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Martin Luther

Martin Luther OSA (German: [ˈmaɐ̯tiːn ˈlʊtɐ] ( ); 10 November 1483 – 18 February 1546) was a German monk, Catholic priest, professor of theology and seminal figure of the 16th-century movement in Christianity known later as the Protestant Reformation.[1] He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punishment for sin could be purchased with monetary values. He confronted indulgence salesman Johann Tetzel, a Dominican friar, with his Ninety-Five Theses in 1517. His refusal to retract all of his writings at the demand of Pope Leo X in 1520 and the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Diet of Worms in 1521 resulted in his excommunication by the Pope and condemnation as an outlaw by the Emperor. Luther taught that salvation and subsequently eternity in heaven is not earned by good deeds but is received only as a free gift of God's grace through faith in Jesus Christ as redeemer from sin and subsequently eternity in Hell. Early life Birth and education Monastic and academic life Related:  Wikipedia AWikipedia A

John Calvin John Calvin (French: Jean Calvin French pronunciation: ​[ʒɑ̃ kalvɛ̃], born Jehan Cauvin: 10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564) was an influential French theologian and pastor during the Protestant Reformation. He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism. Originally trained as a humanist lawyer, he broke from the Roman Catholic Church around 1530. After religious tensions provoked a violent uprising against Protestants in France, Calvin fled to Basel, Switzerland, where he published the first edition of his seminal work Institutes of the Christian Religion in 1536. In that year, Calvin was recruited by William Farel to help reform the church in Geneva. The city council resisted the implementation of Calvin's and Farel's ideas, and both men were expelled. Following his return, Calvin introduced new forms of church government and liturgy, despite the opposition of several powerful families in the city who tried to curb his authority.

Iconoclasm "Triumph of Orthodoxy" over iconoclasm under the Byzantine empress Theodora. Late 14th – early 15th century icon. Iconoclasm[Note 1] is the destruction of religious icons and other images or monuments for religious or political motives. In time, the word, usually in the adjectival form, has also come to refer to aggressive statements or actions against any well-established status quo. It is a frequent component of major political or religious changes. People who engage in or support iconoclasm are called iconoclasts, a term that has come to be applied figuratively to any individual who challenges "cherished beliefs or venerated institutions on the grounds that they are erroneous or pernicious".[1] Conversely, one who reveres or venerates religious images is called (by iconoclasts) an iconolater; in a Byzantine context, such a person is called an iconodule or iconophile. Religious iconoclasm[edit] Byzantine era[edit] Protestant Reformation[edit] Muslim iconoclasm[edit] Recent events[edit] ...

Lutheranism Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the theology of Martin Luther, a German monk and theologian. Today, Lutheranism is one of the largest denominations by members of Protestantism and overall Christianity. Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification "by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone", the doctrine that the Bible is the final authority on all matters of faith, denying the Catholic belief of authority coming from both the Bible and the established Church Magisterium. Unlike the Reformed Churches, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lord's Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, the purpose of God's Law, the divine grace, the concept of perseverance of the saints, and predestination. Etymology[edit] History[edit] Spread into northern Europe[edit] Rationalism[edit]

Abraham Abraham (Hebrew: אַבְרָהָם‎ Abram was called by God to leave his father Terah's house and native land of Mesopotamia in return for a new land, family, and inheritance in Canaan, the promised land. Threats to the covenant arose – difficulties in producing an heir, the threat of bondage in Egypt, of lack of fear of God – but all were overcome and the covenant was established.[1] After the death, and burial of his wife, Sarah, in the grave that he purchased in Hebron, Abraham arranged for the marriage of Isaac to a woman from his own people. Abraham later married a woman called Keturah and had six more sons, before he died at the recorded age of 175, and was buried by his sons Isaac and Ishmael. (Genesis 25:1–10) The Bible's internal chronology places Abraham around 2000 BCE, but the stories in Genesis cannot be related to the known history of that time and most biblical histories accordingly no longer begin with the patriarchal period. Genesis narrative[edit] Abram and Sarai[edit]

Taiwan Coordinates: Taiwan ( i/ˌtaɪˈwɑːn/ TY-WAHN Chinese: 臺灣 or 台灣; pinyin: Táiwān; see below), officially the Republic of China (ROC; Chinese: 中華民國; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó), is a state in East Asia. Constitutionally, the ROC government has claimed sovereignty over all of "China", in a definition that includes mainland China and Outer Mongolia,[14] but has not made retaking mainland China a political goal since 1992.[15] However, the government's stance on defining its political position largely depends on which political coalition is in charge. Names The official name of the state is the "Republic of China"; it has also been known under various names throughout its existence. History Prehistoric Taiwan Taiwan was joined to the Asian mainland in the Late Pleistocene, until sea levels rose about 10,000 years ago. Opening in the 17th century In 1626, the Spanish landed on and occupied northern Taiwan, at the ports of Keelung and Tamsui, as a base to extend their trading. Qing rule Japanese rule

Anselm of Canterbury Saint Anselm of Canterbury (/ˈænsɛlm/; c. 1033 – 21 April 1109), also called Anselm of Aosta for his birthplace, and Anselm of Bec for his home monastery, was a Benedictine monk, philosopher, and prelate of the Church, who held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. Called the founder of scholasticism, he has been a major influence in Western theology and is famous as the originator of the ontological argument for the existence of God and the satisfaction theory of atonement. Born into the House of Candia, he entered the Benedictine order at the Abbey of Bec at the age of 27, where he became abbot in 1079. He became Archbishop of Canterbury under William II of England. Biography[edit] Early life[edit] Anselm was born "Anselmus Candiae Genavae" (Italian: Anselmo di Candia Ginevra), in Aosta in the Kingdom of Arles around 1033. Abbot of Bec[edit] The Tower of Saint Nicholas at the site of Bec Abbey Archbishop of Canterbury[edit] Anselm as Archbishop. First exile[edit]

East Timor East Timor i/ˌiːst ˈtiːmɔr/ or Timor-Leste /tiˈmɔr ˈlɛʃteɪ/, officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste,[6] is a country in Southeast Asia.[7] It comprises the eastern half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco, and Oecusse, an exclave on the northwestern side of the island, within Indonesian West Timor. The country's size is about 15,410 km2 (5,400 sq mi).[8] East Timor was colonised by Portugal in the 16th century, and was known as Portuguese Timor until Portugal's decolonisation of the country. In late 1975, East Timor declared its independence but later that year was invaded and occupied by Indonesia and was declared Indonesia's 27th province the following year. Etymology[edit] "Timor" derives from timur, the word for "east" in Indonesian and Malay, which became Timor in Portuguese and entered English as Portuguese Timor. History[edit] Portuguese Timor Arms (1935–1975)[18] The Portuguese established outposts in Timor and Maluku. Government[edit]

Huldrych Zwingli Huldrych (or Ulrich/Ulricht[a]) Zwingli[b] (1 January 1484 – 11 October 1531) was a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland. Born during a time of emerging Swiss patriotism and increasing criticism of the Swiss mercenary system, he attended the University of Vienna and the University of Basel, a scholarly centre of humanism. He continued his studies while he served as a pastor in Glarus and later in Einsiedeln, where he was influenced by the writings of Erasmus. The Reformation spread to other parts of the Swiss Confederation, but several cantons resisted, preferring to remain Catholic. Historical context[edit] Map of the Swiss Confederation in 1515 The Swiss Confederation in Huldrych Zwingli's time consisted of thirteen states (cantons) as well as affiliated states and common lordships. The political environment in Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries was also volatile. Life[edit] Early years (1484–1518)[edit] Zurich ministry begins (1519–1521)[edit] First rifts (1522–1524)[edit]

Jeremiah Jeremiah (/dʒɛrɨˈmaɪ.ə/;[1] Hebrew: יִרְמְיָהוּ, Modern Hebrew: Yirməyāhū, IPA: jirməˈjaːhu, Tiberian: Yirmĭyahu, Greek: Ἰερεμίας, Arabic: إرميا Irmiya‎) meaning "Yah Exalts", also called the "Weeping prophet",[2] was one of the major prophets of the Hebrew Bible. Jeremiah is traditionally credited with authoring the Book of Jeremiah, 1 Kings, 2 Kings and the Book of Lamentations,[3] with the assistance and under the editorship of Baruch ben Neriah, his scribe and disciple. Judaism considers the Book of Jeremiah part of its canon, and regards Jeremiah as the second of the major prophets. Islam considers Jeremiah a prophet, and he is listed as a major prophet in Ibn Kathir's canonical collection of Annals of the Prophets.[4] Christianity also regards Jeremiah as a prophet and he is quoted in the New Testament.[5] It has been interpreted that Jeremiah "spiritualized and individualized religion and insisted upon the primacy of the individual's relationship with God Chronology[edit]

Bhutan Coordinates: Bhutan (Dzongkha: འབྲུག་ཡུལ་; Wylie transliteration: ʼbrug-yul "Druk Yul"), officially the Kingdom of Bhutan, is a landlocked country in South Asia located at the eastern end of the Himalayas. It is bordered to the north by China and to the south, east and west by India. To the west, it is separated from Nepal by the Indian state of Sikkim, while further south it is separated from Bangladesh by the Indian states of Assam and West Bengal. Bhutan's capital and largest city is Thimphu. Bhutan existed as a patchwork of minor warring fiefdoms until the early 17th century, when the lama and military leader Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyal, fleeing religious persecution in Tibet, unified the area and cultivated a distinct Bhutanese identity. Bhutan's landscape ranges from subtropical plains in the south to the sub-alpine Himalayan heights in the north, where some peaks exceed 7,000 metres (23,000 ft). Etymology[edit] Locally, Bhutan has been known by many names. History[edit] Politics[edit]

Peter Abelard Peter Abelard (/ˈæb.ə.lɑːrd/; Latin: Petrus Abaelardus or Abailardus; French: Pierre Abélard, pronounced: [a.beˈlaːʁ]; 1079 – 21 April 1142) was a medieval French scholastic philosopher, theologian and preeminent logician.[1] He was also a composer. His affair with and love for Héloïse d'Argenteuil has become legendary. The Chambers Biographical Dictionary describes him as "the keenest thinker and boldest theologian of the 12th Century".[2] Life[edit] Youth[edit] Abelard, originally called "Pierre le Pallet", was born c1079[3] in Le Pallet, about 10 miles (16 km) east of Nantes, in Brittany, the eldest son of a minor noble Breton family. Rise to fame[edit] Around 1100, Abelard's travels finally brought him to Paris. His teaching was notably successful, though for a time he had to give it up and spend time in Brittany, the strain proving too great for his constitution. Héloïse[edit] To appease Fulbert, Abélard proposed a secret marriage so as not to mar his career prospects. Later life[edit]

Indian Institutes of Technology Madras (Chennai) Delhi (New Delhi) Guwahati Kanpur Kharagpur Bombay (Mumbai) Roorkee Varanasi Bhubaneswar Gandhinagar Hyderabad Indore Jodhpur Mandi Patna Ropar (Rupnagar) Location of the 16 IITs. The Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) are a group of autonomous public engineering and management institutes of India. The IITs have a common admission process for undergraduate admissions. IIT alumni have achieved success in a variety of professions.[3] IITs are Institutes of National Importance established through special acts of Indian Parliament.[4] Institutes[edit] The IITs are located in: ‡ – year converted to IIT Shivii[edit] History[edit] The office of the Hijli Detention Camp (photographed September 1951) served as the first academic building of IIT Kharagpur. The first Indian Institute of Technology was founded in May 1950 at the site of the Hijli Detention Camp in Kharagpur. IITG estd. 1994 Over the past few years, there have been a number of developments toward establishing new IITs. Education[edit]

Related:  Reformation and Counter-reformationChristianWBC