works The Joy of Gay Sex, co-authored with Edmund White (1977)A Family Matter: A Parents' Guide to Homosexuality (1977)Man to Man: Gay Couples in America (1981)Gays, Lesbians and Their Therapists: Studies in Psychotherapy (1991)The New Joy of Gay Sex, co-authored with Felice Picano (1993)The Initial Psychotherapy Interview: A Gay Man Seeks Treatment (2011)For the Ferryman: A Personal History (2011) Book Chapters Silverstein, C. (2011). Silverstein, C. (1997). Silverstein, C. (1996). Silverstein, C. (1996).
International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems The International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes". The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization, the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System. The ICD is designed as a health care classification system, providing a system of diagnostic codes for classifying diseases, including nuanced classifications of a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or disease. This system is designed to map health conditions to corresponding generic categories together with specific variations, assigning for these a designated code, up to six characters long. Thus, major categories are designed to include a set of similar diseases. The ICD is revised periodically and is currently in its tenth revision. Historical synopsis Versions of ICD ICD-6
Restless legs syndrome Restless legs syndrome (RLS) also known as Willis-Ekbom disease (WED) or Wittmaack-Ekbom syndrome, is a neurological disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move one's body to stop uncomfortable or odd sensations. It most commonly affects the legs, but can affect the arms, torso, head, and even phantom limbs. Moving the affected body part modulates the sensations, providing temporary relief. RLS sensations range from pain or an aching in the muscles, to "an itch you can't scratch", an unpleasant "tickle that won't stop", or even a "crawling" feeling. The sensations typically begin or intensify during quiet wakefulness, such as when relaxing, reading, studying, or trying to sleep. Additionally, most individuals with RLS suffer from periodic limb movement disorder (limbs jerking during sleep), which is an objective physiologic marker of the disorder and is associated with sleep disruption. It can be caused by low iron levels. Signs and symptoms Causes
Mental Health Diagnoses Decided by Vote, Not Discovery Post edited and updated January 2, 2013, to reflect clarifications as a result of interactions with the many people who have left comments. I thank them for their input. According to the American Psychiatric Association, until 1974 homosexuality was a mental illness. Freud had alluded to homosexuality numerous times in his writings, and had concluded that paranoia and homosexuality were inseparable. Other psychiatrists wrote copiously on the subject, and homosexuality was “treated” on a wide basis. Then in 1970 gay activists protested against the APA convention in San Francisco. What’s noteworthy about this is that the removal of homosexuality from the list of mental illnesses was not triggered by some scientific breakthrough. The APA claimed that they made the change because new research showed that most homosexual people were content with their sexual orientation, and that as a group, they appeared to be as well-adjusted as heterosexual people.
Psychiatrist A psychiatrist is a physician who specializes in psychiatry. A psychiatrist specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. Psychiatrists are medical doctors who must evaluate patients to determine whether or not their symptoms are the result of a physical illness, a combination of physical and mental, or a strictly psychiatric one. In order to do this, they may employ the psychiatric examination itself, a physical exam, brain imaging (computerized tomography or CT/CAT scan), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET) scanning), and blood laboratories. Subspecialties The field of psychiatry has many subspecialties (also known as Fellowships) that require additional training which are certified by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) and require Maintenance of Certification Program (MOC) to continue. Further, other specialties that exist include:  Some psychiatrists specialize in helping certain age groups.
Live From Hell's Kitchen Homosexual Dachau? This name doesn't have anything to do with World War II. More than any other mental institution in the United States, Atascadero State Hospital (photograph) was a chamber of horrors for homosexuals. The tag "Homosexual Dachau" was well-earned for its forced lobotomies, castrations and brutal treatments practiced at that facility. Hundreds of gays and lesbians were forcibly sent by their families to be cured of homosexuality which, as recently as the early 1970s, was considered a sexual and psychological disorder. The 1950's were an especially dark time for homosexuals. Even up until 1971, simply being a homosexual could result in a life sentence. At Atascadero State Hospital, doctors (I use that term loosely) were permitted under an obscure California law to commit those who practiced sodomy into the hospital. A caller into an NPR Radio talk show about lobotomies recalled a cousin who was a homosexual. "PAT (Caller): Yes, I'm Pat from Naples, Florida.
The Holocaust The Holocaust (from the Greek ὁλόκαυστος holókaustos: hólos, "whole" and kaustós, "burnt") also known as Shoah (Hebrew: השואה, HaShoah, "the catastrophe"; Yiddish: חורבן, Churben or Hurban, from the Hebrew for "destruction"), was the mass murder or genocide of approximately six million Jews during World War II, a programme of systematic state-sponsored murder by Nazi Germany, led by Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party, throughout the German Reich and German-occupied territories. Of the nine million Jews who had resided in Europe before the Holocaust, approximately two-thirds were killed. Over one million Jewish children were killed in the Holocaust, as were approximately two million Jewish women and three million Jewish men. A network of over 40,000 facilities in Germany and German-occupied territory were used to concentrate, hold, and kill Jews and other victims. The persecution and genocide were carried out in stages. Etymology and use of the term Distinctive features Origins
Homosexuality and Mental Health Hooker administered three projective tests (the Rorschach, Thematic Apperception Test [TAT], and Make-A-Picture-Story [MAPS] Test) to 30 homosexual males and 30 heterosexual males recruited through community organizations. The two groups were matched for age, IQ, and education. None of the men were in therapy at the time of the study. Unaware of each subject's sexual orientation, two independent Rorschach experts evaluated the men's overall adjustment using a 5-point scale. A third expert used the TAT and MAPS protocols to evaluate the psychological adjustment of the men. Hooker concluded from her data that homosexuality is not a clinical entity and that homosexuality is not inherently associated with psychopathology. Hooker's findings have since been replicated by many other investigators using a variety of research methods. Some studies found differences between homosexual and heterosexual respondents, and then assumed that those differences indicated pathology in the homosexuals.
Endocrinology Endocrinology is concerned with study of the biosynthesis, storage, chemistry, biochemical and physiological function of hormones and with the cells of the endocrine glands and tissues that secrete them. Various specializations exist, including behavioral endocrinology and comparative endocrinology. The endocrine system consists of several glands, all in different parts of the body, that secrete hormones directly into the blood rather than into a duct system. In the original 1902 definition by Bayliss and Starling (see below), they specified that, to be classified as a hormone, a chemical must be produced by an organ, be released (in small amounts) into the blood, and be transported by the blood to a distant organ to exert its specific function. a recognition site, to which the hormone binds; andan effector site, which precipitates the modification of cellular function. Chemical classes of hormones Examples of amine hormones Examples of steroid hormones Amines
WHEN GAY MEANT MAD - Arts & Entertainment In 1964, aged 18, Price was admitted to the psychiatric ward of a hospital in Chester. The treatment he was to undergo was intended to "cure" him of his homosexuality. Within a day of his arrival, Price was confined to one room, pumped full of nausea-inducing drugs, kept in a bed smeared with his own vomit and faeces. Peter believed, until recently, that he was a solitary guinea-pig in this grim landscape of psychological tricks; that he was unique in receiving aversion therapy to correct homosexuality. Like Peter, Colin submitted to this treatment voluntarily. Colin Fox recalls his sense of intense isolation and fear as a teenager. Gerald William Clegg-Hill - Billy to his friends - did not volunteer. "But ours was not a liberal family. Tragically, Billy did not survive the treatment. AVERSION therapy, in the Fifties, was psychiatry's new toy. The Department of Health says that aversion therapy has not been banned because it may be effective in the treatment of alcohol misuse. !
Stress (biology) Walter Cannon used it in 1926 to refer to external factors that disrupted what he called homeostasis. But "...stress as an explanation of lived experience is absent from both lay and expert life narratives before the 1930s". Physiological stress represents a wide range of physical responses that occur as a direct effect of a stressor causing an upset in the homeostasis of the body. Upon immediate disruption of either psychological or physical equilibrium the body responds by stimulating the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. The reaction of these systems causes a number of physical changes that have both short and long term effects on the body. Homeostasis is a concept central to the idea of stress. In biology, most biochemical processes strive to maintain equilibrium (homeostasis), a steady state that exists more as an ideal and less as an achievable condition. The ambiguity in defining this phenomenon was first recognized by Hans Selye (1907-1982) in 1926. The Spinal Cord